Madagascar

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Madagascar,République de Madagascar[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Matakaskar Kapolongan Kitakit (馬達加斯加共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O saka’etipay no Satimalan Kanatanatal a Finacadan ko ka itiraan nona kitakit, pakinien I sowal no Matakaskar I Repoblikan'i Madagasikara[1], na o mikowanan no Ferans itiya ho, sano Feransuen a sowal I République de Madagascar. Matakaskar Kapolongan Kitakit sanay ko tadangangan, i’ayaw no nini I Matakasi Kapolongan Kitakit hananay, sakamoko’ han a mitahidang to Matakaskar, oninian to ko ma’alaay a pangangan.

Itiraay I katimol saka’etip no Afrika ko kaitiraan, o saksepat ko ka tata’ang itini I polong no kitakit. Na malakitingay ho sera ato Into, I’ayaw no 8,800’emang ko mihecaan a malaliyas sacecay sa tomireng itini, malaay to icowacowaay a pala, sa ma’osaw ho kina’orip ato maamaan no hakal, o sa’adihayay ko maamaan kina’orip I hakal, mahaop ko 80% a kina’orip awaay iroma akanatal, ‘edeng itini ko iraay. Nikawrira, ona kakafahekaan a kina’orip mafolkok no ka’aloman no tamdaw a mafolaw a tayni.

O ngangan tora Matakaskar hananay caay ko nano sowal no itiniay tamdaw sanay, o nani ngoyosay no Yoropa a tamdaw i ka citelongan(中世紀)[2], I 13sici o nani Winisu a mihahinamay a tamdaw ci Makopolo ko sa’ayaway a mitilid to 「Madageiscar」sanay a tilid, masasifod ningra ko itiraay I minato no Samaliya a sowal toya Mokatisyu(Mogadishu)sa ko sowal. [[Faylo:Isbaheysiga Mosque in Mogadishu (2).jpg|thumb|Isbaheysiga Mosque in Mogadishu (2)]].

Itiya to I 1500miheca, o mihahinamay a tamdaw no Polutokaru ci Tiaoku·Tiyas macakat tona kanatal pangangan han ningra to「São Lourenço」(聖洛倫索), nikawrira, oni Makopolo ho a pangangan ko pido’edoan no Yoropa a pangangan to rayaray kanatal,sa tahanini o maalaay a pangangan i oya to「Madagasikara」ko matenakay. I sowal no itiniay a tamdaw away ho ko i’ayaway no「Madagasikara」sanay a ngangan.[3]

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O rikisi no Matakaskar I sepatay ko kasasaer: To’asan, Hontian, Mikowanan no Ferans ato Pi’ikedan a Mikowan.

To'asan Miheca (早期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I to’asan miheca i’ayaw no 2500miheca itiniay to a maro’ ko Matakaskar tamdaw sanay ko sowal no mikakarkaray tono to’asan ho a dafong a singsi no tata’angay pitilidan. Iraho ko masasiromaromaay a sowal, o miriniay a pawacay no singsi I caay ka telang ko mihecan ko tamdaw a maro’ itini sanay.[4] Itiya ho o dodang ko pikalican nani Poloco mafolaw a tayni,nikawrira, o lamit no remes tora DNA I mingataay tono I Afrika a kohetingay tamdaw.

Cilamlam to remes no Afrika (Malagasy girls Madagascar Merina)

Yo kahatayni ho tamdaw adihay ho a manengneng ko matiyaay o co ko tata’ang a ‘ayam, o ‘aloay ‘efa,to ikor to I ma’adop ko ma’adopay , ma’eco no tamdaw ko kaitiraan malahedaw ko ka’oripan no ‘a’adopen.[6]

Matakaskar Hontian Kitakit(馬達加斯加王國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya I pisatapangan no 17sici Milina fanacadan mipatireng to Imolina Hontian kitakit takaraway tokatokasan, pasasitiri’en to ilawacay no riyar a hontian kitakit, caay ka samaan ko ‘icel nona kitakit.[7] Isatapangan no 18sici kalisepaten ni Anteliyamasinnawalona(Andriamasinavalona)Honti kona kitakit, alacecaen ningra a palilam ko sepat a wawa ningra, tongal sa ko kaawa no ‘icel no kitakit. Cecay a so’ot ko mihecan a malalaood, ci Anteliyananpoynaymilina(Andrianampoinimerina安德里亞南普伊奈梅里納)Honti ko miliyaway a palacecay to Imolina Hontian Kitakit.

