Afohan

nani… a masadak Wikipedia
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

Afghanistan(阿富汗)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray a sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Afohan hananay a ngangan’i, nani sowal no Posinto fanacadan ato Tali finacadan sowal(افغانستان‎,Afġānistān)kona pangangan, o tada ngangan nona kitakit ’i,Afohan Islam Nikapolongan Kitakit(sowal no Posinto:د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت‎‎).o itiraay i katimol no sasifoan no Acia, matiya o faloco’ no Acia ko kamaro’an nona kitakit.ona kaitinian nona kitakit ’i,itiray i la’ed nosakawali a Acia ato saka’etip Acia, sa o pahicelacelaan no paliwalay to maamaan dafong ato kalalitemotemohan no pacarcaray a finacadan, onini ko sakaadihay no kasasiromaroma no punka itini, orasaka, malalitilitingay ko pitooran, sowal, pala ato fiyaw a kitakit, ika’amis malafiyaw ato Tukuman(土庫曼語:Türkmenistan/Түркменистан/تۆركمنيستآن), Ocupiku(烏茲別克語拉丁字母:O'zbekiston Respublikasi,西里爾字母:Ўзбекистон Республикаси),ato Taciku(塔吉克語:Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон;俄語:Республика Таджикистан), ikawali ’i, malafiyaw ato Congko, ikatimol malafiyaw ato Pakistan , ika’etip malafiyaw ato Ilang. Orasak caay ka pahanhan ko malalood nona kitakit, 2001 miheca saka12 folad,haien no Linhoko amicorcor ko mamilaoc a sofitay maro’ i Afohan, ona sofitay ’i,sahetoay o nani Masakapotay no NATO, ona sofitay ’i,mihidefong anisiwar to sinkiw no congtong, mapatireng koya nisaharatengan a tamdaw ci Hamito Karcay(sowal no Posinto:حامد کرزۍ‎,sowal no Posi:حامد کرزی‎;Latin:Hāmid Karzai)malacongtong no sa’ayaway a Afohan Isalam kitakit. O tadangangan nona kitakit ’i, 「Afohanstan」hananay, o sowal no itiniay tamdaw Posinto「ono Afohan a pala ko nini」,Posinto tamdaw o Afohan tamdaw hananay a pangangan, itini tona kitakit ’i,o saalomanay ko ’isal no tamdaw. Halafin tato ko kalalood ato rawraw, hato mamalahoper to ko kicay nona kitakit, orasaka,o padahof no romaroma akitakit ko saka’orip no tamtamdaw, patinako han o nani Yoropanay a padahof mahaop ko 40% no polong a ’etan no mitayalan. [1]

Maler der Grabkammer des Sennudem 001

O liomah ko sakakaay a pili’etan nona kitakit, nikawria, o nga’ayay a maomahen a sera ’i, ‘edeng o tosa no kalitolo no palapalaan, o sawarak ko adihayay a palomaen, o sasafaay i nitahepoan no kakarayan kitakit ko ‘orip nona kitakit.

Tatapangan sowal(語源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Afohan hananay ’i,nani sowal no Monko(蒙古語), o imi nona sowal: o kitakit ni faki sanay. O A fohanstan(Posinto sowal:افغانستان‎,Afghānistān)ato Afohan Finacadan o tadamalitengay, nawhani, itiya ho i 10 sici iraay to a matilid i cili no sikay kona ngangan.[2] Pakaynien i rikisi ko pinengneng, Afohan hananay ’i, o Posinto Finacadan koni toro’an. O Afohanstan hananay ’i, Afohan(Afghān o kawaliay fanacadan Abgân), ora stan sanay a ciping ’i, o sera sanay a sowal no Posi. Orasaka, o tada ngangnan nona kitakit toya Afohanstan sanay ’i, 「o no Afohan a sera」sanay ko imi nira, matiya o kitakit i sasifo’an no acia tora Kurtostan ato Ucipikustan nipacipingan to 「stan」.

