Russia

nani… a masadak Wikipedia
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

Russia(俄羅斯)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Rosiya Patatekoan Kitakit 俄羅斯聯邦[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

(Rosiya sowal: Российская Федерация;Kuwaping sowal:俄羅斯聯邦; Decdecan: Россия;俄羅斯、俄國)

Flag of Russia
Hata no Rosiya(Flag of Russia)
Kaitiraan no Rosiya (Location of Russia (green) Russian-administered Crimea (disputed; light green)

Takaray sowal(概要):[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Rosiya hananay a kitakit itiraay I saka’amisan no Aciya ato Yoropa ko aro’ ningra, palociwaay to Yoropa ato Aciya a tosa karopaw, o dadahal no sera ira ko 1,797 ofad km²,o niaro’an a sera ira cecay no kalifalo no polong no cikiw,o sakakahaday ko sera niaro’an i hekal.[1] [2] o sakasiwa ko kaadihay no tamdaw i polong no kitakit, ira ko 1,44 ok ko tamdaw, ilaloma’ no nini to mahaop ko 77% a tamdaw itiraay i Yoropa a pecih.

O sakakaay ko kaadihay no kilakilangan ato cecay no kalisepat no fanaw i hekal.[3] Itini I kasado’edo’ no sera malafiyaway ato Nowui,Finlan,Aysaniya,Latowiya,Litawan,Polan,Pirarusi, Ukolan ato Ciyawciya,[4] Asaipaylan, Hasako, Congko, Monko ato Ka’amisay Hanko, polong 14 ko kitakit. Isaka’amis no Rosiya o Ciso’edaay Riyar ato Taypinyang,ka’amis no saka’etip manga’ay pakayra i PolotiRiyar masadak i Tasiyang,i katimol no saka’etip a Kohetingay Riyar tayra i Sifo’an Riyar.

I 1917 miheca mapalolol ko Rosiya, patireng to sa’ayaway a o kiwsanto komitekeday a mikowan a kitakit to Rosiya Siyakaysiwki Patatekoan Kitakit(Rosiya sowal:Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика;Roma tilid: Rossiyskáya Sovetskáya Federatívnaya Socialistícheskaya Respublika;Kuwaping sowal: 俄羅斯蘇維埃聯邦社會主義共和國),o sarakatay pahapinang i kinpo to Siyakaysiwki kitakit.[5] Isakatosa kalaloodan no polong kitakit, wataay ko ’icel no Rosiya sakapakalowid to sakalala’is. Malepong ko lalood o kafana’an i hekal ko sakakaay a kitakit ko Rosiya, o sakalalifet no Amirika i Li’etecayLalood. Itini i 20 sici ira ko tadamaanay a kaci’epocan dafong, ilaloma’ nonini i,o sarakatay pakasanga’ to nakamayan a fo’is, o sarakatay pakacolo’ to tamdaw tayra i dohaw no kakarayan. I 1990 miheca o sakatosa ko katata’ang a cidafongay kitakit.[6] O sakakaay ko kaadihay no sofitay i hekal, o saadihayay ko sapipatay to tamdaw a dafong.

1991 miheca matekop to ko Patateko’an Kitakitno Rosiya, oya mikapotay a 15 kitakit misiiked a tomireng,nifalic to kinpo ta mala Rosiya Patatekoan Kitakit , itira to a mangay a mirocok to ’icel no kitakit.

Tahini to i 2020 miheca, do’edoen ko Kapolongan a Nitayalan a Kaci'epoc(Gross National Product, GNP;國民生產總值) o saka 11 ko kacidafong ko Rosiya,ano pakiraen to pi’aca to dafong i,o saka 6 ko kacidafong ko Rosiya. O sakakaay cisopeday to tadamaanay fokelohato ato ira ko maamaan a kinairaira no pala.[7] O sakakaay a paliwalay to kasolin simal ato palapalaan kaso.[8],[9] O cipakotangay to henen(核子武器). O cecay no lici no Sakarihaday Iinkay no Linheko, o kapot no G20, Sakakay Licikay no Yoropa(European Council), Sakadadama Kayki no

