Belarus

nani… a masadak Wikipedia
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

Belarus(白俄羅斯)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Belarus.svg
O Hata no Payroros(Flag of Belarus)
o kaitiraan no Payworos

Payworos Kapolongan a Kitakit白俄羅斯共和國[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray a Sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O ngangan no Payworos Kapolongan a Kitakit(Rosiya a sowal:Беларусь,Romaan:Biełaruś), ono kapolongan a pangangan i,「Payoros」ano ca 「Payow」hananay ko pitahidang.[1],[2],[3] ona kitakit i,itiraay i Sa’etipay-Yoropa cowa ka pingata to riyar a kitakit,[4] o syoto tatapangan a tokai ’i,o Misko.

Payworos-Sowiai-Siyakaisyuki Kapolongan Kitakit(Payworos a sowal:Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка,Rosiya a sowal:Белорусская Советская Социалистическая РеспубликаHolam a sowal:白俄羅斯蘇維埃社會主義共和國)misiiked nani Rosiya i 1991 miheca saka 8 folad saka 25 romi’ad, toya miheca saka 9 folad saka 19 romi’ad falicen ko pangangan to 「Payworos Kapolongan a Kitakit」. Isakawali ato isaka’amis no Payworos i, malafiyaway ato Rosiya, isakatimol madado’edo’ay ko sera ato Wukolan, sika’etip malafiyaw to Polan, Litaowan ato Latowiya.

O kakahad no sera 207.600㎢, o tamadw 950 ko ofad(2018 a sa’osi),[5] sahetoay i syoto Misko ato ingataay a toaki,mahaop ko 80% o itinitiniay ko sofoc a tamdaw. O mamangay a finacadan i, silsil han ira ko Rosiya, Polan ato Wukolan. Iaikor tono 1995 a miheca, o sowal no Payworos ato sowal no Rosiya polong hananay a mala no sifoan a sowal, i Rikec no Kitakit ato Kinpo awaay ko piketon to tilid to no Kitakit a Pitooran,sahetoay o mitooray to Toncen-Ciyaw(Kirisiya asowal:Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία,orthódoxi ekklisía;Rosiya a sowal:Православная Церковь,Romaan a tilid:pravoslavnaja tserkovʹ ; Holam a sowal:正教會 anoca東正教會簡稱東正教), do’edo sa i, o Tinsokyo, o mitooray ci Kristoan i,adihay ko masamaamaanay a lisin( tinako:Kalomowadan nani Patay) mala o pahanhanay a romi'ad no kitakit.

Tatapangan no Nangan(辭源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Payowros(Белару́сь;白俄羅斯) hananay i,itira i sowal no Payworos to ihekalay a imi ira i,「o kohecalay a Ros」,ora「Ros」hananay i,nani tiraay o katelangay a Kumos a sowal

O kaitiraan no Payworos i telang a cicu(明《坤輿萬國全圖》,歐洲局部)

, o imi nonini i,o「miiwasay」, o cecay no Wicin(Katelangay a sowal no Kunos:víkingr) a finacadan o Falongko(Lowitin a sowal:Varjager;Rosiya asowal:Варяги, Varyagi; Holam a sowal:瓦良格人,瓦里亞基). Latek itiyay ho i saka7 ato saka 8 sici ona Falangko a tamdaw looden nangra ko Sa’etipay Slafu Fnacadan(o aniniay a Payworos, Wukolan ato Rosiya a kapolongan a ngangan), ikoray to i,patireng sato to Liwliko Hontian Kitakit itini tona pala no Sa’etipay Slafu, pangangan han to「Ros」, o tatapangan a niraro’(syoto) itiraan i Kifu no Wukolan, sa itini i rikis i,o「Kifu-Ros」hananay kopitahidang. Itini i pala no Sa’etipay Slafu(Payworos a sowal:Усходнія славяне; Rosiya a sowal:Восточные славяне; Wukolan a sowal:Східні слов'яни)i,o sa’ayaway a malacecayay a Hontian Kitakit konini, orasaka, 700 ko mihecaan ko pikowan ton apala, oninian to ko nornor sato o「Ros a tamdaw」kako sanay to koya maro’ay a Sa’etipay Slafu a tamdaw.

I sasifo’an no 17 sici, nani kawali ko Monko a tamdaw mitekop to Kifu-Ros, ’edeng o i aniniay a Payworos ko pakatokeray to sapi’ecoaw no Monko a sofitay, sa ira ho ko cowa ko mamada’econg no Tatan-Monko sanay a roma a imi no「Payworos」. 