1919 miheca saka 8 folad saka 19 romi’ad, i sakakinatolo a lalood ato Ikiris, o kakita’an no Afohan ci Amannura Han(Amanullah Khan, أمان الله خان ,1892 miheca 6folad 1romi’ad-1960miheca 4folad 25romi’ad)milekal to piteked a pikowan to kitakit.1973 miheca, mafelih ko pikowan no Palakoy Hontian sifo, mapatireng ko Nikapolongan Kitakit. Toya ikor to ’i, kinapinapina mafelih no sofitay ko mikowanay, micowat ho ko Rosya, patedo sa ko tapang no sofitay a marawraw, orasak, mapatireng ko Afohan nikapolongan kitakit, falicen patireng to Afohan Islam kitakit ato Afohan Islan kakita’an kitakit. 2001 miheca,Talipan Sifo mapereng i kalaloodan. 2004 miheca saka1 folad saka26 romi’ad, mapatireng ko pacarcaran a congtong ci Hamito Karcay, patalehekal to fa’elohay kinpo, patesok han a pangangan to「Afohan Islam Nikapolongan Kitakit」kona kitakit.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Do’edoen ko tilid no mikakinkiway,nani anini i’ayaw no 5ofad miheca,iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, o ciko no lalan no isifo’ay acia ko kaitinian nona kitakit,nengengen ko rikisi nona kitakit, cila malalood cila marawraw ko kasaniyaro’, nawhani, nano to’asan malafiyaway to romaroma a hontian kitakit, patinakohan: Posi hontian kitakit,Koncie hontian sifo, Kuisan hontian kitakit, Tang Caw, Mutor hontian kitakit(Urto sowal:مغلیہ سلطنت‎, falicen to:Mughliyah Saltanat‎,Posi sowal :مغلیہ سلطنت‎,Roma tilid:mug͟hliyah saltanat,意為「蒙兀兒蘇丹國」, Cin Caw(清朝), Hontian Ikiris ato Rosya itinitay tona kitakit a malala’is. Ira ho ko katelang a Hontian Kirisiya Kitakit ato ci Cinkisuhan[3](成吉思汗sowal no Monko:ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ,鮑培轉寫:Činggis qaγan,tilid no Sirir:Чингис хаан).

O Nikowan no Roma a Finacadan(異族統治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ano nengnengen ko rikis no Afohan,

Ayhamaytosa Tolani(Portrait miniature of Ahmad Shah Durrani)

kinapinapina to malengat a mapalo ato malowid no roma a finacadan, o roma ’i, o kakitaan no niyaro’ sanga’ saton niyah teked a sofitay milood to fiyaw a niyaro’ malakitakit sato a malahad, patinako han i sasfo’an no 18sici, mapatireng ko Ayhamaytosa Tolani a hontian kitakit(Shāh Durr-i-Durrān, 1724~1772),o sa’ayaway a kitakit itini. Ona honti tonini ’i, so’emetay ko faloco’ orasaka pecihen ningra ko sera no kitakit a palilam to fiyafiyaw.

Hakowaay ko kasasiromaroma finacadan ko mikowanay,silsil han i la’eno:

Toranni Honti (Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan in 1839)

Posi Hontian a Pikowan(’ayaw no 6 sici-’ayaw 330 miheca)

Konci Hontian a Pikowan(’ayaw 324miheca-’yaw187miheca)

Pakotoriya Hontian Pikowan(latek ’ayaw no 250 miheca-latek ’ayaw no 135 miheca)

Kusan Hontian Kitakit(Kushan)(sili 1sici-3sici)

Tang ho(659 miheca-751 miheca)

Arapiya Hontian Kitakit(751年-820年)

Kacini Hontian Kitakit(962 miheca-1151 miheca)

Posi Kol Hontian Kitakit(1151 miheca-1215 miheca)

Posi Kalti Hontian Kitakit(1245 miheca-1389 miheca)

Timol Hontian Kitakit(1389 miheca-1507 miheca)

Monor Hontian Kitakit(Mughliyah Saltanat‎)(16 sici-1747 miheca)

Afohan Hontian Kitakit(阿富汗王朝)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Toranni Hontian Kitakit(1747 miheca-1826 miheca)

Palakocayi Hontian Kitakit(1836 miheca-1973 miheca)

Ingataay Miheca(近代)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No aniniay a Afohan Kitakit namapatireng itiyaay ho 1746 miheca Toranni Hotian miheca, ono aniniay to a Afohan kitakit ’i, 1747 miheca a

