Ukraine

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Ukraine(烏克蘭)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Ukraine
Flag of Ukraine
Location of  Ukraine  (green)Claimed, but Russian controlled (light green)

Takaray Sowal:[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ukolan ( Ukolan sowal:Україна,Roma tilid:Ukrayina; Kuwaping sowal:烏克蘭), itiraay I Sakawalian Yuropa, I katimol misisilisay ato Kahetingay Riyar(Ikiris sowal: Black Sea), isalawali malafiyaway ato Rosiya, isaka;amis malafiyaw ato Pirasoriya, isa’etip malafiyaw ato Polan, Slofako, Siyongyali, Romaniya ato Mortofa a kitakit. O kahiceraan no Sa’etioay kitakit ato Rosiya , o kahiceraan heca no Tinsikyo ato Saka’etipay So’elinay Kiyokai a punka.Mido’edo’ay to Rosiya ko kakahad no kitakit, ira ko 603,700 km², o polong 4,117 ko tamdaw (caay ho kassa’osien kono Kolimoya Picihan Kanatal).

Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin - Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks - Yorck


I saka 9 sici o tatapangan takay no Ukolan o Kiyif hananay ko pahiceraan, o litengan ho a Slaf Finacadan patireng to sa’ayaway a finacadan kitakit Kiyif-Rosu, away ko ikakaay ko ‘icel to no kitakit, tahira to i 12 sici matekop a malaklak.Nani sifo’an no 14 sici, madado’edo’ a makowan no Cincahan kitakit(Monko sowal:Алтан ОрдAltan Ord;Ikiris asowal:Kipchak Khanate; Kuwaping sowal:欽察汗國),Polan Hontian kitakit, ato Litawan Sarawa’an kitakit(Latin sowal:Magnus Ducatus Lituania,Litawan sowal:Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė; Kuwaping sowal:立陶宛大公國).[1]

I 1700~ 1721 miheca a Ni’amisan Lalood(Rosiya sowal:Северная война,Loytin sowal:Stora nordiska kriget),malowid no Rosiya ko Loytin, ikor to i, mapapecihpech no icowacowaay a kitakit ko Ukolan. I 19sici o Hontian Rosiya Kitakit ko mipolongay a mikowan to Ukolan, o ’osaw to a pala i, o Awsiyong Hontian Kitakit ko mikowanay. Itira to i Sakacecay Lalood no Hekal matatanga to Sapifelihaw to sifo a rawraw ko Rosiya, ora saka pacalcal a misiiked ko Ukolan.

I 1922 miheca o cecay no mikapotay a patireng to Solin ko Ukolan, i kaherekan no Sakatosa Lalood no Hekal, oya mikowanan no Polan a Saka’etioay Ukolan mapatateko i Sowiay Ukolan.

1945 miheca mikapot i Linhoko.[2] 1954 miheca oya kakeridan no Kiyosanto no Solin ci Ninita Helosyefo ko milengatay a mikerid to Sakakay

Ninita Helosyefo (Nikita Khruchchev )

no Solin, o pikining to Katateko’an no Rosiya ato Ukolan a romi’ad a mipecih a pafelien ko Ukolan to Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal(Rosiya sowal:Кры́мский полуо́стров,Roma tilid: Krymskiy poluostrov; Kuwaping sowal:克里米亞半島)

I 1991 miheca yo matekop ko Solin i, alasiikeiked sa koya 15 a mikapotat to Solin a kitakit, itira to a misiiked ko Ukolan malasiikeday kitakit, mikapot a patireng to Siikeday Kitakit a Lekatep. Misiiked to ko Ukolan rocoken ningra ko paranaan no sofitay no itiyay ho no Solin, malamido’edo’an to Rosiya o sakatosa a ci’icelay a kitakit itini i Yoropa. I 2014 miheca ma’eco no Rosiya ko Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal ora sa ka tangsolsol sa miliyas ko Ukolan to Siikeday Kitakit a Lekatep.