Contong ci Fracimir Putin(Vladimir Putin (2018-03-01) 03 (cropped))

(Ikiris sowal:Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation,Decdecan: APEC; Kuwaping sowal:亞太經濟合作會議), Mapapadangay Kapot no Sanghay(Ikiris sowal:Shanghai Cooperation Organization; Kuwaping sowal:上海合作組織), Sakarihaday ato Sakadadama Lekatep no Yoropa(Ikiris sowal:Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe,Decdecan:OSCE; Kuwaping sowal: 歐洲安全與合作組織,簡稱歐安組織), Hekalay a malali’acaay Lekatep(Ikiris sowal:World Trade Organization, WTO; Kuwaping sowal:世界貿易組織), ato ’Ekim a Linka kitakit(Ikiris sowal: BRIC; Kuwaping sowal:金磚國家). O kakeridan heca no Madadamaay Kitakit a Lekatep(Rosiya sowal:Содружество Независимых Государств;Kuwaping sowal:獨立國協),ato mipatirengay to Евразийский Экономический Союз, ЕАЭС(Kuwaping sowal:歐亞經濟聯盟).

Sici(政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sici no Rosiya a kitakit i,o patatekoan ko faco no sici, o contong ko tapang no kitakit,6 a mihecaan ko katayalan, manga’ay to pararid to kinacecay, o kalotamdaw ko misinkiway, o kinpo ato rikec ko paranaan no kitakit, o sici ira ko citatodongay misang’ay to rikec a ’icel,o citodongay to pisawkit a ’icel ato citodongay to tayal a ’icel. O contong ko sakakaay a ci’icelay, nawhan i,o kakeridan no matayalay no sifo ato rihaday no kitakit a kayki,iraay ko ’icel a mitoro’ to tapang no sifo ato roma a ikakaay tapang no sifo, nikawrira, i’ayawen  ko pihai no Toma o pikaykian no kitakit. O kakeridan ho no sofitay, manga’ay a patangsol pasadak to rikec.

Kasasilsil no Sakowan(Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014) 22個共和國 46個州,9個邊疆區,4個自治區,1個自治州,3個聯邦直轄市)

Pakayni i「kinpo no patekoan kitakit no Rosiya」, o Patekoan kitakit no Rosiya a pikaykian ko mamisanga’ to rikec, Tosaay ko Pikaikian Faco no Kitakit, o Kararemay Pikaikian o Toma hananay, o mitayhiyoway to kasacecay no Patekoan Kitakit, o Fafa'eday Pikaikian o mitayhiyaoway to Patekoan Kitakit.

Kasasilsil no Sakowan(行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ira ko 85 ko kasasiromaroma no sakowan no Rosiya:

3 ko mipatosokan no sakakaay sifo a mikowan a taokay(города федерального значения/federal cities)o Mosko Si, Senpitopaw Si ato Sayfanpaw Si.

46 ko etal  sakowan(области/oblasts, "provinces")

9 ko salawacan sakowan(края/krais, "territories")

22 ko niyahpikowan a kitakit(республики/republics)

1 ko niyahpikowan(автономная область/autonomous oblast, "autonomous province")

4 ko niyahpikowan a niyaro’ (автономные округа/autonomous okrugs, "autonomous districts")

Kaitiraan pala(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Rosiya a kitakit itiraay i saka’amisan no Aciya ato Yoropa ko aro’ ningra, palociwaay to Yoropa ato Aciya a tosa karopaw, ora saka adihay ko kasasiromaroma no faco no sera ato kakarayan. O polong a sera sahetoay o masadafdafay, mangalefay o itiraay i Yoropa a pecih ato itiraay i Siporiya. Itiraay i sakatimoalan a sera o masadafdafay a rengorengosan pala, o itiraay i saka’amisan a dafdaf i,o kilakilangan. o lotolotokan i,itiraay isakawalian o mingataay to Taypinyang ato isakatimolay, patinako han oya tata’angay a Kawciyaso lotok ato Sayin-Pikal lotok.

O lilis no riyar ira ko 37,653 km ko kakaya’, isaka’etip o Tasiyang,   isaka’amis o Ka’amisay a Ciso’edaay Riyar, isakawali o Taypinyang.