Andrianampoinimerina

Namikowan kona honti macowat ningra ko ilawacay a kitakit sa tata’ang sato ko sera. O wawa to ni Anteliya ci Ratama Sakacecay(Radama I) ko milaheciay a matireng ko malacecayay a kitakit.

Ranavalona I


Na mapatay ci Ratama Sakacecay honti, o fafahi to ningra ci Ranafalona sakacecay(Ranavalona I;1778年—1861)ko malahontiay, na kalahontian ni Ranafalona matongalmatongal pakisici to pakisaka’orip to pakipunka to ko pi’enec no Ikiris, sa itira to a milalang to pipatenak to Kristo pitooran,laplapen ko Yoropa a tamdaw.

Namikowan kona honti macowat ningra ko ilawacay a kitakit sa tata’ang sato ko sera. O wawa to ni Anteliya ci Ratama Sakacecay(Radama I) ko milaheciay a matireng ko malacecayay a kitakit.

Na mapatay ci Ratama Sakacecay honti, o fafahi to ningra ci Ranafalona sakacecay(Ranavalona I;1778年—1861)ko malahontiay, na kalahontian ni Ranafalona matongalmatongal pakisici to, pakisaka’orip to, pakipunka to,mai’enec no Ikiris, sa itira to a milalang to pipatenak tono Kristo pitooran,laplapen ko Yoropa a tamdaw.

O wawa ni Ranafalona sakacecay ci Latama sakatosa(RadamaⅡ,1861~1863) mido’edo a malahonti i, falicen nako koya ca’edasay a demak no winaan kalahonti, sadamsay nako ko pidipot to finawlan saan. Nikawrira,palahedawen to kono hontian a pikowan sanay ko kakeridan no kitakit ci Raynifoninahiteliniawni(Rainivoninahitriniony,1852~1865 ko kalakakeridan no kitakit), itira a mikomod toya I sifo’aay a Mirina Hongtian Kitaki(Kingdom of Madagascar,1540–1897,or Kingdom of Imerina)ato Hofa tamdaw malacafay a miwarwar mipalasawad ko Latama sakatosa honti(RadamaⅡ).[1] Yo mapalasawad to ko kalahonti ni Latama sakatosa(RadamaⅡ)i,mihayi ko finawlan to fafahi ningra ci Rasohirina(Rasoherina,1863~1868)a malahonti, nikawrira , irako salongoc no fanawlan to malalamod kiso aci Raynifoninahiteliniawni(Rainivoninahitriniony) nga’ mihayi kami to pikowan iso han no fanawlan,malacecay kamo a mikowan malalikel to tatayalen nga’ caka sakakinih ko ’icel. Milayap ci Rasohirina(Rasoherina)to hatiniay a sa’ali no finawlan lalamod sato ci Raynifoninahiteliniawnian,lalamoda saho sawaden ningra, paliyaw a cifainay to safa ni Raynifoninahiteliniawnian, ona safa a Raynifoninahiteliniawnian i,30miheca ko kalakakeridan no kitakit. Nakalakakeridan cingra i patireng icowacowa to pitilidan,paci’ecien a papitilid ko ka’emangay, tahidangen ningra ko Ikiris tamdaw malakomon no sofitay, sa matongal ko kaci’icel no sofitay.[2] Oloma sato mifalican a demak o pipalasawad to aduhayay ko kacifafahi,o kristo pitooran malapitooran no lalomaan no honti,sanoyanan sato a ‘aloman ko mitooray, nika caay ka sawad kono to’asan ho a pitooran demak.[3] O rikec no kitakit mitodongay tono Ikiris a rikec,i tatapangan aniyaro’ mikihatiya tono Yoropa tolo ko kasafatafatd.[4]

 Nikowanan no Fransu a mihecahecaan(法國殖民時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Micomod ko Fransu to sapi’ecoaw amikowan I 1883miheca, mitoker ko tamdaw no Matakaskar ta malalood ato Fransu.[8] Yo malahecai to ko lalood kelit han no Matakaskar ko isaka’amisay a minato Ancilanana pafeli ko Fransu, mipatefoc ho to 50’emang Falang(法郎).[9] Itiya sato i 1890miheca, pakidosaan a sapafeliaw i Ikiris ko Fransu to Matakaskar, caka pihai ko Matakaskar to matiniay pakidosanay demak, o Fransu to I nani 1894miheca 12folad tahira I 1895miheca sakacecay folad ko pisalifong ta ‘ecoen ko ikawaliay a minato Towamasina(Toamasina) ato ika’etipay a niyaro’ Mahacanca(Mahajanga).[10] Hatini to ko pisalifong no Fransu macangalen ho to sapipelengaw to Matakaskar, tahidangen ho nani Afrika ko ‘alomanay sofitay a mipadang milood, tatiih ko lemed taha ‘adada to Malaliya(niyieci han no kaping) ‘aloman ko mapatayay.1895miheca 9folad,tangasa to koya mamipadang a sofitay saromi’ami’ad hanto nangra a misalifong ko kamaro’an no honti, cato ka pakolilo ko Matakaskar kosang sato ko honti Linawalona sakatosa.[11] Toya cila a mihecaan 1896,paci’eci han to no Fransu a mi’eco a maro’ ko Matakaskar,malnikowanan niyam sato a palosiyang i papotal, la’eto sato a mapalasawad ko Imolina Hontian Kitakit, o laloma’an saato no honti i malaplap tayra i Alciliya i Afrika.