Ira ko masasiromaromaay a pifelih to sano Kuwaping a sowal to Payworos( Белару́сь), sa’ayaway o 「別洛露西亞」hananay, ono aniniay to i,o「白俄羅斯」hananay,itini i sowal no Slafu,o「Бела」a imi i, o kohecalay sanay, orasaka,「白俄羅斯」han to ko pangangan. I’ayaw no pisiikedan nona kitakit a pangangan no Ikiris i, misiiked to a miniyahpikowan ko Byelorussia (Белору́ссия) i, pangangan hananay to Belarus.[6]

Ora「kohecal;白」sanay i ngangan no Payworos, ira ko pinapina a tatapangan a sowal:

1.Itiya ho i 13 sici tahira i 14 sici,o maro’ay i tona aniniay a Payworos a etal o sahetoay o mitooray to Kristo a Slafu a tamdaw, o Payworos tamdaw hahany no i Sa’etipan a Yoropa a tamdaw a pangangan. O isa’etipay a Poloti a tamdaw(Latowiya a sowal:Balti; Litawan asowal: baltai; Holam a sowal:波羅的人), oroma a finacadan konini sa o「kohetingay Ros」hananay a mitahidang,o itiraay sa i sakawaliay a Wukolan a tamdaw o「kohengangay Ros」hananay a mipangangan.

2. o itiniay a maro’ a Slafu a tamdaw, maolahay a ciriko’ to kahecalay, sa pangangan han to kohecalay Ros.[7],[8]

3.o caay ka cilamlam to ’ilang no Tatan a tamdaw(Monko a tamdaw) i,o 「kohecalay Ros a Tamdaw」.

4. I’ayaw no 1267 miheca yo caayay ho ka cowat no Hontian Monko a Ros Tamdaw o 「kohecalay Ros a Tamdaw」hananay. Sa ira ko sowal no Matayalay i Congko a Tarokos no Payworos, iraay ko tadamaanay a imi nona Payworos, o「Misiikeday Pikowan、Naifaloco’ay、ya caay ka cowat no Tatan a palakoli」sanay.

2018 miheca,saka3 folad saka16 romi’ad, o pakamaro’an i Congko a Tarokosan a Loma’ patalahekal to sowal:「nani sowal to nani imi no sowal to, ano mifalic to ngangan no kitakit no niyam i, o『Kohecalay Ros』(白羅斯)han ko pangangan ta matatodong, omaan ko nini han i,oya aniniay a ngangan sipasipen koya『Wo』(俄)a tilid, sa caka sasifod ato Rosiya「俄羅斯」ko pangangan」.Milekal to o so’elinay a ngangan nangra i,o 『Kohecalay Ros』(白羅斯),[9]. Nikawrira, Congko ato Conghwaminko a Citodongay to Sakalaholo a Demak(Waiciyawpu) oyanan ho o Payworos(白俄羅斯) ko pangangan taha nini caay ho ka falicen.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kifu-Ros a kitakit nipatirengan no Wicin a tamdaw(維京人建立基輔羅斯)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiyaho i saka 9 sici tahira i saka11 sici, o aniniay a Payworos a sera sahetoay o nipatirengan no Wicin a tamdaw i 862 mihecaan a Kifu-Ros kitakit, onini i

Wicin (Katelangay a sowal no Kunos:víkingr; Holam a sowal:維京人) a finacadan o Falongko hananay(Lowitin a sowal:Varjager;Rosiya asowal:Варяги, Varyagi; Holam a sowal:瓦良格人,瓦里亞基人). Latek itiyay ho i saka7 ato saka 8 sici ona Falangko a tamdaw looden nangra ko Sa’etipay Slafu a Fnacadan(東斯拉夫人:o aniniay a Payworos, Wukolan ato Rosiya a

O Kifu a Tokai(Collage of Kiev)

a ngangan), ikoray to i,patireng sato to Liwliko Hontian Kitakit itini tona pala no Sa’etipay Slafu, pangangan han to「Ros」, o tatapangan a niyaro’(syoto) itiraan i Kifu no Wukolan, sa itini i rikis i,o「Kifu-Ros」hananay kopitahidang. Itini i pala no Sa’etipay Slafu(Payworos a sowal:Усходнія славяне; Rosiya a sowal:Восточные славяне; Wukolan a sowal:Східні слов'яни)i,o sa’ayaway a malacecayay a Hontian Kitakit konini, orasaka, 700 ko mihecaan ko kahalafin a mikowan ton a pala, oninian to ko nornor  sato a malaklak a patireng to mamamamangay a no Kakita’an a Kitakit(Latin a sowal:Magnus Dux; Toic a sowal:Großherzogtum; Holam a sowal:公國).