Adihay ko tata’angay a ’alo, o tadamaanay ’alo i, Folka ’Alo(Волга; 伏爾加河),3692 km ko kato’edaw; o sato’edaway itini i Yoropa,[1]  Opi ’Alo(Обь;鄂畢河), 3650km ko kato’edaw,;Yienisay ’Alo(Енисе́й;葉尼塞河),o polng ira ko 5539km ko kato’edaw; Lina ’Alo(Ле́на;勒拿河),4400 km ko kato’edaw; Amul ’Alo(Река Амур;黑龍江),4416km ko kato’edaw.

O fanaw i ira ko Pikal Fanaw(озеро Байкал;貝加爾湖), ira ko 31494 km² o kakahad,[2] Latolaka Fanaw(Ладожское озеро;拉多加湖), o kakahad ira ko 17891 km² , ato Awnika Fanaw(Онежское озеро;奧涅加湖), o kakahad ira ko 9700 km².

Kakarayan (氣候)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kaitiraan no Rosiya itiraay sakawali no Yoropa ato saka’amis no Aciya, sahetoay itiraay i ka’amisay a dihekoay ato ka’amisay ki’etecay ko romi’ad, masasiromaroma ko romi’ad, o karopaway kakarayan.

Nipili’etan Kicay(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1997 miheca satapang a comahad ko nipili’etan no Rosiya, nani 1999 miheca tahira i 2001 miheca, ’atekak ko aca no kasolin simal itira to macakat ko nipili’etan kicay no Rosiya, lalen no mihecan mahaop ko 6% ko kacomahadan.

I kaleponan no 2005 miheca, o Kapolongan a Nitayalan  'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit(Gross National Product: GDP), I 1999 miheca 1570 ok Amirika payso macakat tahira i 7500 ok Amirika payso, tihira to i 2012 miheca tangasa to 2.1 fo’is Amirika payso(2.1兆美元), o tada’ekim a misopedan ’etan i 1998 miheca caay ka paka100 ok Amirika payso macakat tangasa 1822 ok Amirika payso,tahira to i 2006 miheca  matafesiw to ko 2800 ok Amirika payso ko nisopedan, o cecay ihekal ko kaadihay no nisopedan to payso no roma kitakit.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

To'asan riko' no Rosiya (Ancient Russian Clothes from Kievan frescoes-3)

Tahira i 2020miheca saka 1 folad saka 2 romi’ad a sa’osi no tamdaw no Rosiya ira ko 146,801,931 ko tamdaw. Ano irairaay ko padahof no sifo to sakaciwawa, nikawrira, racemcem to aca no loma’ sapaising ato sapitilid no wawa, ora saka alacecaay ko kaciwawa no Rosiya tamdaw.o sera sa no Rosiya tadakakahad, ora ko saka matakar ko tamdaw, i Yoropay pecih ko ’alomanay a maro’.

I Rosiya adihay ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan, o Rosiya finacadan mahaop ko 77% no polong tamdaw no Rosiya, o roma sato i,ira ko Tatan finacadan(3.8%), Cuwasin Finacadan(1.2%),Pasincir finacadan(1.1%), Ciecien finacadan(0.8%),Mortowa finacadan(0.7%),Utomur finacadan(0.4%),Mali finacadan(0.4%), Awar finacadan(0,3%) polong han 120 ko kaadihay finacadan.

Si’enaway ko romi’ad ora saka kali’epah ko faihayan no Rosiya, ora ko kanalikay a mapatay, o fafahiyan to ko ma’osaway sa pangangan ha to 「no mamu a kitakit」.

Sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O ’edengan a no sifoan sowal ko Rosiya a sowal. O sowal no Rosiya(русский язык)o saadihayay a kalasowalen no Selafu Finacadan, o capa’ no Selafu Finacadan a Sakawaliay Selafu  a sowal ko nini, sahetoay i Rosiya, oya i’ayaway kapot no Solin a kalasowalen, itini tona mikapotay i Solin a kitakit o mitoro’an a sakacecay hatatanamen a sowal, itiya ho i Solin mihecahecaan o kalita’angan a mihatatanam to sowal no Rosiya. Anini sato i,misiiked to kona mikapotay kitakit, nikawrira, matenakay ho ko sowal no Rosiya, mangalefay ano masasowal ato roma a kitakit.