1896miheca,mapalahedaw ko mali’acaay to koli a demak,nikawrira, 50’emang ko ka’adihay no koli away ko kalaklakan a maro’ sa kinaitiratira I loma’ no tawki a maro’, malamimaomahay , anca malatofangay.[12] I lawac no kakahaday lalan no syoto Antanalifopo adihay mapatireng ko malokasopsopan a loma’[13] to pilafinan no koli. Oya sa loma’ no honti malapiterian to tadamaanay dafong.[14] Adihay to ko mipatirengan a pitilidan, halo ya caayay ho ka tahiraan no Milina tamdaw toya maraayay ikemoday a niyaro’ ato salawacan no riyar mapatireng ko pitiridan. 6~13 ko mihecaan a ka’emangay mipaci’ecian a papitilid a mihatatanam to sowal no Fransu ato sakatayal a kicic.

Itiya I no hontian ho, o tayal ko sapasata no kalotamdaw to honti, onini a demak I mi’osawan no Fransu to sapisanga’ to lalan no cilamalay ato kalolalan.[15]

Itiya sato I sakacecay a kalaloodan no polong a kitakit,mikapot I sofitay no Fransu ko Matakaskar.[16] Tahayni sato I 20sici(‘ayaw no cecay so’ot miheca) ira ko pasaharateng no sifo no Toic to sapifaolawaw to Yotaya tamdaw tayra I Matakaskar.[17] Namalowid to ko Toic I caay sato ka laheci kona sapifolawaw to Yotaya a demak.

ci Hitora o congtong no Toic(Hitler, Speer y Breker en París, 23 de junio de 1940)

I sakatosa a kaloodan no polong a kitakit, ma’eco no Toic ko Fransu, mangoyangoy ko faloco’ no tamdaw no Matakaskar to pikowan no Fransu,ka o pisa’iked to a miniyahpikowan sato a misaharterateng no Matakaskar tamdaw, yo laheci saho ko lsakatosa lalood, i 1947miheca looden to no Matakaskar to mikowanay a Fransu.[18] I 1958miheca 10folad 14romi’ad, palosyang to pitatireng to Marakasi Kapolongan Kitaki,o cecay no komodan no Fransu a Niyahpikowan a kitakit,i 1959miheca malaheci a masanga’ ko Kinpo,ta patireng to Pacarcaray Sifo, 1960miheca saka’enem folad sakasepat safaw romi’ad malaheci to tomireng ko Malakasi Kapolongan Kitakit.[19]

Niyahpikowan a kitakit(獨立後)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mapatireng ko Malakasi Kapolongan Kitakit, kinasepatay to misariyariyad ko kapolongan kitakit, mipatireng to fa’elohay kitakit I miriyad a misang’ amisafa’eloh to kinpo. Nani 1960miheca tahira 1972miheca o sakacecay a kapolongan kitakit,o mitoro’an no Fransu ci Filipir.Cilanana(Philibert Tsiranana,1912年10月18日-1978年4月16日))ko malacongtongay.

o sa'ayaway congtong Filipir.Cilanana(Philibert Tsiranana 1962)

O mitoro’an no Fransu sanaw o mitayalan ningra o sakaci’etan to, o sapikowan to toor hananay ko sowal no Fransu. Patinako han, o malakakeridan nomaamaan to a tatayalen sahetoay o Fransu a tamdaw,o singsi o Fransu to atamdaw, o sapipasifana’ o no Fransu tilid. Ciharateng sato ko finawlan ona tayal ni Cilanana caay ka sasiroma to pikowan no Fransu, o「fa’elohay a palatepesay mikowan」sa onian ko pakarawraw to finawlan a misapifelihaw tona sifo, 1972miheca saso’eli’elin sato a mafelih no finawlan.[20]

