Tunisia

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Tunisiya Kapolongan kitakit(突尼西亞共和國;Arapiya a sowal:الجمهورية التونسية‎).[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray a sowal(概略):[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Tunisia

Tunisiya hananay ko pitahidang to kaloromi’ad. Itiraay i saka’amis no Afrika, ika’amis no saka’etip miingid to Sifo’an-Riyar. Tosa ko fiyaw no Tunisiya, isaka’etip o Arciliya(o kasalala’ed ira ko 965km², ikatimol no sakawali o Lipiya kasalala’ed ira ko 460km², isaka’amisan mangata ko Itali.ono Arapiya a tamdaw ko 'alomanay itini.

Location of  Tunisia  (dark blue)in Africa  (light blue)

Ngangan no kitakit(名稱)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mi’alaay to ngangan no tatapangan tokay Tunis ko ngangan nona kitakit, ora Tunis hananay i,o to’asan ho a Ciyatayci (迦太基; Finici a sowal; 𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕;QRT ḤDŠT;To’asan kirisiya a sowal:Καρχηδών; Latin a sowal:Carthago) a fafahiyan kawas ci Tanito a mingangan.[1] Ira ko roma a sowal, onani Popor a sowal: ⵜⵏⵙ tns, o miaro’ to pala sanay ko imi nona tilid.[2]

Ono to’asan ho a ngangan i, o “Afirika”(AfricaIfriqiya), o tatapangan no aniniay a Afrika ngangan.o afri sanay i, itiraay i ngata no Ciatayci (迦太基) a Sanmito a ngangan konini,o minganganay to afar, o “sera” sanay ko imi nonini,orasaka, o katelang a Roma nani afar ko pipanganan to “ Afrika”, ona ngangan tahanini.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sasifo’an a kitakit ato lalengawan no Ciyatayci ko Tunisiya. Ona itiraay i ka’amisan no Afrika ko Tunisiya o mikowanay to Sipanya, Ka’amisay-Afrika, salawacan no Sifo’ay-Riyar a kitakit ato etal a pala, o sakakaay a kitakit itiya ho ko Tunisiya, ora ko sakalaadaen no Roma-kitakit. O kakeridan no sofitay no Ciyatayci ci Hanipa-Paka(漢尼拔·巴卡; Latin a sowal:Hannibal Barca) mangata to a milood to Roma-kitakit. Toikor to i,malingato ko Sakaktolo-Pono Lalood no Roma ato Ciyatayci i Saka’amisay-Afrika,tona kalaloodan malowaid ko Ciyatayco mala Afilika-Kowan no Roma kapolongan kitakit. Noyanan to i,madado’edo ko Wantar-Hontian kitakit(汪達爾-阿蘭王國; Latin a sowal:Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum), Saka’etipay-Roma kitakit(東羅馬帝國,現代學界又稱其為拜占庭帝國; Latin a sowal:Imperium Romanum)atoArapiya-Hontian kitakit a mikowan. Orasaka, halafin makowan no Otoman-Hontian kitakit. I 1881 miheca, misamatang ko Fransu itini, orasaka, malamikowanan no Fransu, toikor malami’adingan no Fransu, onini i, o Malamikotoday-kitakit no Fransu. I Sakatosa-Lalood i 1940 miheca malowid ko Fransu, i 1942 miheca malami’adingan-kitakit no Toic.

I 1956 miheca saka3 tolo folad saka 20 romi’ad, ira ko sapipalasadaw to Mi’ecoan-Sakowan a sapisiikedaw,malaheci to ko pisiiked no Tunisiya, mafalic ko ngangan no kitakit to Tunisiya-Hontian Kitakit. I 1957 miheca saka7 folad saka25 romi’ad milekal to nipatireng to kapolongan no finawlan a kitakit, o Nikifinacadan-Ca'enot a tamdaw ci Hapito-Pocipa(哈比卜·布爾吉巴; Arapiya a sowal:الحبيب بورقيبة‎;Fransu a sowal:Habib Bourguiba)o sarakatay congtong noTunisiya makikid ningra ko Tunisiya a kitakit malacomahacaday a kitakti. Do’edo malacongtongay ci Cayin-Apitin-Panali(宰因·阿比丁·班·阿里; Arapiya a sowal:زين العابدين بن علي‎), sakacomahadaw no kitakit ko patosongakan , nikawrira, o paifaloco’ay ko ka’orip no tamdawdaw ko pisa’icel nigra.

Cayin-Apitin-Panali misa’icel a micoroh to sakacomahad no pili’etan to saka’orip, paiteked sa ko pili’etan, orasaka, ‘aloman ko cipaysoay a tamdaw no roma a kirakir a tayni teli to payso to sakatayal. Kapolongan a Nitayalan 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit(Gross Domestic Product,GDP) nani 1989miheca a 1,201 Amirika payso tayra to i 2008 miheca macakat to 3,876 Amirika payso.[1] Nani 1987 miheca latek 20 miheca ira ko 5% ko ka tongal no kaci’etan no polong no kitakit. Toan a mihecahecaan a pili’etan no Tunisiya o “kakafehekaan no Tucisiya” hananay.itini i 133 a kitakit i hekal a rayray o sakakaay, itini i polong no kitakit o saka40 ko rayray,malapi’arawan no tala’ayaway ko kacomahad a kitakit ko Tunisiya.[2]