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mosko Taykak(University Lomonosov 1991)

Ilaloma’ no pitooran no Rosiya, mipa’adingay ko kinpo naifaloco’ay no kalotamdaw to pitooran, orasaka, caay ka patireng tono kitakit a pitooran, paifaloco’ay sa ko tamdaw mitoor to niharatengan no niyah a pitooran. O pitooran no Rosiya ira ko misakristoay a Saka'etipay So’elinay Kyokai, o cawa ka’aloman  i,Tinsikyo, Fa’elohay Kyokay, Islam Pitooran. Do’edo’en ko 2012 miheca a pisahapinang i,o misakristoay a tamdaw no Rosiya mahaop ko 48.3%( So’elinay Kyokai no Rosiya 41%, oroma a Saka'etipay So’elinay Kyokai 1.5%, away ko kasakumi a misakristoay 4.1%, Tinsikyo ato Fa’elohay kasacinowas Kristoay 1.7%), o away ko pitooran ato cowa ka hapinang ko pitooran mahaop ko 38%(awaay ko patosokan pitooran 25%, cowa ka pakaso’elin to kawas 13%, Islam 6.5%, o Siyaman Cikawasay ato no to’asan pitooran 1.2%, Mipaypayay a Fociyaw 0.5%, o caay ka pahapinang to faloco’ 5.5%.[3] [4]

So’elinay Kyokai no Rosiya  o 「Mosko Tatapangan Sikyo Etal」hananay ho a mitahidang, o satata’angay a siikeday So’elinay Kyokai. I rayray no So’elinay Kyokai a Pitooran mido’edo’ay to i Torkiay a Cinstantingpaw(Kirisiya sowal:Κωνσταντινούπολις Κωνσταντινούπολη;Latin sowal:Constantinopolis;Kuwaping sowal:君士坦丁堡), i Aykiptoay a Alisanco(Arapiya sowal: الإسكندرية‎;Aykipto sowal: اسكندرية‎; Kuwaping sowal:亞歷山卓), i Torkiay a Antiyawko kyokay(Kirisiya sowal: Ἀντιόχεια ; Kuwaping sowal:安條克),ato Yielsalim( Hiporay sowal:  יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; Latin sowal:Yerushaláyim; Kuwaping sowal:耶路撒冷), o saka 5 ko Mosko. Ila’eno no Rosiya So’elinay Kyokai ira ho ko Payworosu So’elinay Kyokai, Ukolan So’elinay Kyokai, Congko So’elinay Kyokai ato Dipon So’elinay Kyokai. Yo mipasinli ci Rosi i 988 miheca o rarengatan nona kyokai sa ko kafana’ no ’alomanay tamdaw.

O Cinstantingpaw mipatenakay to sowal no Kawas a tamdaw 6 so’ot ko mihecaan to pikowan to Rosu Kyokai, o sikyo no Kiyif ato polong no Rosi o makowanay no Cinstantingpaw tahira i 1686 miheca.  Matekop to Solin nga’ patatiko a ira ko kamaro’an i Rosiya Patatekoan Kitakit, o sakakaay a ’icel o Sikyo Saopo. Ona saopo o tayal ko pi’arawan a mikayki, mapolong ko sikyo a mikihatiya mikayki, ano awa ko kayki o Mosko ato polong Rosiya avsakakaay sinpo ko matayalay, o kamaro’an itiraay i Mosko, nani 2009 miheca saka 2 folad ci Kirir(Rosiya sowal:Кири́лл; Kuwaping sowal:基里爾) ko citodongay matayal.