Toyanan to a miheca,o kakeridan no i palaay sofita malapacarcaray a congtong ato kakeridan no kitakit, caay ko mihaian no finawlan ko kalacongtong ningra,sakatolo miheca i 1975 tararikor sato a misawad. Do’edo’ sa ci Risyal Racimantorawa(Richard Ratsimandrava) ko malacongtongay, ’edeng’edeng ’enem a romi’ad ko kalacongtongan mapacok ta mapatay. O mido’edo’ay ci Cir Antoliyamahaco(Gilles Andriamahazo) ko malacongtongay,sepat a folad ko kalacongtong mafalic ni Titir Raciraka(Didier Ratsiraka,1975年-1993年;1997年-2002年) [[Faylo:Gvtratsiraka1.jpg|thumb|Gvtratsiraka1]] sanosofitay han ningra kopikowan to finawlan, falicen ko ngangan no kitakit to Matakaskar,misasyakaysyuki demak no kitakit.

Itiya sato i sakacecay kanikawan to simal(1973~1974), awa to ko katayalan mataring to ko tada no kitakit, o ‘orip sato no finawlan tadapakoyoc to,[21] i 1979miheca la’eto sato a mapeleng kona sifo.

Awa to ko kakeridan no sifo I, ci Aropet Cafi(Albert Zafy) ko micadaay a patireng to pacarcaray sifo, maala cingra i1992miheca a sinkiw to congtong, nipatirengan to sakakinatolo kapolongan a kitakit.[22] O misafa’elohan a kinpo i mihai to kasasiromaroma a saopo no sici, masaroma ko salongoc no finawlan,onini ko faco no fa’elohay a sifo.

2010miheca, mitopa ko polong tamdaw to pihai to misafa’elohan heca a kinpo, patireng to sakasept a kapolongan a kitakit,itini tona miliyawan a misafa’eloh a kinpo matiliday ama’osaw ko o finawlan ko pi’arawan a mikowan ato pihai to kasasiromaroma saopo no sici.[23] [[Faylo:Hery Rajaonarimampianina 2014.jpg|thumb|Hery Rajaonarimampianina

Hery Rajaonarimampianina 2014

2014]2013miheca,saka10folad,saka25romi’ad,misinkiw to congtong ato lipoiing, awaay ko paka’alaay to fatad no satopa no fanawlan, sa miliyaw ho to sakakinatosa a mitopa ko finawlan tono congtong a sinkiw I 2013miheca saka12folad,saka20romi’ad. I 2014miheca sakacecay folad saka7romi’ad, mapatalahekal ko lekal,ci Aili Matiyal Rakotoyalimanana Raciyawlimamanpiyani(Hery Martial Rakotoarimanana Rajaonarimampianina) 53.5% ko maalaay a satopa ta malacongtong.[24]

Palapalaan ato Taliyokan(地理和生態)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O dadahal no pala 59,2800㎢ saka47 laylay i polong kitakit , o sakasepat ko katata’ang a kanatal. I sawaliay no Afrika, o sangataay a kitakit i, o Mosanpiko. I kawali misi’ayaway to riyar no Into, o lawac no riyar i kawali i, sahetoay o kilakilangan, i sifo’ an i, o masa’apilisay a omaomahan.

I ’ayaw no 1,35’ok(億)miheca, malipowak ko cikiw malapecih ko Matakaskar,katimolay lawac no cikiw , Into a karopaw ato Afrika ato Satimolan Amirika. I ‘ayaw no 8899 ofad miheca, miliyaw heca a mapecih lacinowas sato ko Matalaslar ato Into, maraay ko piliyas to romaroma a hekal sa ma’osaw ho ko caay kafalic ko kalahad no maamaan a kina’orip, o kilakilangan ato ’a’adopen.[25] O sera no Matakaskar ira ko tafotafokan, ira ko semosemotan, ira ko sena’sena’an, adihay ko kasasiromaroma no pala. [[Faylo:Biogeographic timetable of Madagascar - journal.pone.0062086.g003.png|thumb|Biogeographic timetable of Madagascar - journal.pone.0062086.g003]]

O romi’ad 'i, saka11folad~saka4folad, kafodo’an ato kafaliyosan, i saka5folad~saka10folad kasi’emelan, o ka’oradan, sa kahenay a malahad ko kinairaira. I sasifo’an a takaraway a pala ma’icangay sa’emelay. I 2004miheca ira ko tata’angay afaliyos, 172tamdaw ko mapatayay,21’ofad 4260tamdaw ko mafolaway.