Amanula Honti (King Amanullah Khan)

, o ikor tono 19sici malikelong to ko ’icel nona kitakit, sa itira a mala’afas ko Ikiris ato Rosiya to sapi’ecoaw a maro’. Ya malahonti ci Amanula(Amanullah Khan, أمان الله خان ,) ta misiiked a mapatireng ko aniniay a kitakit i 1919 miheca ,itira ko pisa’eli to Ikiris to malalenay a kakaketonan a tilid, manaay ko Ikiris orasaka misatapang to sakakinatolo a pilood to Ikiris,yo malowid to ko Ikiris i, matatilid to malalenay a kakaketonan i 1921miheca 11 folad 22 romi’ad,caay to ko kakowanan no Ikiris. Nikawrira, nani 1900 miheca taha 2001 miheca 11 ko malatapangay a mikowan tona kitakit awaay ko pakalaheciay to kalatapang i kamaro’an.

O samahinakeray a mihecaan no Afohan ’i, itiray i kalahontian ni Mohanmot Casirsa((Posi sowal:محمد ظاهرشاه‎)nani 1933 miheca tahira i 1973 miheca. Itiya i 1973 miheca mafelih no cecaay ko pona a salikaka ningra ci Mohanmot Tautehan   (Posinto sowal:سردار محمد داود خان‎), mapalasawad ko hontian a faco no kitakit. 1978 miheca ira ko picoker no Rosiya to Afohan Kalotamdawan Tang a mifelih to sifo, ci Mohanmot Tautehan ato laloma’an ’aloman ko mipatayan.

Tomireng to kona Afohan Kalotamdawan Tang mitatoy to sakowan no kitakit, nikawrira palili’en no Amirika to payso ko Islam Sofitay (Arapiya sowal:مجاهد‎,Latin sowal:muǧāhid,Ikiris sowal:Mujahid,意為聖戰者))mamifelih to aniniay a sifo, sapidipotaw to aniniay a sifo ko Rosiya i 1979 miheca 12 folad 24 romi’ad ocor han to ko sofitay a mitoker to nicokeran no Amirika a komi,na onini to ko sakala’aised no Rosiya ato Akirika, satapang sato ko lalood to mo’etep ko mihecan, ’aloman ko mahikedaay a kalotamdaw tona lalood, 1989 miheca sawad sato ko Rosiya a malalood nokay sanay to ko polong no sofitay.

Nikapolongan Kitakit(共和國時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nani ikor tono 1970 miheca, wataay to ko nikapadesan nona kitakit to lalood ato rawraw,ano irairaay ko pipasasinga’ay no roma a kitakit, caay ka tangsol sa a malali’ay ko malalooday, itiya sato i 2001 miheca warawar han to palasawad koya ci’icelay a mikowan nani 1996 miheca a Talipan Sifo(Posinto ato Posi sowal:طالبان‎,o imi nonini ’i,o 「Mitiliday no Islam a Pitooran」,Roma tilid:Taliban,o Mitooray a tamdaw)

Itini tona Nikapolongan Kitakit a pikowanan a mihwca i,masasiromaroma ho 6 a sifo:

Kakeridan no Talipan Sifo ci pin Laten(Osama bin Laden portrait)

Afohan Nikapolongan kitakit(1973 miheca -1978 miheca)

Afohan Finawlan Kitakit (1978 miheca -1992 miheca)

Afohan Islam Kitakit (1992-1996)

Afohan Islam Kakitaan Kitakit (1996-2001)

Afohan Islam Kitakit (pacarcaran sifo 2001-2004)

Afohan Islam Nikapolongan Kitakit (2004-)

Ikor no 2000 miheca(2000年以後)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ikaleponan no 2001 miheca, masaopo ko kakeridan no masacefacefangay i Toic masasowal, mihai patireng to fa’elohay a faco no sifo, matoro’ ci Hamito Karcayi(Posinto sowal:حامد کرزۍ‎, Posi tilid:حامد کرزی‎;Latin:Hāmid Karzai)mala’ayaway kamaro’an tamdaw no pacarcaray sifo, tona kasasowal ’i, malaheci a miketon to sapisanga’aw to fa’elohay a kinpo ato misaharaka to sinkiw no congtong, 2004 miheca 10 folad 9 romi’ad sa’ayaway ho a pisinkiw to congtong i Afohan, o sakcecay namisinnkiwan a congtong ci Hamito Karcayi, nikawrira niaro’an ho no sofitay no Amirika ko Afohan.