Torstay (L.N.Tolstoy Prokudin-Gorsky)

Itira i 2016miheca saka 2 folad saka 12 romi’ad, mihomong ci Kirir tayra i Kupa, toya pihomongan a rakat itira i Hosi Mati ka’eferan no hikoki malalitemoh ato Cuciyaw no tinsikyo ci Fangciko, makaketeon a milekal mapolong ko cimacima a tamdaw mici’a’ang to tatiihay tamdaw. Toya miheca, malacafay ato Sayrwiya So’elinay Kyokai ato Cyawciya So’elinay Kyokai micoker to pitahidang no Cinstantingpaw a kayki.

Ikatimolay no Rosiya a Torki finacadan ato Ka’amisay Kawciyaso tamdaw sahetoay o Islam ko pitooran. 1.44 fois ko tamdaw no Rosiya ira ko 940 ofad ko mitooray to Islam, mahaop ko 6.9%.

Punka(文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

To’asan Rosu[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kifu punka ono sifo’ay sici a tato’asan konini, o siikedan i:

Kyokay no So'elinay Pitooran(Vasbla)
  • Matayoay ko kacomaha no punka,tadamarecepay no nitayalan no to’as ato tato’asan.
  • Misaikeday, mala’idefay. Itiya ho ono palapalan ho ko saka’orip ora ko sakacaay ka palafang ko tamdaw, away ko kakafikafit no ‘orip.
  • Tangongol ko pirecep no pitooran, ira ko misakristoay, ira ko pakaso’elinay to masamasaan a kawas.

Ono aniniay a punka no Rosiya o sapiliyawaw a patireng to no hontian rosiya kitakit a punka, sapiliyawaw heca a patireng, mirocok tono Solin ho a punka. Anini sato icowacowa patireng kyokay, mitiyol heca to to’asan no pitooran, midama to masamaamaanay a to’asan demak.  O roma sato itiya ho i no Solin a mihecahecaan mapatateko kono kawaliay ato sa’etipay a punka,patinako han ono kawaliay a minanom to ociya ato pitangtang ato kaen.

O nitiliday to nitilidan ci Torstay(Rosiya sowal:Лев Николаевич Толстой; Kuwapingsowal:列夫·尼古拉耶維奇·托爾斯泰), o nitilidan ningra a《lalood ato rihaday》(Rosiya sowal:Война и мир; Kuwaping sowal:《戰爭與和平》,wataay ko pisiwar nona kimad to faloco’ no tamtamdaw.nani 1902 miheca tahira i 1906 miheca kinapinapina a mapasadak ko ngangan i Nopil Kimad Hofi, i 1901 miheca, 1902 ato 1909 miheca mapasadak ko ngangan i Rihaday Hofi no Nopil, nikawrira, cowa ka pakaala to cecacecay a hofi, oninian o tadamaanay a kasowalen i rikisi no hekal.[5] [6]  [7][8]

Sofitay (軍事)

Nano to’asan o tadaci’icelay ko sofitay no Rosiya, itiya ho i hotian a miheca misa’icel a micomahad to sofitay, tahira to i Solin a miheca, away to ko pakalawisan to kaci’icel no sofitay, tahanini ko  kaci’icel.

Yo matekop ko Solin i 1991 miheca , to cila a miheca i 1992 miheca  saka 5 folad saka 7 romi’ad,mipangangan ci Yiercin contong to Sofitayan Piocor a Tilid no Rosiya Patatekoan Kitakit, o sfitay ato dafong no Solin i, polongen i Rosiya, pangangan han to「Rosiya Patatekoan Kitakit a Cikowangay ’Icel Sofitay」, malaheci ko patireng to sofitay no Rosiya. O contong ko kakridan nona sofitan.

Itini i sasera ma’emin o satata’angay cikowangay to cilintokingay pakotang(核子武器), tiri’aen ko nitilidan no sifo no Rosiya, i 2005 miheca ona pakotang ira ko 8547 laco, yo matekop ko Solin marocok no Rosiya ko 89% a ’icel no sofitay.

Rosiya ato Ukolayna (俄烏關係)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade-5

I 2014 miheca Rawraw no Kolimiya(克里米亞危機) ma’eco no Rosiya ko Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal,i’ayaw i 2008 miheca malalood ato Ciyawciya(俄羅斯-喬治亞戰爭), tonapinapina mihecaan macacoli to kona tosa a kitakit, pakayra i ’aca no palapalan kaso macacoli, i 2021 miheca malalais ko sofitay no Ukolan ato ikawaliay a pala misawidangay to Rosiya a kasafelaw sofitay, damaen no Rosiya konini kasafelaw, tahira to i 2022miheca saka 2 folad saka 24 romi’ad, laheci sato ko kalalood no Rosiya ato Ukolan.[9] ci Safulo.