Nano katelangan a miheca malaliyas to karopaw, sa caay ka cilamlam to samaamaanay a kinairaira, 90% odeng itini a ira, o lotong to, o ‘ayam to sahetoay o kakafahekaan a kinaira.[26]

I matakaskar iraay ko cecay ’ofad no kasasiromaroma no kina’orip,80% o itiniay aca a ira ko nini.patinako han o Lan hana(蘭花)ira ko 860 ko kasasiromaroma, o kalitolo no sepat o tadamaanay no nini.[27] Ira ho koroma a patinakoan, itini i mitahepoan no kakarayan i faloay ko kasasiroma no lotong hanaay facidol,o itiratiraay aca i Afrika cecay,i Awco cecay, ’enem i Matakaskar.[28][[Faylo:Penang Malaysia Ravenala-madagascariensis-01.jpg|thumb|Penang Malaysia Ravenala-madaga

Penang Malaysia Ravenala-madagascariensis-01

Oroma sa o nangesan a kilang(棕櫚科)ira ko 170 ko kasasiroma,o sa’adihayay i tini Afrika, tona 170 no kasasiroma 165 itiniay aca i Matakaskar a malengaw.[29] Adihay ho ko masasiromaromaay a talod, manga’ayay kalasapa’iyoen, patinako han oya cangcunhua(長春花) o lalengawan i nani Matakaskar a matenak taracowacowa to akitakit, faloay ko tatapngan a kahirahira, pito ko kahirahira itini i Matkaskar.[30] ona hana tonini i,o sapisanga’ sapi’ada to kang(癌症)adada a sapaiyo sanay ko mikakinkiway.O kakafahekan a kilang i o rafinala(ravinala)hananay o itiniay a tamdaw a pangang, matiya o macelakay ko wikor a ‘ayam, tadamakapahay sa malatahapinangan no kitakit ato hikoki no Matakaskar.[31]

O kasasiromaroma a kina'orip(Biogeographic timetable of Madagascar - journal.pone.0062086.g003)

Tamdaw(人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2016miheca a misa’osi 2500 ’ofad ko polong tamdaw no Matakaskar.[32] Ilaloma’ nona tamtamdaw I,90% ko Matakaskar tamdaw, 18 kokasasiromaroma a finacadan.[33] I’ayaw no cecay so’ot miheca to pihapinang to lamit no ‘ilang oya DNA hananay, mapawacay to makalitosaay no Satimolan Finacadan a ‘ilang ato nani Afrikaay Panto Finacadan a ’ilang.[34] Oya maro’ay i sifo’ay no kitakit a tokotokasan pala a tamdaw o Satimalon Finacadan ko ‘alomanay, mahaop ko 26% no polong tamdaw no Matakaskar, o itiraay i lawac no riyariyaran a maro’ay tamdaw o Panto ko ‘alomanay, o polong no maro’ay I salawacan no riyar a tamdaw I o Pieti tamdaw ko sa’alomanay mahaop ko 14% no polong no kitakit tamdaw,do’edo sa I o Cimiheti tamdaw 6% ko haop, ato Sakalawa tamdaw.[35]

O caay ka hakowa ko tamdaw a finacadan ira ko Kaping, Into ato Tomo tamdaw,o cilamlamay to ‘ilang ko Yoropa a tamdaw caay to ka hakowa, naw iro malowan ko tamdaw hani, namasakakinih no itinitiniay aca a maro’, patinako han I 1976miheca marawraw a malaplap no Mahacanciya ko Kotomo atamdaw sa milaliw a mafolaw. O teloc no Yoropa matiya to a malowan.

Kasasiromaroma Finacadan(Ethnic groups of Madagascar Map)

2009miheca o katongal no masofocay tamdaw i 2.7%, o polong tamdaw nani 1900miheca 220 ‘ofad, macakat i 2012miheca to 2200 ’ofad. Kamoko’ay ko ‘orip, o caay ho ka tangasa i 15 ko mihecan mahaop 42.5%, nani 15 ko mihecan tahira 64 ko mihecan a tamdaw mahaop ko 54.5%, orasaka, o mata’elifay ko 65 ko mihecaan a malitengay haop sa to 3% aca.

Sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O lalengawan sowal no Mtakaskar nano Malay-Polinisya Finacadan,o matenakay a sowal tona kanatal, nikawrira, adihay ho ko masasiromaromaay a sowal, nika talikeda ko tamtamdaw to masasiromaay sowal.[36] O na kasaniyaro’ a sowal i,tosa ko pecih o sakawli a Matakaskar ato o saka’etip a Matakaskar: o sakawali a niyaro’an sowal itiraay o sakawali a lilis no kilakilangan pala ato takaraway pala, o Milina niyaro’an sowal no Antananalifo o capa’ to onini sowal; o maro’ay I ka’etip a lilis no riyar a finawlan sahetoay ono saka’etipay Matakaskar sowal.