2009 miheca saka 8 folad sakakinatosa a pisinkiw to congton ci Hamito Karcayi ko maalaay tona sinkiw, toya miheca saka11 folad maro’ i katayalan. 2014 miheca pasaliyad heca a misinkiw to congtong,ci Kani ko maalay malacongton, saka 9 folad saka 29 romi’ad maro’ i kamaro’an no congtong, toroen nigra ci Apotola malakakeridan no sifo.

Itiya i 2009 miheca yo maala malacongtong no Amirika ci Opama mahapinang ningra ko caay ko mamalowid kona lalood, sa milekal miliyas ko sofitay no Amirika i 2014 miheca,i 2015 miheca tolo a ofad ko miliyasay sofitay no Amirika. 2020 miheca saka 2 folad saka 29 romi’ad masasowal ko Amirika ato Talipan i tatapangay niyaro’ Toha no Kata, makakaketon to sowal:ikor no 14 a folad ha’emin sato a miliyas to Afohan ko sofitay no Amirika, palaheci han to kona 18 a miheca ko kakaya’ a kalalood.[4] 2021 miheca namalacongtong no Amirika ci Payten, tangsol sa amilekal tona aniniay miheca saka 9 folad lahecien no sofitay a miliyas ko Afohan.  

 Sici(政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada awaay ko caay ka co’os(lawaco) no malatapangay itini i Afohan a kitakit, ira ko pisolap no Manansor a Ma’araw(Transparency International)sanay a saopo,ira ko pipasadak 「sa’osi i 2015 miheca o po’elac no kalokitakit」(Corruption Perceptions Index,CPI)ilaloma’ no polong 180 ko kitakit o Afohan sakatolo nani aikoren a misa’osi. Ira ho ko roma a misa’osian no CPI i 2016 miheca o mipadahofan no romaroma a kitakit i Afohan i, o cecay no kalifalo ko maka’enay no malatapangay sanay.

Sofitay no Kawas(August 1985 Muja聖戰者)

Kakeridan no Afohan Finawlan Tang

ngangan no kakeridan kamaro’an a miheca
نور محمد ترکۍ

Nor Mohanmoto Taraki

(Nur Muhammad Taraki)

1978miheca saka4folad saka30romi’ad-1979miheca saka9folad aka14romi’ad
حفيظ الله امين

Haficula Amin(Hafizullah Amin)

1979miheca saka9folad saka14romi’ad-1979miheca saka12folad saka27romi’ad
ببرک کارمل

Paprak Karmar(Babrak Karmal)

1979miheca saka12folad saka27romi’ad-1986miheca saka11folad saka24romi’ad
ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی

Mohanmoto Nacipola

(Mohammad Najibullah)

1986miheca saka11folad saka224romi’ad-1992miheca saka4folad saka16romi’ad

Afohan Islam kitakit a congtong

領導人姓名ngangan no kakeridan Katayalan miheca
برهان الدين رباني

Porhanotin Rapani(Burhanuddin Rabbani)

1992miheca saka4folad saka16romi’ad-2001miheca saka11folad saka13romi’ad
برهان الدين رباني

Porhanotin Rapani(Burhanuddin Rabbani)

2001miheca saka11folad saka13romi’ad-2001miheca saka12folad saka22romi’ad(saka kinatosa)
حامد کرزی

Hamito Karcayi(Hamid Karzai)

2004miheca saka12folad saka7romi’ad-2014miheca saka9folad saka29romi’ad

(2001miheca saka11folad saka13romi’ad satapng a malapatodongay)

شرف غني حمدزی

Asinlaf Kani Ahemacay

(Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai)

2014miheca saka9folad saka29romi’ad-tahanini

Kasafalifalic no sifo no Afihan(nani 1978 miheca)

1978miheca-1992miheca 1992miheca-1996miheca 1996年-2001年 2001年至今
   

Afohan

A Finawlan Kitaki(Afohan Finawlan Tang ko mitekeday mikowan)