I 2008 miheca ira ko karawraw no Pakapaysoay-Cunami no polong no kitakit i hekal, matiya o maselenay nona cunami ko kalo’orip no tamtamdaw a ‘aloman ko malapakoyocay. I 2011 miheca ira ko cecay a fafahiyan a momuing(matayalay i sifo)mistepi’ to cecay a paliwalay i lawac no lalan a tamdaw, o milokesay to Islam-Ponka konini sato ko finawlan a maketer, nona mateti’ay a fainayan i, mikinatodoh to niyah a tireng i ka’ayaw no katayalan no sifo. O sifo sa i, sakahemao han aca ko tefoc tona matayalay i sifo a fafahiyan,onini to ko lalengatan a masa’opo ko finawaln to sapifelihaw to sifo a “ Ciyasmi-Pilolol”(茉莉花革命;Arapiya a sowal:ثورة الياسمين‎,Fransu a sowal:Révolution de jasmin), o congtong ko catitodang tonini sa ko finawlan, ca to ka pakagilo to salongoc no finawlan palasawad han to no congtong ko Lomaocan-Kitakit, nikawrira, ocowacowa ira ko rawraw no kitakit, sawad sato ko congtong ci Cayin-Apitin-Panali(宰因·阿比丁·班·阿里) patorod han ko Congli ci Muhanmuto-Ciyanusi(穆罕默德·加努希; Arapiya a swoal:محمد الغنوشي‎) misolimet tona fangafang no kitakit.

Kaitiraan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mahaop ko 40% a sera no Tunisiya o Sahala-Tafotafokan (撒哈拉沙漠; Arapiya a sowal:الصحراء الكبرى‎,aṣ-Ṣaḥrāʾ al-Kubrā ), o kakahad no nini a tafotafokan ira ko 9,400,000 km², milecaday to kakahad no sera no Amirika.o ‘osaw to 40% o ci’afoay a sera. I’ayaw ho to katateko i Roma- Hontian kitakit, itira i ’ayaw ni Yieso to 3 sici, o katenekan to no Ciyatayci-Ponka (迦太基文明;Finici a sowal:𐤒𐤓𐤕 𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕;QRT ḤDŠT).

Isaka’amisan i, o takaraway a tokos ato taporoporoan, o sakakaay i, o Atolas-Lotolotkan(阿特拉斯山脈; Ikiris a sowal:Atlas Mountains; Arapiya a sowal:جبال أطلس‎); isasifo’an o masakawalay a dafdaf,nani ka’etip pasiwali a malikelon, ikatimol nona dafdaf i o cicinahay a pala,skawali o sato’edaw sanay a salawacan no riyar a dafdaf, ikatimol o Sahala-Tafotafokan.

O lilis no riyar ira ko 1148 kilo ko kato’edaw. O sa’akawangay i, o Seanapi-Lotok (舍阿奈比山; Ikiris a sowal:Jebel ech Chambi; Arapiya a sowal:جبل الشعانبي‎). O sapa’enelay i, o Cilito-Cinahay-Fanaw, nani tongroh no riyar i la’eno to 17 laya’.

Itini i 34 00 N, 9 00 E, no Afrika ko Tunisia.Polong no kakahad no sera ira ko163,610 km², saka 93 ko rayray no ngangan i hekal. O sekalay no sera i, 155,360 km², no nanom a sekalay i, 8,250 km² ,Polong i 11,134,588 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地):Masakilac ko sera to kaomahen a sera 64.80%, o kilakilangan a sera 6.60%, no roma to a sera 28.60%.

Tamdaw(人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2001 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw, ira ko 9,700,000 ko tamdaw, isalaloma’ no nini i, mahaop ko 90% o Arapiya a Popo tamdaw.i 2008 mihecan a pisa’osi to tamdaw ira ko 10,380,000 ko tamdaw.

O sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono sifoan a sowal i, o Arapiya a sowal, nikawrira, o Fransu a sowal, Ikiris a sowal ato Italiya a sowal o kalasowalen no tamtamdaw.

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pakaynien i Tatapangan Rikec no kitakit ono kitakit a pitooran ko Islam-Pitooran, orasaka, misa’eli to mamalacongtong kao Muslim ko tireng. Nikawrira, o kalotamdaw manga’ay to paifaloco’ ko pitooran, mapa’ading no Tatapangan Rikec ko paifaloco’ay a pitoor. O tamdaw no Tunisiya mahaop ko 98% o mitooray to Islam a Muslim, dengan 1% o mitooray to misakristoay,roma to a 1% o Yotaya pitooran.

I Tunisiya iraay ko tata’angay etal no mitooray to Kristo, latek ira ko 23,000 ko salikaka, sakakaay i o Tinsikyu ira ko 22,000 ko tamdaw.tahira to i satapangan no saka15 sici Popor-Kristo parariday ho a maro’ i Tunisiya. O maro’ay i ngata no tatapangan niyaro’ ato taliyokan no syoto a Yotaya tamdaw cecay no kalitolo no polong a Yotaya a tamdaw, oroma i, itiraay i Cierpa-Kanatal, itini tona kanatal ira ko 39 a kyokay no Yotaya ato i’ayaway no 25,000 mihecaan a niyaro’ no Yotaya.

Pacefaday a Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Taylor, Isaac. Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. 2008: 281. ISBN 978-0-559-29668-0.

[2] Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward. Articles on the Middle East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. 1980: 132.

[3] UNdata Record View Per Capita GDP at Current Prices (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),United Nations。

[4] 何清涟 : 突尼斯宪政的“路径依赖” - 阿拉伯之春三周年回顾(1). 美國之音. 2014-02-01 [2017-08-02]. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-20).

Papotalay pikafitan(外部連結)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]