Yo pikowanan ho Fransu o sowal no Fransu ko hasasowal no sifo i Matakaskar, 1958 mihea masanga’ ko sa’ayaway a kinpo, itini tona kinpo a rikec I, o Matakaskar ato Fransu sowal kono sifoan sowal sanay ko tilid, malamikapotay sato ko Matakaskar to o Fransu sowal a kitakitakit, orasak o mitiliday ma’emin maafana’ to sowal no Fransu. O miliyawan a misanga’ kinpo i1992miheca ono sifoan to sowal ko Matakaskar sowal, ono kitakit to sowal saan ko rikec,orasaka ono Fransu sowal ko tilid, ono Fransu sowal ko tilid no sifo,naw iro sato ko fanawlan ora ko saka pakokot i Hoing(法院) mipacalalay to kinpo saan. Nika caayay ho kalatiliden no rikec ko tilid no Matakaskar, sa o hasowal ho no sifo ko Fransu sowal sato ko pisawkit no Kinpo Pisawkitan(高等憲法法院).

2007miheca a fa’elohay kinpo palaliyad heca a patalehekal tono sifoan sowal, o sowal no Matakaskar, sowal no Fransu ato sowal no Ikiris mapolong to malasowal no sifo.[37] 2010miheca 11folad a Polongan Pitopa no Finawlan(全民公投) mapalahedaw ko kalasowal no sifo ko Ikiris sowal.

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Malakitosa ko tamdaw no Matakaskar mipaso’elinay ho tono to’asan a pitooran,o sowal no to’as i,o ma’oripay a tamdaw ato mapatayay iraay ho ko kali’eki’ay akalakiting sanay. Orasaka, adihay ko lisin to pingodo to to’as, o demak no mitooray i misafangcal to tadem, o itiraay i takaraway pala ko ‘orip a tamdaw ira ko「mifelih to tatirengan no mapatayay a pariko a lisin」(famadihana),onini haw i,karkaren nani tadem ko tatirengan no mapatayay, mahelek a misawsaw pariko’en to [[Faylo:Famadihana reburial razana ancestor Madagascar.jpg|thumb|Famadihana reburial razana ancesfa’elahy a fancalay kiradom ta liyawen ho a mitadem(misawsaw to ’okak lisin), itini to matiniyay a lisin i mapolongay ko salawinawina ato niyaro’ a malipahak a mingodo to to’as, o roma i matahidang ko fiyaw a niyaro’ tayni a palafang mili’epah, ma’acang, nikawrira, o paysin no to’as i misa’icelan a mido’edo ta madipot no to’as yo sanay. Ano ira ko citatiihay a tamdaw ato loma’ onika caay ka pingodo to to’as, mapalafo to no to’as sanay ko tatodong. O citatiihay sato a tamdaw ato ciloma’ay misakolong paka’en to to’as to sapisaysay to faloco’ no to’as ta caay to ka palatiih to i hekalay ho laloma’an.

O tamdaw no Matakaskar ira ko kalitosa to mitooray ci Yisoan, o Ciwlokiw ato Tinsikiw makalitos ko tamdaw. Anini sato sahetoay to mapalamlam ko pitoor to Kristo ato to’asay a pitooran,patinako han ano midemak to「mifelih to tatirengan no mapatayay a pariko a lisin」(famadihana) a lisin i, itira ho i kyokay a miinori, malaheci to itira to i pitademan kono to’as a lisin. O mitooray to Kristo ira ko Tinsikiw, Fa’elohay Pitooran, Sini Pitooran ato Senko Pitooran, wataay ko picirep to sici nona kitakit.[38]

Ira a matenak ko Islam Pitooran ato Into Pitooran tona kitakit, o mitooray to Islam a tamdaw ira ko Matakaskar, Into, Pakistan ato Komo tamdaw.