Itiya ho i 13 ~14 sici ona malopisakay a Kakita’an a Kitakit mapapolong ato Litawan Tata’akay a Kakita’an a Kitakit(Latin a sowal:Magnus Ducatus Lituania,Litawan a sowal:Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė; Holam a sowal:立陶宛大公國).Nikawria i 13 sici ma’eco no Monko ko Rosiya, o Payworos macowat no Cinca-Hanko(Ikiris a sowla: Golden Horde; Monko a sowal:Алтан Орд; Holoam a sowal:欽察汗國), talaen ko katayni no Litawan Tata’akay a Kakita’an a Kitakit mi’eco to Kifu, sacaacaay aca ka tekop no Monko a Hontian Kitakit.[10]

Patireng to Litawan Kakita’an ato Polan(成立波蘭立陶宛聯邦)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1386 miheca saka 2 folad saka 2 romi’ad mapapolong ko Litawan Tata’akay a Kakita’an a Kitakit ato Polan, onika lalamod no sawara’an nona tosaay kitakit,[11] ikor to i, matatilid to Lopulin-Nikapolong(Litawan a sowal:Liublino unija; Polon a sowal:Unia lubelska; Holam a sowal:盧布林聯合)a patireng to Polan-Lopulin a kitakit. Tahira to i 1696 a miheca maceror no Polan a sowal ko sowal no Payworos malasifoan a sowal, patokeled sa a milekal caay to katatodong i rikec no kitakit ko sowal no Payworos saan.[12]

Ifan Tata’angay Honti a pikowan(伊凡大帝統治時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nikola I Paporowici(Portrait of Emperor Nicholas I )

I 1486 miheca o Tata’angay Mosko a Kakita’an a Kitakit (Rosiya a sowal:Великое Княжество Московское; Romaan a tilid:Velikoe Knjažestvo Moskovskoe; Ikiris a sowal:Grand Duchy of Moscow; Holam a sowal:莫斯科大公國) a tamdaw ci Ifan III Wasiliyiewici (Rosiya a sowal:Иван III Васильевич,Roman a tilid:Ivan III Vasil’evič; Holan a sowal:伊凡三世·瓦西里耶維奇, kalopangang o Ifan Tata’angay Honti;伊凡大帝) cifaloco’ to sapipalacecayaw to polong a「Ros Kitakit」, isa’ayaway a nisafalo’an i o pisapipolongan to sera no Payworos,Wukolan ato isa’etipay a sera no Rosiya.[13] Tahira to i 1795 miheca o Rosiya Hontian a Kitakit, Porosi ato Awtili cifaloco’ to sapicikcikaw a mipecih to Polan, ta mapalasawad ko kalalekatep no Polan ato Litawan.[14] Tona kala’afa’afasan to sera no Polan, o sera no Payworos mala no cecay a pala no Rosiya Hontian a Kitakit, i kala Honti no Rosiya ci Nikola I Paporowici( Rosiya a sowal:Николай I Павлович,Holam a sowal:尼古拉一世·巴甫洛維奇) ato ci Alisanta III (Rosiya a sowal:Алекса́ндр III; Holam a sowal:亞歷山大三世·亞歷山德羅維奇) i, ma’enec a mapalasawad ko punka no Polan ato Payworos, oninian ko sakatalipa’elal no falco’ no tamtamdaw no Payoros i 19sici.

Damaen no Toic a patireng to Nikapolongan no Finawlan a Kitakit(德國扶植成立白俄羅斯人民共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Alisanta III (Emperor of Russia )(1845-94)