Afohan Islam Kitakit(Afohan ciSeileiay Sofitay ko mihopay mikowan

’Amisay a Lekatep(ka’amis no sa’etip ko mikowanan) Afohan Islam Kapolongan Kitakit(’Amisay a Lekatep ko mikowanay)
Afohan Islam Kakitaan Kitakit

(Talipan ko mikowanay)

Palapalaan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kaitiraan no Afohan ’i, isifo’ay no Aciya, malala’ed ato Tukumanstan(Tukuman a sowal:Türkmenistan/Түркменистан/تۆركمنيستآن)、Ucepike Kitakit(Ucepike a sowal ato Latin a tilid:O'zbekiston Respublikasi,Siril tilid:Ўзбекистон Республикаси)ato Tacike Kitakit (Tacike a sowal:Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон;Rosiya sowal:Республика Таджикистан). Malafiyaw ato Congko isawalian, ikatimol malala’ed ato Pakistan Islam kitakit(Urto a sowal:اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان;Ikiris sowal:Islamic Republic of Pakistan), isaka’etip malala’ed ato Ilan(Posi a sowal:جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎,Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân), o Afohan a kitakit caay ka piingid to riyar, nani ka’amis no sawalian tahira i katimol no sak’etip a Sintokusin Tokotokasan makalitosa kona kitakit, samatiya sa o ’adihang.

Nosake tokos(Noszak)

Adihay ko tokos tona kitakit, o satakaraway a tokos Nosako ira ko 7,798 laya’ ko ka’akawang, o masadafdafay a pala itiraay i ka’amis ato katimol no sa’etipan. O polong a pala sahetoay o mahoracay a sera,orasaka manikaway to tada nanom. Sistan Masadangahay Pala(鍚斯坦盆地) o cecay a tada ma’icangay a sera i polong no kitakit. Ono karopaw a kakaryan, tada fa’edet i kaciferangan, tada si’enaw i kasi’enawan ko romi’ad,adihay ho ko atoray.O dadahal no pala ’i, ira ko 647,500㎢, o saka 41 ko kasado’do i polong no kitakit.Adihay ko tada’ekim、tadafakeloh、’enor、cinah ato kinairaira no palapalaan.

Kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sa’ema’emang sa ko padahof no Sa’etipay kitakitakit[5], makapah to ko liomah,masongila’ to ko pili’etanan, nikawrira oyanan ho ko kanikaw no ’orip no kalotamdaw, oya Talipan a Saopo mikowanay ho to itiraay i katimol no sa’etipan a dadahalay a pala, mataraw ko tamtamdaw a midefong tona sera, sa awa ko maomahay awaay ko mili’etan a tamdaw a tayni. Imatini o mipasadakay to payso to sapisang’ to maamaan itiraay aca i mikowanan no sofitay a tatapangan niyaro ko iraay ko mili’etanay a tamtamdaw, o roma sa a niyaro’ ano ira ira i o mamangay aca a liomah, sa itira to ko tala sanay to pipadahof no roma a kitakit, nawhani, o caayay ka piingid to riyar kona kitakit, onini ko saka cakangaay no kalali’aca to romaroma a kitakit,awa ko sapisongila’ to ‘orip. 

Sawarak (毒品)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Cecay no kalitolo ko kaadihay a nipalomaan a apiyan, ora faco no pipalomaan a omah matiya o ’ayaway folad sa pangangan han to Masano’ekimay a Fa’elohay Folad Pala,nani 1992 miheca (2001 miheca malalang no Talipan ) o kaadihay no sawarak mata’elif ko Latinamirika、Sano’ekimay a Tolo ko Coco(金三角). O sa’osi i 2007 miheca o caay ko hasapaiyo a ahiyan mahaop ko 92% nani tiniay i Afohan.[6]

o heci no apiyan(Opium poppy)

O cecay no sakakahaday ko nipalomaan a apiyan a losay(Ikiris sowal:Opium poppy)i hekal,o polong a niyaro’ nona kitakit awaay ko caay ka paloma to apiyan, o polong a loma’ no Afohan ira ko 200,000 ko loma’ sahetoay a paloma to apiyan, o dengan a saka’orip a losay konini.[7]