Tahapinangan Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Территория и население Российской Федерации. Greece.mid.ru. [2017-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2016-04-16).

[2] Russia. Nationsencyclopedia.com. 2000-06-12 [2017-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2017-06-25).

[3] Library of Congress. Topography and drainage. [26 December 2007]. (原始內容存檔於2006-09-27).

[4] 包括喬治亞宣稱主權但事實獨立的阿布哈茲和南奧塞提亞。

[5] Jonathan R. Adelman; Cristann Lea Gibson. Contemporary Soviet Military Affairs: The Legacy of World War II. Unwin Hyman. 1 July 1989: 4 [15 June 2012]. ISBN 978-0-04-445031-3. (原始內容存檔於2016-09-02).

[6] GDP – Million 1990. CIA Factbook. 1991 [30 November 2015]. (原始內容存檔於2015-11-09)

[7] Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia. Unesco.ru. [29 October 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2016-05-08)

[8] International Energy Agency – Oil Market Report 18 January 2012 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Retrieved 20 February 2012.

[9] Country Comparison :: Natural gas – production (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 17 February 2012.

[10] 地球之靈動 世界著名河流介紹. 右灰文化傳播有限公司. : 128–. GGKEY:003XBQ2XA45.

[11] ono Taywan33000 km² ko kakahad no sera.

[12] "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Sreda, 2012.

[13] 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017..

[14] [Nomination Database. old.nobelprize.org. [2019-03-08]. (原始內容存檔於2019-10-06).

[15] Proclamation sent to Leo Tolstoy after the 1901 year’s presentation of Nobel Prizes. NobelPrize.org. [2019-03-08]. (原始內容存檔於2019-06-20) (美國英語).

[16] Nobel Prize Snubs In Literature: 9 Famous Writers Who Should Have Won (PHOTOS). Huffington Post. 2010-10-07 [2019-03-08]. (原始內容存檔於2018-07-31) (美國英語).

[17] Hedin, Naboth. Winning the Nobel Prize. The Atlantic. 1950-10-01 [2019-03-08]. (原始內容存檔於2020-10-31) (美國英語).

[18] 認定入侵烏克蘭 拜登宣布對俄羅斯首波制裁. 自由時報. 2022-02-23 [2022-02-23] (中文).

Potori'an Tilid (參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1.^ Chevalier, Joan F. Russian as the National Language: An Overview of Language Planning in the Russian Federation. Russian Language Journal (American Councils for International Education ACTR / ACCELS). 2006, 56: 25–36. JSTOR 43669126.

2.^ Вот какие мы -россияне Об итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. 俄語:Российская газета. [2012-01-02]. (原始內容存檔於2012-01-05) (俄語).

3.^ 3.0 3.1 Арена: Атлас религий и национальностей [Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities] (PDF). Среда (Sreda). 2012 [2022-03-06]. (原始內容存檔於2019-05-08). See also the results' main interactive mapping (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) and the static mappings: Religions in Russia by federal subject (Map). Ogonek 34 (5243). 27 August 2012. (原始內容存檔於21 April 2017). The Sreda Arena Atlas was realised in cooperation with the All-Russia Population Census 2010 (Всероссийской переписи населения 2010) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), the Russian Ministry of Justice (Минюста РФ) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), the Public Opinion Foundation (Фонда Общественного Мнения) and presented among others by the Analytical Department of the Synodal Information Department of the Russian Orthodox Church. See: Проект АРЕНА: Атлас религий и национальностей [Project ARENA: Atlas of religions and nationalities]. Russian Journal. 10 December 2012 [2022-03-06]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-24).

4.^ 俄羅斯10年級聯邦教科書(教科書編者А.Н.Сахаров)

5.^ The Russian federation: general characteristics. 俄羅斯聯邦統計局. [2008-04-05]. (原始內容存檔於2011-07-28).

