Parin

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Bahrain,Kingdom of Bahrain(巴林王國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Parin Hontian a Kitakit(巴林王國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray a sowal(概要)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Hata no Parin a kitakit(Flag of Bahrain)

O Parin Hontian a Kitakit(مملكة البحرين), o Parin hananay ko kalo panganga, itiraay i Sa’etipan no Aciya mingataay to salawacan no Posowan a riyar a kanatalan a kitakit, o tatapangan a syoto i,o Mainara(Arapiya a sowal:المنامة‎ Al Manāma). Adihay ko kanatal itini, o satata’angay a kanatal no Palin i,o Parin kanatal, nani ka’amis taratomol 55㎢ ko kato’edaw, saniwali tarasa’etip 18㎢ ko kakahad,polongen ko kakahad i,758㎢. Isaka’etip i,o Sawti Arapiya, matatongod to Fahe Honti Tata’akay Kayakay(Jisr al-Malik Fahd), o miracaray to riyar a kayakay konini. Isaka’amis to 200km o Ilan kitakit; o Katar Napecihan Kanatal itiraay i kawali no sakatimol. O kakarayan i, o Fa’edetay a Tafotafokan.

I 2021a mihecan a polong no tamdaw 1,234,571 ko tamdaw, ilaloma’ no nini i,ira ko 666,172 ko tamdaw o nani papotalay.

O kacemahadan no Dilmun  Punka(I’ayaw ni Yiso to 3000 ko miheca) ko Palin, itiya i 628 miheca, mala no Isalm a Pitooran a pala.

Iaikor tono 19 sici, matatilid to kakaketonan ato Ikiris mala makowanan no Ikiris ko Palin, o Ikiris ko pa’adingay. 1971 miheca miliyas nani tini ko Ikiris, oya mikowanan no Ikiris a siwaay a kitakit, o Parin ato Katar misiiked a patireng to noniyah a kitakit, oya ’osaw to 7 mikowanan no Ikiris i, mapapolong a patireng to Arapiya Mapapolongay a Hontian Kitakit(United Arab Emirates;UAE), tahira sato i 2002 miheca, milekal ko Palin mala no Hontian Kitakit.

O kicai no Parin i,caay ka o kasolin simal aca ko palawinaan, mipadahof to Kinko ato Pisalaman a demak, o Syoto Maynama o kasa’opoan no ilaloma’an to no kitakit ato ipapotalan to no kitakit o tata’akay a Citodongay to Paso a Demak itini.

Tatapangan no sowal(語源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sowal no Arapiya to Baḥrayn hnanay i,o tosaay a ruyar(bahr) sanay ko imi ira,orasaka al-Bahray i,ona「tosa a riyar」sanay ko imi. Ona sowal tona Kolan hananay i,kina70 a

Koracin(Qur'an and Rehal)

i Korancin, isa’ayaw ho i,cowa ko Parin ko mitoro’an, o kawaliay a Arapiya Pecih Kanal ko mihaenan.[1] Itini tona palapalaan i,nani katimolay a Pasla al-Baṣrah no Posiwan, mahaop ko Parin, Kowito, Hasa Langdaway Faniyot, Katifo, Arapiya Mapapolongay a Hontian Kitakit(United Arab Emirates;UAE), Katar, Satimolan no Irako, tahira i ka’amis no Anman a madado’edo. O polong no sawali’an no Arapiya a lislis no riyar, tona cecay a patek ko mihecan sahetoay o Parin.[2] Nikawria, anini sato i,ona tosaay a riyar o sawali’an no Parin a kanatal ato i sak’etioay awawwan ko mitoro’an,[3] anoca o sa’amisan no kanatal ato satimolan a riyar ko mitoro’an.[4] Ira ho ko roma a pinengeng tona tosay kanatal, o kaheciday ato kalonanom a nemnem komitoro’an.[5] O roma a sowal i,ona tosaay a riyar hananay i,o Posiwan ato tata’akay a fanaw I ngata no Hasa Langdaway Faniyot sanay.[6]