I Sakacecay a Ha’emin no Kitakit a Lalood, yo masasowal ho to Sakarihaday a Kakaketonan a Polisto-Litawan(Rosiya a sowal:Брестский мир; Toic a sowal:Friedensvertrag von Brest-Litowsk; Holan a sowal:布列斯特-立陶夫斯克條約),o sofita no Toic milood a micowat to Payworos, Wukolan ato Polotihay a Kitakit,milonok a milekal to Pisiiked to Niyah a Pikowan ko Payworos,damaen no Toic a patireng to Nikapolongan no Finawlan a Kitakit(Payworos a sowal:Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка; Ikiris a sowal:Belarusian National Republic; Holam a sowal:白俄羅斯人民共和國).[15] Nikawria, tangsosol sa a malalood ko Polan ato Rosiya, ona ihoniay ho a tomireng a Nikapolongan no Finawlan a Kitakit tado han to no Rosiya Sowiay-Syakaisyuki Nikapolongan Kitakit (Rosiya a sowal:Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика; Romaan a tilid:Rossiyskáya Sovetskáya Federatívnaya Socialistícheskaya Respublika; Holam a sowal:俄羅斯蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯邦) ato Sakatosa a Nikapolongan a Kitakit no Polan malalikel a mi’eco. Tahira to i 1922 miheca saka 12 folad saka 30 romi’ad, patireng to Payworos Sowiay-Syakaisyuki Nikapolongan Kitakit(Payworos a sowal:Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Rosiya a sowal:Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика; Holam a sowal:白俄羅斯蘇維埃社會主義共和國), malacecay no mikapotay to Solin a kitakit.[16]

I Sakatosa a Polong no Kitakit a Lalood(二戰時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I Sakatosa ’Emin no Kitakit a Lalood, 1944 miheca saka 6 folad saka 22 romi’ad ’edef han no Nacui-Toic amicowat ko Solin, oya isifo’ay a sofitay no Toic i ma’aro to ngara ko Tata’angay a Tokai o Misko no Payworos,papapolong han no Toic ko Payworos ato Polotihay a Kitakit mala Sakawaliay a Mikowanan no Sotok a Etal (Reichskommissariat Ostland,RKO;東方總督轄區)1944 miheca misa’icel to ko Solin a mipaco’ay a milood to Toic sa malowid to ko Toic. Tona lalood i, matekop no Toic ko 209 a niyaro’, 90 to ko maosaway nona lalood, o misanga’ay to dafong a katayan mahadefek ko 85%, 100 ofad ko mapelengay a loma’.[17] Ikor to no lalood kahenay a cemahad, o katayalan a kofa ‘aloman to ko matayalay, malakahiceraan to no isaka’etipay no Solin, onini to ko alanokanokat sato koya ‘alomanay a maforaw a Woros Tamdaw patatiko minokay i Payworos .[18]

Conopi Nikapades(車諾比核事故)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Conopi Nikapades(IAEA 02790015)

1986 miheca,mapakohac ko Misanga’ay to Dinki a Heneng i Wukolan o Conopi Nikapades((Rosiya a sowal:Авария на Чернобыльской АЭС; Wukolan a sowal:Чорнобильська катастрофа; Ikiris a sowal:Chernobyl nuclear disaster; Holam a sowal:車諾比核事故), o mingata’ay mihafhafay to fali ko kaitiraan no Payworos, orasaka, tata’ang ko kacengel a mapakadit no ’edil no Lintokin no Henen itini i Komili Sakowan(Payworos a sowal:Гомельская вобласьць; Rosiya a sowal:Гомельская область; Holam a sowal:戈梅利州) ato Mocilyawfu Sakowan(Payworos a sowal:Магілёўская вобласьць; Holam a sowal:莫吉廖夫州), tangsol a mapatay ko tamdaw ato ’a’adopen, cowa to kalengaw ko losay ato maamaan.

O aniniay a Payworos(現代白俄羅斯)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1991 miheca saka 8 folad saka 25 romi’ad ira ko pidama no Kyosanto no Payworos a mifalic to ngangan no kitakit nani「Payworos Sowiay-Syakaisyuki Nikapolongan Kitakit」falic han o「Nikapolongan a Kitakit」(白俄羅斯共和國) hananay to ko ngangan nona kitakit.[19]

Matekop to ko Solin i 1991miheca saka 8 folad saka 25 romi’ad lekal sato to Teked a Niyahpikowan. Ikor to tolo a miheca nami siiked to i,kina tosa a misinkiw to congtong i 1994 miheca saka 6 folad saka24 romi’ad ato saka 7 folad saka 10 romi’ad,[20] oya sa awaay ko ngangan i laloma’ no kitakit ci Alisanta-Lokasinko itira i sakacecay a liyad a pitopa i,mahaop ko 45% a satopa,cowa ho ka ‘edeng ko  sakalacongtong a satopa, miliyaw ho to saka kinatosa aliyad a mitopa maala ko 80% a satopa,[21] o sakalalifet ningra ci Wiyacilafu-Folancaywici-Kopici i,mahaop ko 14% aca ko satopa. To ikor to a sinkiw i 2001,2006,ato 2015 a miheca, patokitok a matosin ci Alisanta-Lokasinko malacongtong. O