Yo misiiked ko Ukolan midemak to nipaliwalay to dafong a sapili’etan a kicay,caho ka citaneng to matiniay a cicay, orasaka 10 ko mihecaan ko kanglilos no ’orip no tamtamdaw.[3] Nikawrira, anini sato i, o sakatola a saadihayay ko nipasadakan a kakaenen i hekal.[4]

I 2022 miheca saka2 folad saka 21 romi;ad milekal ko Rosiya to pisiiked no isakawaliay no Ukolan a sakowan o misiikedan a kitakit ko nini saan toTonnicuko Kitakit(Rosiya sowal:Донецкая народная республика;Roma tilid:Donetskaya narodnaya respublika; Kuwaping sowal:頓內次克人民共和國)ato Rokanseko Kitakit(Rosiya sowal:Луганская народная республика,Roma a tilid:Lugansk narodnaya respublika; Kuwaping sowal:盧干斯克人民共和國). Tahira tona miheca saka 2 folad saka 24 romi’ad milood to ko Rosiya to Ukolan.

Tatapangan no ngangan(國名來源)

Itiya ho i 13sici, sahetoay to mi’aroan to no Konko tamdaw ko Ukolan, nikawrira, oya i la’edan no Ukolan ato Polan a Kalisiy Sawra’an Etal ato i sak’amisay no saka’etip no Ukolan a Wolonsi Sakowan cowa ka ’eco no Monko a tamdaw, ono tosa a Sakowan no Sawara’an itiraay i katimol no

So'elinay Kyokay (Christ Pantocrator mosaic from Hagia Sophia 2744 x 2900 pixels 3.1 MB)

aro’ ningra. O nanicowaay kona Ukolan a sowal awaay ko kacipinangan, nikawrira, ona Ukolan oni patatekoan a tosaay tilid, o 「U」sanay i, ono「no mita, no itiniay」sanay ko imi nira, o「kolan」sanay i, ono「no mita kitakit/o i salawacan a la’eday pala」sanay ko imi nonini, ’eminen a somowal i, o「I salawacanay a kitakit」sanay. Oya maro’ay itini a tamdaw o「Ukolan tamdaw」hananay to a mitahidang, o i「salawacanay tamdaw」ko pangangan, o nano ngangan no finacadan ko sapangangan to kitakit tora Ukolan.[5]

Rikisi(歷史)

O pikakinkiw no mikakarkaray to katelang nalacolan,ira makera ko i’ayaway no 2 ofad ~3 ofad a notelangan ho nikunisan i ’ongcoy a cuka.

O rikisi no Ukolan i, o Wiking tamdaw ko patirengay to Kifros i saka 9 sici, latek i 10 sici, o Sa’etipay Selafu Finacadan matateko mala To’asan Rosu Finacadan,patireng to Kifros Kitakit. Yo mikowan ci Sey Fracimil Swiyatoslawici(Rosiya sowal:Св.Влади́мир Святосла́вич; Kuwaling sowal:聖弗拉基米爾·斯維亞托斯拉維奇) o tadacomahaday a kitakit i hekal. Itiya a mipacomod to Saka’etipay So’elinay Kyokay, misanga’ heca to Rikec no Rosu. I saka 12 sici tahira i saka 14 sici,nani Tatapangan Tokay Kiyief matenak taraka’amis no saka’etip a pala, itira to a mala’afa’afas to hasakowan a pala, orasaka malaklak to koya finacadan to Rosiya tamdaw (Tata’angay Rosiya tamdaw), Ukola tamdaw(Mamangay Rosiya tamdaw) ato Kohecalay Rosiya tamdaw(Pirosiya).

Ingataay a mihecahecaan(近現代史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 13sici tahira i 14 sici mitoker to picowat no Monko tamdaw, Rerman tamdaw ato Torki tamdaw.Latek nani 14sici satapang a miliyas to katelang Kifros malacitekeday tono niyah a sowal, punka ato pinangan no ’orip, laheci malamisiikeday a finacadan. I 1569 miheca, komoden ni Lupolin ko Polan Hontian kitakit ato Litawan Sawara’an kitakit patireng to Polan-Litawan Matatekoay Kitakit. To ikor to pinapina so’ot a mihecaan o Mosko Sawara’an Kitakit ko mipatatekoay mapapolong to ka’amis no sakawaliay pala, mala Rosiya Hontian Kitakita(Safang).