I 1971 miheca saka 8 folad saka 15 romi’ad, oya mikowan no Tata’akay Alkahafa a Laloma’an a Hontian a Parin caay to ko mikowanan no Ikiris, kaheci sato ko pisiiked to Niyahpikowan a kitakit.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I’ayaw ni Yiso a mihecan iraay to a mapatireng ko tata’akay a niyaro’ , I’ayaw ni Yiso to 1000 a mihecan maro’ itini ko Finikki a tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Phoenicia), ikor ni Yiso to saka7 sici,mala o cecay a sakowan no Arapiya Hontian Kitakit, mirecep ko punka no

Amir honti 1911 a mihecan(Prokudin-Gorskii-19-v2)

, orasaka malapinangan no aniniay a Muslin. 1507~1602 mihecahecan ma’eco no Portokaro(Potawya), do’edo’edo sa i,o Posi Hotian Kitakit to ko mikowanay. 1783 miheca, mafelih no Parin ko pikowan no Posi,milekal to misaikeday a kitakit ko Parin.1920 miheca cowaten no Ikiris malanipaadingay a kitakit no Ikiris. I sakatosa a lalood no nitahepoan no kakarayan i 1940miheca saka10 folad malisawak no salifong no Italy ko Parin.1957 miheca, patedo sa ko Ikiris a milekal:「o nipaadingan no Ikiris a misaikeday a kitakit ko Parin」sanay. 1971 miheca saka 8 folad saka 14 romi’ad,laheci sato ko Pisaiked to Niyhakitakit, o「Parin Kitakit」hananay a pangangan. 2000miheca saka 2 folad saka 14 romi’ad, mafalic a pangangan to Parin Hontian Kitakit, o tapang no kitakit i falicen a pakahonti, o Honti ci Amir(Amīr), oya faloay ko coco’ a hata no kitakit i, rowanen a mifalic to ’enem a coco’ a hata.

Sici(政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Hontian Rikec a Kitakit ko faco no sici no Parin,o Honti ko Tapang no kitakit, orasak cowa to kahakowa ko sakowan a ’icel no sifo, nikawrira, o kasaniyaro’aro tata’angay ko

Palafang ko congtong no Amirika ci Pusi(Hamad bin Issa Al Khalifa et Bush)

a ’icel,manga’ay to a do’edo’edo han ko pinangan no kasaniyaro’ a mikowan to demak no niyah a niyaro’. Paninako han o Islam a niyaro’ o rikec no Islam Pitooran ko dado’edo’en a matayal, ono Kristo a niyaro’ ono Kristo a rikec ko dado’edo’en a matayal, ono Indo a niyaro’ ono Indo Pitooran a rikec ko dado’edo’en.[7]

I 2002 miheca saka 10 folad ptireng to Fafa'eday Pikaikian ato Kararemay Pikaikian, Tosaay ko Pikaikian a Faco no kitakit, o kiing no Fafa'eday Pikaikian a kiing i, o Honti ko mitoro’ay to sakalakiing, o Kararemay Pikaikian a kiing i,o misinkiwan ko kalakiing. Itini i taliyok no Arapiya o sarakatay a midemak to sinkiw no Pikaikian no Kitakit, o sarakatay a mihai to fafahiyan mitopa, mikihatiya to sici. Nikawria, i 2011 miheca ira ko sapifelihaw to sifo a sa’opo milongoc to sakatongal no kanga’ay no sici no Parin.[8]

Kasakowakowan (行政區)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong a kasakowakowan no Parin ira ko 4 a Sakowan, syoto sakowan, Mohalako sakowan(Muḥāfaẓat al-Muḥarraq),Ka’amisay sakowan ato Katimolay sakowan.