Kapolongan a Sarihaday a Kakaketonan, o congtong no Rosiya ato congtong no Payworos (CSTO Collective Security Council meeting Kremlin, Moscow 2012-12-19 01)

to no Tamdawan Salongoc a Saopo,[22](Ikiris a sowal:Human Rights Watch,Decdec a tilid:HRW) ato Ha’emin no Kitakit a Saopo to papipalasawadaw to Ci’efoay (Ikiris a sowal:Amnesty International,Decdec a tilid: AI),cisowal san i, o Nisatekedan ko Pikowan ni Alisanta-Lokasinko sanay, ona Nisatekedan ko Pikowan i, cato paka’em’em ko finawlan tonini sa i 2020 miheca mafodfod ko finawlan,o matiniay a fodfod i, tona 26 a miheca awaay ho ko hatiniay a kasafodfod no kitakit.

Sici (政治) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O congtong a foco ko sici no Payworos,o Nikapolongan a Kitakit, o faco no sifo i,o congtong ato Pikaykian noKitakit, do’edo’en ko 1994 miheca a Rikec no Kinpo i, 5 miheca misinkiw to congtong,  nikawrira, i 1996 miheca mafalic ko rikec oya 5 mihecan ko kamaro’an no congtong i, panayalan to 7 to ko mihecaan ko kalacongtong to kinacecay. O Pikaykian no Kitakit to La’enoay a Pikaykian ira ko 110 ko kiing, o i Fafa’eday a Pikaykian 46 ko kiing. Ano mitinitiniay aca ko rikec i, o sici no Paywors o Nisatekedan ko Pikowan, o sakowan a ‘icel i,sahetoay o congtong ko mitatoyay, o sinkiw han i,cowa ko nifaloco’ay ko pitopa, oya sa o Misawkitay a Loma’ cowa ka misiiked ko tayal.[23]

 Kasasilsil no Sakowam(行政區劃)

O polong no Payworos pasasilsil hananay to 7 a sakakaay a sakowan, mahaop ko 6 a kasaetal(вобласць) ato misiikeday sakowan o syoto Misko.

’Amis Payworos Holam Dadahal Tamdaw(2019年)
Polisto Etal Брэ́сцкая во́бласць 布列斯特州 23,300㎢ 1,380,391
Komili Etal Гомельская вобласьць 戈梅利州 40,400㎢ 1,426,674
Kolotono Etal Гарадзенская вобласьць 格羅德諾州 25,000㎢ 1,039,278
Mociliyawfu Etal Магілёўская вобласьць 莫吉廖夫州 29,000㎢ 1,052,877
Misko Мінск 明斯克市 348,846㎢ 1,992,685
Misko Etal Менская вобласьць 明斯克州 40,800㎢ 1,503,000(2004)
Wicieposko Etal Віцебская вобласць 維捷布斯克州 40,100㎢ 1,135,731

Palapalan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itini i 53 00 N, 28 00 E, noYoropi ko Belarus. Polong no sekalay i 207,600 sq km “saka 86 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 202,900 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 4,700 sq km ” Polong i 9,570,376 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 43.70%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 42.70%, malo no roma to a sera 13.60%.

siyoto(首都) O [[[Minsk]](明斯克) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakapito 3 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Alexander Lukashenko(亞歷山大·格里戈里耶維奇·盧卡申科), patirengan a romi’ad i 1994 a miheca(年) saka 7 folad saka 20 a romi’ad.

Kasilsil no Sakowam(行政區劃) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong no Payworos pasasilsil hananay to 7 a sakakaay a sakowan, mahaop ko 6 a kasaetal(вобласць) ato misiikeday sakowan o syoto Misko.