Yiekacilina II (Catherine II by Alexey Antropov (18th c, Tver gallery))

O roma sato, o itiraay i katimol no saka’etip a pala o Polan-Litawan Matatekoay Kitakit ko mikowanay to aniniay Pirarosi ato aniniay Ukolan. Ano sahecien a somowal i, o aniniay a Ukolan itiraay i 17sici tahira i 14sici a malacecay a finacadan, italiyokan no Nipo’alo, o Kifu, Potawa ato Cinikof ko kahiceraan.

I 17sici, mapapolong ko Ukolan ato Sa’etipay So’elinay Kyokay mi toker to Tinsikyo no Polan a mafodfod. 1654 miheca, o kakeridan no Kosako no Ukolan ci Pokotan Hominiceci(Ukolan sowal: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький;Polan sowal:Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; Rosiya sowal:Богдан Хмельницкий; Kuwaping sowal:博格丹·赫梅利尼茨基) matatilid ato Honti no Rosiya(Safan) to『Piliyaslafu sakarihaday kakaketonan』(《佩列亞斯拉夫和約》), tahidangen ko Hongti no Rosiya a mikowan, nanoyanan sato matateko ko sawalian Ukolan(sakawilian lilis no Nipo’alo) ato Rosiya Hongtian Kitakit,malekatep to ko Ukolan ato Rosiya.

Yo mamalepon ko 18 sici, o fafahiyan hongti no Rosiya ci Yiekacilina II(Rosiya sowal: Екатерина Алексеевна; Ikiris sowal: Catherine II; Kuwaping sowal:葉卡捷琳娜二世·阿列克謝耶芙娜) ato hongti no Awtili, ato honti no Polusi malacafay kinatolo a mipech to Polan, onini ko polong sato ko Ukolan ato Pirasosu mapateko i Rosiya. Cowa konini aca koni patekoan, i 1783 miheca malowid nira ko Otoman-Torki hongtian kitakit,patateko han to ko malamicongacongay kitakit no Otoman-Torki hongtian Kolimiya kitakit, safeleng sato ko tamdaw no Rosiya a mafolaw tayra i Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal.itini to i 1795 miheca a misatapang ko Rosiya micoroh a patenak to sowal no Rosiya i ’edef no Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal, paci’ecien ko pikihatiya no Ukolan tamdaw to Rosiya a pinangan.

Solin a mihecahecaan(蘇聯時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1917 miheca mapalolol ko kitakit, mafelih ko Rosiya Hontian Kitakit, ira ko padama no Toic Hontian Kitakit ta mapatireng ko siikeday Ukolan Kapolongan Kitakit. 1918 miheca matatilid ko Rosiya ato Malekatepay-Kitakit to《Pelisto-Litawan kakaketonan》(Rosiya a sowal:Брестский мир; Toic a sowal: Friedensvertrag von Brest-Litowsk; Kuwaping a sowal:布列斯特-立陶夫斯克條約), onini ko sapi’eco no Toic Hontian Kitakit ato Awdyong Hontian Kitakit to Ukolan, mapalsawad ko Ukolan Kapolongan Kitakit, mapatireng ko mi’aningay to Toic a Ukolan kitakit, mapateli ko sofitay no Toic itini. Yo malepon ko Sakacecay Lalood no Hekal malowid ko Toic, liyas sato to Ukolan, mapatatiko i Solin ko Ukolan, oya i sakawaliay no Ukolan patireng to Sowiay Sifo, mapatireng to ko Ukolan Sowiay Siyakaysiuki Kapolongan Kitakit. 1922 miheca patireng to Sowiay Siyakaysiuki Kapolongan Kitakit Lekatep(Rosiya asowal:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик; Kuwaping a sowal:蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯盟; decdec a tilid:蘇聯) mikapot ko kawaliay Ukolan tona lekatep, malamisatapangay patireng a kitakit. O i saka’etipay a Ukolan mala no Polan a sera.