Palapalaan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I kawaliay no SawtiArapo ko Parin a kitakit,mingataay to saka’etipan no Posi a Kihaw, masadahdahay a ma’icangay a kanatanatal. Nani masadasdasay a tafotafokan cakat sa tahira i 134m nani tongroh no riyar, tangasa i sakatakarawayay a「ci’cefelay a lotok」(Mountain of Smoke).

Faliyos no Tahefod(Sandstorm in Al Asad, Iraq)

O polong a hahadaf no pala no Parin ira ko 665㎢, nikawrira, nipaloan to sera ko salawacan no riyar mala karopaw a pala, sa matongal ko kakahad to780㎢, ikaka no Ikiris a Man kanatal (Isle of Man) to mamang.

I sa’ayaw ’edengan 33 ko kanatal, nikawrira to ikor to i,paloen to sera ko salawacan no riyar a mafalic ko pala, i 2008 miheca saka 8 folad, o polong a kanatal tahiraay to i 84 ko kaadihay no ’osi no kanatal. Pakaynien i kakahad no kanatal a rayray o Parin a kanatal, do’edo sa i o Howar kanatal(Juzur Ḩawār), Muharako kanatal,Umoansan kanatal ato Sitola kanatal.

Cicinah ko sera ato nanom(Salinity)

O lilis no riyar ira ko 161km ko kato’edaw, cowa ka laliting ko kalala’edan to roma a kitakit.

O kacifrangan a kakarayan so’emtay fa’edetay, o kasi’enawan sa’emelay. O dafong no pala i, tada patahtahay to kasolin a simal, kaso no pala ato foting.Nikawrira, tada manikaway to kamaomahan a sera, o manga’ayay ka kaomahen a pala i,’edeng mahaop ko 2.8% no polong a pala no kitakit.

O tafotafokan a pala i,mahaop ko 92% no polong a pala no kitakit. O latiih no pala i,caay ka ‘eca ka pisaliyaliyaw a ira ko kakedalan a mafetak to ko sota’ ato tata’akay a tahefod, orasak omisi’ayawan a tata’angay a inorong no taliyokan,o malatafok ko o’edengan a omah, masi’ac ko riyar a malatiih ko salawacan no ruyar ato rakarakan.O lalengatan nona latiih i,o nani kaira no tata’akay a taka micoro’ay to simal, mi’olacay to simal a pisanga’an ato misang’ay to dingki, mangalefay oya takaw sanay a matayal i Topoli a kihaw. O nanom ato sera sa i,cilamlam to cinah.

Kakarayan(氣候)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Macara no nani tokos no Ilan, cilacila maiyof no la’enoay a fali ko Parin. I saka 6 a folad tahira i saka 7 folad o nani Ilako ato SawtiArapo a Faliyos no Tahefod maiyof ko Parin, cowa to ’araw ko ka’ayaway a mamaan. O kaciferangan no Parin caay ka filo ko fa’edet, nawhan i, italiyokay no Parin a riyar pangtaay, tangsol sanaay a macakat ko fa’edet, sa do’et sato ko romi’ad, mangalefay to dadayay. I kacifrangan a fa’edet i,tahiraay to i 50°C ko ka’akawang, o ‘orad sa i, caay ka hakowa, ‘edeng i kasi’enawan ko ka ’oradan, kairaan to pisa’osi to polong a ’orad to cecay a miheca o ’edengan 71.8 hawmi ko kaaduhay.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2001 miheca a pisa’osian to tamdaw i, o polong ira ko 650,604 ko kaaloman no tamdaw no Parin, o nani patopatal a mafolaway a tayni a tamdaw cecay no kalitolo1/3. O sa’adihayay ko ni’aroan no tamdaw a tokai i,o Manamah(Manmah) ato Mohalako(Muharrq), o katongao no tamdaw to mihecaan latek 2.96%.Ono sifoan a sowal i,o Arapiya a sowal, nikawrira, ’aloman kono roma a kitakit a tamdaw itini sa o Ikiris a sowal ko kasasowal.