’Amis Payworos Holam Dadahal Tamdaw(2019年)
Polisto Etal Брэ́сцкая во́бласць 布列斯特州 23,300㎢ 1,380,391
Komili Etal Гомельская вобласьць 戈梅利州 40,400㎢ 1,426,674
Kolotono Etal Гарадзенская вобласьць 格羅德諾州 25,000㎢ 1,039,278
Mociliyawfu Etal Магілёўская вобласьць 莫吉廖夫州 29,000㎢ 1,052,877
Misko Мінск 明斯克市 348,846㎢ 1,992,685
Misko Etal Менская вобласьць 明斯克州 40,800㎢ 1,503,000(2004)
Wicieposko Etal Віцебская вобласць 維捷布斯克州 40,100㎢ 1,135,731

Kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

2019 miheca o Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit: GDP ira ko ,625.72 ok kono Amirika a payso,[24] o Lalen a ’Etan no kalotamdaw to cecay miheca(per capita disposable income ;GNI), o katongal to kalomihecan mahaop ko 1.2%, itini i rayray no hekal a kitakit i, o saka 84 ko rayray. Itini i laloma,an no kitakit a mili’etanay a demak i,sahetoay ono kitakita a katayalan, i 2015 miheca o matayalay i katayalan kofa a matayalay i mahaop ko 39.3% ko tamdaw.[25]

kapolongan a misanga’ay to dafong a etal no Payworos ato Congko(Great Stone industrial park (Belarus)

O katayalan no Payworos nani Solin a mihecahecan natektekay to ko paranaan, o katayalan i o misang’ay to tosiya, o isanga’ay to kikai, o misolinga’at a misanga’ to ’ekim, o misang’ay to sakatayalay a lalosidann, tadacemahaday ko ko taneng ato kicic no Tinsi ato Lintokin a kicic, IT a katayalan malecaday to a cemahad, o maomahay ato paka’enay to ’a’adopen malecaday to a cemahad, orasaka, o malinso,o dateng ato dangka o sa’adihayay i laloma’ no Siikeday Kitakit a Lekatep(Rosiya a sowal:Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ ;Holam a sowal:獨立國協)’

O kicai no Payworos i,kodefetay tomenekay ko kalalitiliting ato Rosiya, i 2019 miheca kali’aca to dafong nona tosa a kitakit i,mahaop ko nipa’acaan talapapotal

Toroku (Жодино - БелАЗ)

a dafong no Payworos to 46.3% ato 54.2% ko ka’adihay; o pasadakan a kalali’aca ato Congko kali’ekiay a cemahad, i 2019 miheca itini i polong no kitakit a rayray o saka lima a nipasadakan to dafong a malali’aca ato saka tolo a rayray ko Congko to nipacodan a dafong a malali’aca, orasaka,2010 miheca, itini i Minsko mapatireng to kapolongan a misanga’ay to dafong a etal no Payworos ato Congko(Payworos a sowal:Кітайска-Беларускі парк, anoca:Kitajska-Bielaruski park; Rosiya a sowal:Китайско-Белорусский индустриальный парк; Holam a sowal:中國-白俄羅斯工業園), o sakali’aca a payso i,o payso no Payworos a Payworos Lopu(Payworos a sowal:Беларускі рубель; Holam a sowal:白俄羅斯盧布) .

Tamdaw (人口)  [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itini tona aniniay a miheca(2021) a pisa’osi, o Payworos a tamdaw 934,96 ofad ko tamdaw, nikawrira,

Payworos a Tamdaw(Беларусы. Biełarusy. Belarusians)

pinapina amihecaan malikelonay ko kaadihay no Payworos a tamdaw, o tatapangan a finacadan a Payworos finacadan mahahop ko 84.9%, o Rosiya a fanacadan mahahop ko 7.5%, o Polan a fanacadan mahaop ko3.1%, o Wukolan a finacadan mahahop ko 1.7%, o roma a finacadan mahahop ko 2.8%.

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pitooran no Payworos i Kristo a Pitooran, o Tongcen-Ciyaw(Kirisiya a sowal:Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία,orthódoxi ekklisía;Rosiya a sowal:Православная Церковь; Romaan a tilid:pravoslavnaja tserkovʹ ; Holam a sowal:東正教)ko satata’angay a Kristo Kasi’eked, nama sawsaw no Kitakitan a Awaay ko Kawas(Ikiris a sowal:State atheism; Holam a sowal:國家無神論)sanay a harateng,orasaka, ’aloman ko caay ka pakaso’elin to Kawas a tamdaw no Payworos tahanini. Na matekop to Solin oya cowa ko nano to’asan ato fa’elohay a

Tongcen-Ciyaw (mosaic Hagia Sophia)

samatiya sato o tefo’ ko kaadihay a masadak naikoran no ’orad. Tili’en ko tokian no Nincenpu i 2011 miheca a safa’elohay a sa’osi i, o mitooray to Tongcen-Ciyaw(東正教) i,mahahop ko 48.3%, o caay ka pakaso’elin to Kawas i,mahahop ko 41.1%, 7.1% o Tinsikiw, o roma a pitooran i,3.5%.[28]