Punka (文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada ahihay ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan no Matakaskar kitakit, oya cecay a finacadan o cecay a punka, halafin to ko ’orip itini sa masasifasif kono niyah punka, faco no ’orip, lekakawa, ato pitooran. Nilawrira, ira ko pinapina a kasasitekelo no punka, malopatosokan no Matakaskar punka. Caay ko ’edengan o sowal aca ko malaliniay a mafana’ a somowal a mitengil, malacecay ko rarengawan to’as ato pita’omg to to’as a lisin, ono to’asan a nitahafan nokakarayan a harateng i,o 「madadama」(fihavanana),「lemed」(vintana) ,「nokay no safalat」(tody) ato 「hasina」(hasina) ko micerepay i faloco’ no tamtadaw.

karkaren nani tadem liyawen pariko' a mitadem.(Famadihana reburial razana ancestor Madagascar)

O「hasina」hananay i fancalay a ’icel no ’orip sanay ko tatodong nona sowal, nika paso’elin ko finawlan ona fancalay ’icel ko midipotay to niyaro’ ato lalomaan ato ha’icel no malatapangay. Orama a heci no punka ira ho ko: mitalikay mikelit to ofil no panga, misalimela to ngasaw, paso’elin to cikawasay, mi’edaw misalisin ato no to’as a sapa’iyo, o paifatafatadan no tamdaw: ira ko fafaway tamdaw, ira ko kalotamdaw ato koli.[39] Pakaynien I rikec no kitakit mapalahedaway to ko paifatafatadan no tamdaw alekakawa,nikawrira, o nano nika sa tisil i syakay , o pili’etan a tayal ato hakowaay ko ‘icel iso a pakangiyangi to syakay nani tiniay i tisil no ’orip(社會種性).[40] Ano mimaaman to, o pi’edaw(Mpanandro) ko pinengnengan to kalotayal.

O punka no Matakaskar mipalatalahekalay to kasasiroma a rarengawa no punka, patinakohan , o tiftif a potoy(valiha) o ’aol ko sapisanga’, o Citola tiftif hananay, o nani satimolan Kalimantan Sakowan a tamdaw ko mihawikiday a tayni, miriniay tono aniniay Inni ato Filipin a tiftif. 

Pihapinangan a Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

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[2] Cousins, William Edward. Madagascar of to-day: A sketch of the island, with chapters on its past history and present prospects. London: The Religious Tract Society. 1895: 11–12 [2014-05-07].

[3] Room, Adrian. Placenames of the world: origins and meanings of the names for 6,600 countries, cities, territories, natural features, and historic sites. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. 2006: 230 [2014-05-07]. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7. (原始內容存檔於2014-05-13).

[4] Crowley, B.E. A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2010, 29 (19-20): 2591–2603. Bibcode:2010QSRv...29.2591C. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.06.030.

[5] Peter Forster, Shuichi Matsumutra, Matthieu Vizuete-Forster, Petya Belinda Blumbach & Robert Dewar. The Genetic Prehistory of Madagascar's Female Asian Lineages. Shuichi Matsumura, Peter Forster, Colin Renfrew (編). Simulations, Genetics and Human Prehistory. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Press. 2008: 71–77.

[6] Virah-Sawmy, M.; Willis, K.J.; Gillson, L. Evidence for drought and forest declines during the recent megafaunal extinctions in Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography. 2010, 37 (3): 506–519. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02203.x.

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[9] Randier, Jean. La Royale: L'histoire illustrée de la Marine nationale française. Maîtres du Vent – La Falaise: Babouji. 2006: 400. ISBN 2-35261-022-2.

[10] Curtin, Philip D. Disease and empire: the health of European troops in the conquest of Africa. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. 1998: 186 [2014-05-09]. ISBN 978-0-521-59835-4. (原始內容存檔於2014-05-27).

[11] Oliver, Roland; Fage, John Donnelly; Sanderson, G.N. The Cambridge History of Africa 6. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 1985 [2014-05-10]. ISBN 978-0-521-22803-9. (原始內容存檔於2020-11-28).

[12] Shillington, Kevin. Encyclopedia of African history. New York: CRC Press. 2005: 878. ISBN 1-57958-453-5.

[13] Fournet-Guérin, Catherine. Vivre à Tananarive: géographie du changement dans la capitale malgache. Antananarivo, Madagascar: Karthala Editions. 2007: 45–54 [2014-05-09]. ISBN 978-2-84586-869-4. (原始內容存檔於2020-07-26).

[14] Frémigacci, Jean. Le Rova de Tananarive: Destruction d'un lieu saint ou constitution d'une référence identitaire?. Chrétien, Jean-Pierre (編). Histoire d'Afrique. Paris: Editions Karthala. 1999: 421-444. ISBN 978-2-86537-904-0.

[15] Reinsch, Paul Samuel. Colonial Administration. New York: Macmillan. 1905: 377 [2014-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2020-07-08).

[16] Bureau of African Affairs. Background Note: Madagascar. U.S. Department of State. 2011-05-03 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2011-08-24)

[17] Browning, Christopher R. The Origins of the Final Solution. Jerusalem: Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. 2004: 81–89 [2014-05-09]. ISBN 3-540-63293-X. (原始內容存檔於2020-09-13).