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pitooran no tamdaw no Afohan o Islam a

Kyokai no Muslin i Yielusalim(Jerusalem-Temple Mount-Al-Aqsa Mosque)

Muslin(Arapiya sowal:مسلم‎)hananay ko roma a pitahidang, o Huiciyaw(回教)hananay itiya ho amitahidang, o Fangcalay Cudad ’i,《Kulancin》(Arapiya sowal:اَلْقُرآن‎,al-qurʾān,Congko sowal:古蘭經). O imi no Muslin ’i, 「o mitooray」、「o palaheciay to rihaday」.[8] O cecay no kalitolo a tata’angay a pitooran i hekal,i 2015 miheca a sa’osi to mitooray ira ko 18 ’ok ko tamdaw, mahaop ko 25% ko polong tamdaw i hekal, matenak icowacowa a kitakit kona Muslin Pitooran. Itini i Afohan mahaop ko 99.7% i polong no tamdaw. O roma a pitooran ira ko Soroyasto pitooran、Indo pitooran ato Sike pitooran.

Kyoiku(教育)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O caayay ka pitilid a tamdaw no Afohan mahaop ko 65%, o fafahiyan a mitiliday i mahaop 4% aca ko tamdaw. Anini sato o sa’ayaway a demak ko kyoiku, ira ho ko pipadang no roma akitakit[9], cakat sanay to ko demak no kyoiku. Nani 2002 miheca tala 2004 miheca,latek ira ko 420 ko ofad no ka’emangay tayra i pitilidan, o saadihayay ko mitiliday nano kairaan no pitilidan, o fafahiyan a ka’emangay sa’aloman sanay to ko mitiliday. Tinako i 2003 miheca o fafahiyan a ka’emangay to mitiliday mahaop ko30%.

o fafahiyan a ka'emangay a mitiliday( Afghan school )

O takaraway a pitilidan i,cisafaw to mo’etep, patinako han haloya Kapul Tata’angay Pitilidan(Ikiris sowal:Kabul University;Posinto sowal:دکابل پوهنتون (Da Kābul Pohantūn);Posi sowal:پوهنتون کابل (Pohantūn-e Kābul), enemay ko patapoloay a Tata’angay Pitilidan, cecay ko mikakinkiway to liomah a pikiwan,cecay ko misang’ay to sakatayal a taykak, cecay ko paisingan taykak, ato pinapina a pitilida to sakalasingsi. Ano hatini o matayalay i sifo ato pasifana’ay i pitilidan sahetoay namitiliday i romaroma a kitakit.

O patalahekal no Sikaikinko (Ikiris sowal:World BankWB), anini ilaloma’ no polong 3000 ofad a tamdaw iraay ho ko tolo no kalisepat ko caay ka fana’ to tilid,i 2015 miheca adihay ko mafolaway tayra i Yoropa, tongal sa kokanikaw no citanengay atamdaw.[10]

Pihapinangan Tilid (註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] 布魯塞爾舉行阿富汗國際捐助峰會. 法廣. 2016-10-05 [2016-10-11].

[2] Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. Wiley Blackwell. 2002: 18 [6 July 2019]. ISBN 0-631-19841- 5. (原始內容存檔於9 July 2019).

[3] 見《新元史》卷一百零三(列傳第七)。除《新元史》本紀無「成吉思可汗」這個稱呼。但在蒙兀兒史記常見。

[4] 美軍14個月內撤出阿富汗. 中國時報. 2020-03-01.

[5] 阿富汗成美国对外援助最大赢家 美投入或打水漂. 環球網. 2014-04-01.

[6] Opium Amounts to Half of Afghanistan's GDP in 2007, Reports UNODC (新聞稿). UNODC. 2007-11-16 [2012-04-18]. (原始內容存檔於2011-06-18)

[7] The opium economy in afghanistan (PDF). UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME: 7. 2003 [2009-06-25].

[8] Muslim. etymonline.com. [2017-09-24]. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-05).

[9]  各國承諾援阿160億美元. 聯合早報. 2012-07-09.

[10] 尋更好生活 阿富汗逾16萬人赴歐,2015-12-10。