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono kitakit a mitoro’an ko Islam(Arapiya a sowal:الإسلام, al-’islām) a Pitooran, orasaka, o

Korancin (Quran cover)

no Parin sahetoay o mitooray to Muslin. O kasa’isal no Sinyi Felaw ato Sonni Felaw away ko no sifo a pisa’osi, latek mahaop ko 65~75% o Sinyi Felaw no Islam,nikawrira, o Sonni Felaw ko mikowan tona kitakit.[9] Caay ko Islam a Pitooran aca itini, ira ho ko misa Kristoay, ato mitooray to Indo a Kyokai. I 2010 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw i,o cowa ko Muslin a maro’ay itini a tamdaw ira ko 367,683 ko tamdaw.

Kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya ho o kihakihawan ko Parin a kitakit, o pi’a’alan to odo’ no fidac ato kalalo’acaan a pala,

Misolinga'ay to kasoli simal(AlbaGallery8)

maro’ay itini a tamtamdaw o mi’alaay to odo’ no fidac, mifoting ato malali’acaay ko ‘orip nangra. I 1933 miheca makera ko kasolin simal, o sa’ayaway a mikarkarray to kasolin a kitakit itini tona kihakihawan a pala, o sarad no kasolin ira ko 1712 ofad a ton, kaso no pala a sarad ira ko 924 ofad lifangmi(m³) ko kaadihay. O kahiceraan no kalafalican to payso no kalokitakit itini. Nengnengen kono i 2004 mihecaan a Kapolongan a Nitayal a’Epoc(Gross National Product:GNP) ira ko 100 ok kono Amirika a payso, ono Kala’isal no Kalotamdaw a Kapolongan ’Epoc(Gross national income,:GNI)i,13,590 kono Amirika a payso, o kacemahad no Kapolongan a Nitayal a’Epoc no kalotamdaw mahaop ko 5.6%, nipaliwalan a lalosidan no kitakit to cecay a miheca ira ko 145 ok kono Amirika a payso, ilaloma’ nonini i, o Ni’acaan ira ko 61 ok kono Amirika apayso, o niliwalan i,ira ko 84 ok kono Amirika a payso.

Tahapinangan a simal(Erdoelprobe Wietze)

O demak no pili’etan no Parin, masiwar nani 1985miheca masaromaroma ko kafalic no ’aca no simal. Tada macemahaday ko dingwa ato lalan, onini ko sakakahiceraan no kapolongan kaisya no pinapina a kitakit itini. Nikawrira, o lilomah a pala no Parin ’edeng 2.9% no polong no kitakit a sera, orasaka, ono i lalomaan no kitakit a Kapolonga a Nitayalan a ’Epoc ’edeng aca 0.5%, o losay to kaka’enen sahetoay o ni’acaan nani roma akitakit.

Tada adihay ko awaay ko tayal a kapah ho a tamdaw. O kalacemcemay a demak no Parin o kalahedaw no kaso a simal ato nanom, oninian a demak i,o haharatengen to ikor. I 2008 miheca a sa’osi o awaay ko tayal mahaop ko 4%, ilaloma’ no nini i, o fafahiyan mahaop ko 85% ko awaay ko tayal. 2007 miheca, o kakreidan no citodongay to tayal ci Macito Ar Alawi hakasi misalof a misongila’ to faco no katayalan, malasa’ayaway a midemak to sapatodong to awaay ko tayal a tamdaw, itini i Arapiya o sa’ayaway ko Parin to midemakay to matiniay a sapatodong.

Pisalamaan no lafang(旅遊)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O palafangay to cecay amihecaan matafisiw ko 800 ’ofad ko tamdaw,

Parin Pisitalaan(Bahrain Fort March 2015)

o ‘alomanay a lafang i,o nani ngata’ay to Arapiya a kitakit, nikawrira, sa’adihay sanay to a matongal ko nani cowacowaay a lafang, mangalefay ko ka’aloman no lafang a tayni a minengneng to maa’ise’ised a pacikay to tosiya(Ikiris a sowal:Formula One,F1), ona kala’ised a demak i,nani 2004 miheca satapang a tahanini.