6.^ "Население России сократилось впервые за 10 лет".. [2020-01-16]. (原始內容存檔於2019-12-05).

7.^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Russia. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund (IMF). October 2016 [2016-11-13]. (原始內容存檔於2016-11-13).

8.^ Distribution of family income – Gini index. The World Factbook. 中央情報局. [5 January 2014]. (原始內容存檔於2012-09-16).

9.^ Human Development Report 2019 (PDF). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. [2019-12-21]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2018-10-24).

10.^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation. (Article 1). [2009-06-29]. (原始內容存檔於2009-04-17) (英語).

11.^ 俄罗斯国家概况. [2018-02-19]. (原始內容存檔於2018-02-26).

12.^ Территория и население Российской Федерации. Greece.mid.ru. [2017-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2016-04-16).

13.^ Russia. Nationsencyclopedia.com. 2000-06-12 [2017-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2017-06-25).

14.^ Library of Congress. Topography and drainage. [26 December 2007]. (原始內容存檔於2006-09-27).

15.^ 包括喬治亞宣稱主權但事實獨立的阿布哈茲和南奧塞提亞。

16.^ Russia. Encyclopædia Britannica. [31 January 2008]. (原始內容存檔於2015-04-26).

17.^ Excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.). Russia: A Country Study: Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. 1998 [20 July 2007]. (原始內容存檔於2007年9月27日).

18.^ Rein Taagepera. Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia. International Studies Quarterly. 1997, 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053.

19.^ Peter Turchin; Thomas D. Hall; Jonathan M. Adams. East-West Orientation of Historical Empires (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research, Vol. 12 (no. 2): 219–229. 2006 [2016-09-02]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2007-02-22).

20.^ Jonathan R. Adelman; Cristann Lea Gibson. Contemporary Soviet Military Affairs: The Legacy of World War II. Unwin Hyman. 1 July 1989: 4 [15 June 2012]. ISBN 978-0-04-445031-3. (原始內容存檔於2016-09-02).

21.^ GDP – Million 1990. CIA Factbook. 1991 [30 November 2015]. (原始內容存檔於2015-11-09).

22.^ Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia. Unesco.ru. [29 October 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2016-05-08).

23.^ International Energy Agency – Oil Market Report 18 January 2012 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Retrieved 20 February 2012.

24.^ Country Comparison :: Natural gas – production (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 17 February 2012.

25.^ 《俄羅斯國家名稱變遷考》 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),郭文深著,江淮論壇2010年3期

26.^ 新遺詔聖經仝序. Orthodox.cn. [2017-05-24]. (原始內容存檔於2016-11-01).

27.^ [1] (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)《語義的文化變遷》,馮天瑜、劉建輝[日]、聶長順編,武漢大學出版社,第166頁: 王松 (字友竹)在其刊行於光緒三十一年 (1905)的《台陽詩話》下卷載:「露國黑船東來之始,當年邦人襲用支那所稱,呼曰『俄羅斯』;後乃改稱『魯西亞』,從譯音也。然『魯』字乃愚鈍之意,彼國外交官嫌其侮己,致書於外務省,請以『露』諧音代之;政府乃命各新聞社,凡有涉及『魯西亞』皆宜改用『露西亞』。」 不過,也有觀點認為,「露」字容易讓人聯想到「太陽(=日本)升起來時,露就會消失」。另見關於「露西亞」譯名由來的日文說明:國名の日本語表記の変遷 —— 前はよりロシア語名に近いロシヤと書かれることが少なくなかったが、1980年代ごろからギリシャ語風の(つまりほかのヨーロッパ諸國の名稱に合わせた)ロシアという表記が完全に主流となった。なお1991年(平成3年)の內閣告示『外來語の表記』には、細則的な事項として「イ列・エ列の音の次のアの音に當たるものは、原則として「ア」と書く。」とあり、これに従った場合の表記は「ロシア」になる。現代日本語の漢字表記は露西亜で、略稱は露。江戸時代にはオロシャ、をろしやとも呼ばれた。これは、中國語の「俄羅斯」およびモンゴル語のОрос(オロス)に近い呼び名である。日本の江戸時代から戦前にかけては魯西亜という表記が主流で、1855年に江戸幕府とロシア帝國の間で初めて結ばれた條約は「日本國魯西亜國通好條約」という名稱になった。この漢字表記について1877年(明治10年)にロシア領事館から「魯は魯鈍(愚かなこと・様子)を連想させる」との抗議を受けた當時の日本政府は、ロシア側の希望を受け入れ表記を露西亜とした。しかし、露の字も「日(=日本)が昇ると露(ろ・つゆ)は消える」というマイナスイメージがあることから、このような表記の変更をあえて受け入れたことに當時の対ロシア観が現れているとする見方もある[22]。なお、白川靜の『字統』によると「魯」の原意は「おろか」でなく「よろこび」である。