Punka(文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O punka no Payworos i, tada adihay ko kala palalafang ato picerep ato taliyokay a kitakit, mangalefay itiya ho to 100 ko mihecaan, o ‘orip no kalotamdaw no Payworos i,mitodong to Rosiya a lekakawa a malarosiya ko wayway, onini to ko sakalahedawan sato ko punka no Payworos. O to’asan a ca’edong no Payworos i,marecep no Kifu-Ros a laleko, to ikor masolot ho no Polan, Litawan, Latowiya,Woros ato romaroma a kitakit no Yoropa ko faco no ca’edong. Caay ka o punka aca no Rosiya ko mirecepay to ’orip no Payworos,o pisacacak a taneng miringiay to Litawan, onini haw i,sahetoay ono roma a kitakit a lekakawa, orasaka, awaay a mahapingan ko ono Payworos a  punka snanay a tekedan.

Rocok no Punka(文化遺產)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O rocok no punka i sasera a ma’emin no Payworos ira ko sepat:

 Mir-Piki’adingan Loma'(Мир замок)

1.    Mir-Piki’adingan a Masarakaday a Loma’(Paywors a sowal:Мірскі замак; Ikiris a sowal: Mir Castle Complex ; Holam asowal:米爾城堡建築群). 2000miheca saka 12 fokad matoro’ no Citodongay to Punka a Saopo no Linheko malarocok no punka i sasera a ma’emin.

2.    Niswiru Piki’adingan a Tata’akay Loma’(Paywors a sowal:Нясвіжскі замак, Niasvižski zamak; Rosiya a sowal:Несвижский замок, Nesvizhskiy zamok; Ikiris a sowal: Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh; Holam a sowal:涅斯維日城堡)

3.    Piyawowiyieca a Kilakilangan(Payworos a sowal:Белавеская пушча; Polan a sowal:Puszcza Białowieska; Ikiris a sowal:Białowieża Forest; Holam a sowal:比亞沃維耶扎原始森林).

4.    Stoluwi Tahapinangan a Mifakciw to Cikiw(Ikiris a sowal: Struve Geodetic Arc; Holam a sowal:斯特魯維測地弧)

Kyoiku(教育)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada cemahaday ko ktoiku no Payworos, o kalopitilidan to 12 a mihecaan cowa ka papaysoen. O tata’angay a pitilidan a faco i,4~5 ko pihatatanaman a mihecaan, tosaay ko kasasiroma a faco o cecay i,cowa ka papaysoen o roma i,papasoay. I 2005 miheca o nipasadakan no kitakit a yosan a payso i,mahaop ko 2.08% no polong a nipasadakan a yosan. Ano matini ira ko 4,128 ko kaadihay no citodongay to nipasifana’ay a demak(ono ma’emangay ho a wawa i,ira ko siwa a ofad ko ka’emangay), 4221 kono pitilidan no kocong ato kaocong(128 ofad ko mitiliday ho ka’emangay), 253 ko sinmon a pitilidan, 55 ko tata’angay lotilidan(ono kitakita nipatirengan ira ko 43 Tata’angay Pitlidan, ira ko 12 o kalo Tata’angay a Pitilidan). Ira ko pisa’osi, o matayalay pakayni i kocong ato kaocong i,ira ko 15 ofad ko tamdaw, i laloma’ nonini i,o singsi ira ko 14 ofad ko tamdaw, itiraay i tata’angay pitilidan a matayalay ira ko 2 ofad ko tamdaw.

O tata’angay ko nganganay a Tata’angay Pitilidan o Nipatirengan no Kitakit a  Payworos Taykaku( Ikiris a sowal:Belarusian State University; Holam a sowal:白俄羅斯國立大學,decdecan a tilid:BSU), i 1921 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 14000 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 1610 miheca; Payworos Nipatirengan no Kitakit a Kicic Taykaku, i 1920 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 21000 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 1560 ko tamdaw; Payworos Nipatirengan no Kitakit a Sihang Taykaku,i 1914 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 14586 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 1038 ko tamdaw; Payworos Nipatirengan no Kitakit a Kicai Taykaku, ,i 1933 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 15000 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 700 ko tamdaw; Payworos Nipatirengan no Kitakit a Nimaomahay Taykaku, ,i 1940 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 9106 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 630 ko tamdaw;Misko Nipatirengan no Kitakit a Sowalan a Taykaku, i 1948 miheca a mapatireng, o mitiliday anini ira ko 4500 ko tamdaw, o singsi ira ko 537 ko tamdaw.[29]

Tahapinagan aTilid (參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] 該名稱未獲得中華人民共和國政府(白俄罗斯国家概况. [2019-10-15]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-21). 及中華民國政府(白俄羅斯共和國. [2020-07-04]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-15)使用。

[2] “白罗斯”而不是“白俄罗斯’. 白羅斯共和國駐華大使館. 2018-03-17 [2018-03-17]. (原始內容存檔於2018-03-17) (中文(簡體).