Mapatateko no Parin ko aniniay a punka no Arapiya ato 5 patek ko katelang no rikisi a nalacolan halo

Saicomodan (Bahrain Fort 3)

no lafang. Itini i Parin adihay ko katelang ho pisitalaan, ilaloma’ nonini i, o Parin Pisitalaan(Porokaru a sowal:Qal'at al Portugal; Holan a sowal:巴林堡) [10] o karengawan no punpunka no Tirmuen(Kirisiya a sowal:Týlos),[11] I’ayaw ni Yisoan miheca to 3000 ko miheca a matenak nani tini.[12] Onini ko pihai no Linhoko Ciawkouncuci(Ikiris a sowal:United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,decdecan a tilid: UNESCO) to malo rarocekan no ihekalay a polong a tamdaw. Caay konini ’aca ko cinganganay, oya itiraay i Muhalako a Arato Pisitalaan tata’angay ko ngangan nonini.

Itini i Parin adihay ko pitelian tono to’as ho a dafon a Pookuwan:i Parin no kitakitan a Pookuwan mana’ang ko i’ayaway ni Yiso to 9000 miheca no fakelokelohan a mihecahecan a dafong、o samaamaanay a dafong nani punpunka no Tirmuen tahira i no Arapiyan a punka; Loma’ no Kolancin i, o pinaanaangan ’aca to tadamatelangay a Kolancin a Pookuwan; o Kasolin Simal a Pookuwan o pipatili’an to maamaan a kikai ato tilid nani 1931 miheca yo matama ko kasolin simal.

Pakaynien i rikisi a minengneng i, oya nipatirengan i 692 miheca a Kamis Kiokay no Islam(Khamis Mosque), i 14~15 sici liyawen ho a misongila’ o samatelangay a Kiokay no Islam; o satata’angay a Kiokay no Islam i,o Afatahe Kiokay; o Papa Pita’ongan(Barbar Temple) oni patirengan itiya ho i Tirmuen a mihecahecan; oya i’ayaway ni Yiso to 3000 patek ko mihecan a Ali Tademademan(Dilmun Burial Mounds)ira ko 85000 ko kaadihay no tadem.

O ’orip a kilang ira ko 400 miheca ko kato’as nona kilang,itiraay i satimolan no Parin a Sacir Tafotafokan(Sakhir), away ko nanom itini, nika sanga’ay sa ko karengaw nona kilang, ’aloman ko tayniay a lafang a faheka a minengneng.

Tahapinangan a tilid (參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Houtsma, M. Th. Baḥrayn. Encyclopedia of Islam I. Leiden: E.J. Brill: 941. 1960.

[2] Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. Clive Holes: XIX. 2001 [2020-02-14]. (原始內容存檔於2018-12-25).

[3] Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.

[4] First encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936. E.J. Brill. 1993: 584. ISBN 978-90-04-09796-4.

[5] Faroughy, Abbas. The Bahrein Islands (750–1951): A Contribution to the Study of Power Politics in the Persian Gulf. Verry, Fisher & Co. (New York), 1951.

[6] Al-Khalifa. Bahrain Through The Ages. 2014.

[7] 巴林-書院、酋長與王國,習慣法、沙利亞與成文法(《劉仲敬思想》第30期).

[8] 存档副本. [2011-02-19]. (原始內容存檔於2011-02-21).

[9] 巴林國王提議增加下議院議員權力。

[10] Axworthy pp.175–274

[11] Bahrain digs unveil one of oldest civilizations. BBC. [2017-09-19]. (原始內容存檔於2014-11-13).

[12] Dilmun and Its Gulf Neighbors. Harriet E. W. Crawford: 9. 1998.