28.^ 俄罗斯这个译名. 新民晚報. 2014-07-26 [2014-10-29]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-29).

29.^ 舌尖上的俄罗斯:没有沙皇 老毛子还有罗宋汤. 騰訊 (中國青年網). 2014-06-23 [2014-10-29]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-29).

30.^ 舌尖上的俄罗斯:没有沙皇 老毛子还有罗宋汤. 騰訊. 2014-06-23 [2015-01-20]. (原始內容存檔於2015-01-20).

31.^ 闲话罗宋汤. 人民日報海外版. 2004-03-27 [2014-10-29]. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-24).

32.^ Christian, D. A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. Blackwell Publishing. 1998: 6–7.

33.^ Ukraine: Security Assistance. U.S. Department of State. [27 December 2007]. (原始內容存檔於2009-02-07).

34.^ Hamm, M.F. Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917. Princeton University Press. 1995. ISBN 978-0-691-02585-8.

35.^ Solovyov, S. History of Russia from the Earliest Times 6. AST. 2001: 562–604. ISBN 978-5-17-002142-0.

36.^ Skrynnikov, R. Ivan the Terrible. Academic Intl Pr. 1981: 219. ISBN 978-0-87569-039-1.

37.^ "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Sreda, 2012.

38.^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017..

39.^ 存档副本. [2017-07-28]. (原始內容存檔於2017-12-06).

40.^ 超過1百萬人口的城市(Excel文件) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). 俄羅斯聯邦統計局(俄文)

41.^ 50萬至100萬人口的城市(Excel文件) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). 俄羅斯聯邦統計局(俄文)

42.^ Views of the most popular episode of the animated series "Masha and the Bear" have passed for 3 billion. [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-07-12).

43.^ Golden Trailer Awards Nominees: Warner Bros & ‘Lego Batman’ Lead Pack. [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-01-14).

44.^ Golden Trailer Award Nominations: ‘The Shape Of Water’, ‘Hitman’s Bodyguard’ Top List. [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-15).

45.^ Nikolai Kurbatov – Russian film director, trailer editor and poet. [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-12).

46.^ Perm resident got in the Russian Book of Records for creating a highly rated trailer for the cartoon "The Lion King". [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-12).

47.^ Videos of inhabitant of Perm for movies "The Revenant" and "The Great Gatsby" was entered into the book of records. [2018-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-09-16).

48.^ 日本抗议俄罗斯官员视察北方四岛. [2011-10-09]. (原始內容存檔於2011-11-11) (中文(中國大陸)).

49.^ 日本黑社会成员向俄使馆寄子弹要夺回北方四岛. [2011-10-09]. (原始內容存檔於2011-11-01) (中文(中國大陸)).

50.^ 日本外相抗议日本人持俄罗斯签证赴北方四岛. [2011-10-09]. (原始內容存檔於2010-11-09) (中文(中國大陸).

外部連結[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

· (俄文)Gov.ru(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) - 俄國官方網站

· (俄文)Kremlin(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) - 俄羅斯聯邦總統的官方網站

· (俄文)Federative CouncilArchive.is的存檔,存檔日期2012-08-05 - 上院官方網站

· (俄文)Duma(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) - 下院(杜馬)官方網

· CIA

· 外交部

· List of current heads of state and government