[18] Lehoullier, Sara. Madagascar: Travel Companion. New York: Other Places Publishing. 2010: 107 [2014-05-09]. ISBN 978-0-9822619-5-8. (原始內容存檔於2020-07-08).

[19] Pryor, Frederic L. The political economy of poverty, equity, and growth: Malawi and Madagascar. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. 1990: 209–210 [2014-05-09]. ISBN 978-0-19-520823-8. (原始內容存檔於2020-05-22)

[20] Metz, Helen Chapin. Library of Congress Country Studies: Madagascar. 1994 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-26).

[21] Metz, Helen Chapin. Library of Congress Country Studies: Madagascar. 1994 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-26).

[22] Madagascar: La Crise a un Tournant Critique?. International Crisis Group. [2014-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-09).

[23] Madagascar: La Crise a un Tournant Critique?. International Crisis Group. [2014-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-09).

[24] Madagascar Court confirms President-elect. Voice Of America. 2014-01-17 [2014-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2014-02-04).

[25] University of Berkeley: Understanding Evolution. Where did all of Madagascar's species come from?. 2009-10 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-11-05).

[26] Hobbes, Joseph; Dolan, Andrew. World Regional Geography. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 2008: 517 [2014-05-07]. ISBN 978-0-495-38950-7. (原始內容存檔於2020-06-19).

[27] Bradt, Hilary. Madagascar, 10th Ed.: The Bradt Travel Guide. London: Bradt Travel Guides. 2011 [2014-05-07]. ISBN 978-1-84162-341-2. (原始內容存檔於2020-08-13).

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[29] Bradt, Hilary. Madagascar, 10th Ed.: The Bradt Travel Guide. London: Bradt Travel Guides. 2011 [2014-05-07]. ISBN 978-1-84162-341-2. (原始內容存檔於2020-08-13).

[30] Foster, Steven. From Herbs to Medicines: The Madagascar Periwinkle's Impact on Childhood Leukemia: A Serendipitous Discovery for Treatment. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2010-12, 16 (6): 347–350. doi:10.1089/act.2010.16609.

[31] Lambahoany Ecotourism Centre. Nature of Madagascar. Lambahoany Ecotourism Centre. 2011-08-24 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-11-03)

[32] "World Population prospects – Population division". population.un.org. 聯合國經濟和社會事務部人口司. [2019-11-09].

[33] Bureau of African Affairs. Background Note: Madagascar. U.S. Department of State. 2011-05-03 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2011-08-24).

[34] Hurles ME, Sykes BC, Jobling MA, Forster P. The dual origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: evidence from maternal and paternal lineages. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2005-05-04, 76 (5): 894–901 [2014-05-10]. PMC 1199379. PMID 15793703. doi:10.1086/430051. (原始內容存檔於2013-10-19).

[35] Metz, Helen Chapin. Library of Congress Country Studies: Madagascar. 1994 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-26). i'ayaway a tilid ko nini Itini i 20 00 S, 47 00 E, noAfilika ko [[|Madagascar|Madagascar]]. Polong no sekalay i 587,041 sq km “saka 47 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 581,540 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 5,501 sq km ” Polong i 24,430,325 ko tamdaw.

[36] Rajaonarimanana, Narivelo. Grammaire moderne de la langue malgache. Langues INALCO. Paris: Langues et mondes – l'Asiatheque. 2001: 8. ISBN 2-911053-79-6.

[37] Madagascar: 2007 Constitutional referendum. Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa. 2010-06 [2014-05-10]. (原始內容存檔於2013-12-13).

[38] Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. International Religious Freedom Report: Madagascar. U.S. Department of State. 2006 [2014-05-10]. (原始內容存檔於2014-04-14).

[39] Metz, Helen Chapin. Library of Congress Country Studies: Madagascar. 1994 [2014-05-07]. (原始內容存檔於2013-08-26).

[40] Middleton, Karen. Ancestors, Power, and History in Madagascar. Los Angeles: Brill. 1999: 259–262, 272, 309 [2014-05-10]. ISBN 978-90-04-11289-6. (原始內容存檔於2014-04-21).

Pitiri'an tilid(參考文件)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 71.10%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業)

a sera 21.50%, malo no roma to a sera 7.40%.

siyoto(首都) O [[|[Antananarivo]](安塔那那利佛) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakaenem 26 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci [[|Hery Rajaonarimampianina|Hery Rajaonarimampianina]](埃里·拉喬納里馬曼皮亞尼納), patirengan a romi’ad i 2014 a miheca(年) saka 1 folad saka 25 a romi’ad.

Pi’arawan to lakaw