[3] 白罗斯共和国概况. 白羅斯共和國官方網站. [2019-05-21]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-12).

[4] UN Statistics Division. Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49). United Nations Organization. 2010年4月1日 [2010年4月22日]. (原始內容存檔於2010年4月17日).

[5] 中国外交部. [2004-04-08]. (原始內容存檔於2004-03-02)。

[6] Zaprudnik 1993,第4-5頁。

[7] Zaprudnik 1993,第2頁。

[8] James Minahan. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. Greenwood. 1998年: 35頁 [2015-10-24]. ISBN 0-313-30610-9. (原始內容存檔於2021-03-03).

[9] 去俄羅斯化? 白羅斯正名「白羅斯」. 自由時報. 2018-03-17 [2020-01-04]. (原始內容存檔於2021-01-27)。

[10] Charles Henry Robinson. The Conversion of Europe. Longmans, Green. 1917年: 第491–492頁.

[11] Plokhy, Serhii. The Origins of the Slavic Nations. Cambridge University Press. 2006年: 第94–95頁. ISBN 0-521-86403-8.

[12] "Belarusian (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)", UCLA Language Materials Project

[13] Nowak, Andrzej. The Russo-Polish Historical Confrontation. Sarmatian Review XVII. Rice University. 1997-01-01 [2007-12-22]. (原始內容存檔於2007-12-18).

[14] Scheuch, E. K.; David Sciulli. Societies, Corporations and the Nation State. BRILL. 2000年: 187頁. ISBN 90-04-11664-8.

[15] Ioffe, Grigory. Understanding Belarus and How Western Foreign Policy Misses the Mark. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2008-02-25: 57 [2014-07-03]. ISBN 0-7425-5558-5. (原始內容存檔於2020-09-05).

[16] Marples, David. Belarus: A Denationalized Nation. Routledge. 1999: 5 [2014-07-03]. ISBN 90-5702-343-1. (原始內容存檔於2014-07-21).

[17] Axell, Albert. Russia's Heroes, 1941–45. Carroll & Graf Publishers. 2002: 247. ISBN 0-7867-1011-X.

[18] 白俄罗斯历史文化. iExplore.com. [2006-03-26]. (原始內容存檔於2013-05-09).

[19] Belarus – Prelude to Independence. Library of Congress. Countrystudies.us. [2013-04-29]. (原始內容存檔於2017-10-10).

[20] World Factbook: Belarus. Central Intelligence Agency. 1994-10-20 [2007-12-21]. (原始內容 (TXT)存檔於2013-07-26).

[21] Fedor, Helen. Belarus – Prelude to Independence. Belarus: A Country Study. Library of Congress. 1995 [2007-12-22]. (原始內容存檔於2017-10-10).

[22] Essential Background – Belarus. Human Rights Watch. 2005 [2006-03-26]. (原始內容存檔於2012-07-13).

[23] Burkhardt F. (2016). "Belarus". In Fruhstorfer A.; Hein M. (eds.). Constitutional Politics in Central and Eastern Europe. Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft. Springer VS. pp. 463–493. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-13762-5_19. ISBN 978-3-658-13761-8.

[24] World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019. IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. [13 August 2020]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-25)

[25] Belarus in Figures, 2016. [2020-08-16]. (原始內容存檔於2017-03-31).

[26] World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019. IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. [13 August 2020]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-25)

[27] Belarus in Figures, 2016. [2020-08-16]. (原始內容存檔於2017-03-31).

[28] Religion and denominations in the Republic of Belarus (PDF). Mfa.gov.by. November 2011 [2017-01-10]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2017-10-14)

[29] 中国外交部. [2004-04-08]. (原始內容存檔於2004-03-02).

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

· 白俄羅斯總統府網站 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

·  白俄羅斯政府網站 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

·  白俄羅斯國家銀行網站 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

·  白俄羅斯外交部網站 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

·  白俄羅斯國防部網站

·  白俄羅斯華人論壇