Yo sakaira no Sakatosa Lalood no Hekal, malapecih ko Solin ato Toic to Polan, oya i saka’etipay a Ukolan mapateko i Solin.1941 miheca saka 6 folad saka 22 romi’ad malalood ko Solin ato Toic i Ukolan a pala, oya itiraay i Kifo a lslood 70 ofad ko mapatayay sofitay no Solin, o itiraay i Awtosa a lalood malowid no Romaniya ko sofitay no Solin, laheci han to no Toic a mipolong a mi’eco ko Ukolan.1943 miheca saka11 folad matepek no Solin ko sofitay no Toic,patikor heca ko Solin taira i Ukolan. Itini tona sakatosa a lalood itiniay i Ukolan ko kalaloodan, orasaka, tada mapadesay kona kitakit.

1985 miheca yo mala Sakakaay no kyosanto no Solin ci Kopacifo (Rosiya asowal:Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв; Roma a tilid:Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev; Kuwaping a sowal:米哈伊爾·謝爾蓋耶維奇·戈巴契夫) macekiw to ko masamaamaanay a ka’intelan to Rosiya, ira to ko pisaharateng no Ukolan a tamdaw to sapisiikedaw nani Rosiya.

Iikor na misiiked (烏克蘭獨立後)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1990 miheca saka 7 folad saka16 romi’ad, matalahekal no pikaykian no Ukolan kitakit ko《Tatapangan Salongoc no Ukolan a Pilekal》. 1991 miheca saka8 folad saka24 romi’ad, matekop ko Solin Patatekoan Kitakit, oya mikapotay i Solin a 15 kitakit alasiikeiked sato, o pikaykian no Ukolan kitakit tangsolsol sa a milekal to《Ukolan misiiked a lekal》. Tona miheca saka 12 folad saka 1 romi’ad, mihai ko tamdaw no Ukolan nami kapolongan pitopa, laheci sato miliyas to Solin misiiked, falicen ko ngangan no kitakit to Ukolan Kapolongan Kitakit, 337 ko mihecaan ta malaheci ko kapisiiked, tona romi’ad tomireng malacongton ci Liangnito ( Ukolan a sowal:Леонід Макарович Кравчук; Kuwaping a sowal:列昂尼德·馬卡羅維奇·克拉夫丘克) o sa’ayaway a congtong ko cingra.

Cilinski congtong (Volodymyr Zelensky Official portrait )

1996 miheca matongko ko fa’elohay a kimpo, o Tatapangan Salongoc, Misiiked ato nikafinawlan a kitakit sa ko pisetek i tilid, falicen ho ko ngangan no kitakit to Ukolan.2004 miheca, misinkiw to congtong ci Yusinko(Ukolan a sowal:Віктор Андрійович Ющенко;Kuwaping a sowal:維克多·安德烈耶維奇·尤申科) pakaala to 52% a satopa maala malacongtong. I 2013 miheca saka 11 folad o mitadipiay to Yoropa a kasafelaw satapang a mikangi to sifo,[6] to cila a miheca i 2014, sakaira ko lolol Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal,[7] [8] [9] matekop ko misawidangay to Rosiya sifo ni Yanukowici (Rosiya a sowal:Виктор Фёдорович Янукович; Ukolan a sowal:Віктор Федорович Янукович;Kuwaping a sowal:維克托·費奧多羅維奇·亞努科維奇), o misawidanay to Yoropa to ko mikowanay to Ukolan. 2014 miheca ’eco han to no Rosiya a patateko ko Kolimiya i Rosiya. 2019 miheca saka 4 folad saka 21 romi’ad oya misifayay i tilifi ci maala ni( Ukolan a sowal: Володимир Олександрович Зеленський;Roma a tilid: Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelenskyy; Kuwaping a sowal:弗拉迪米爾·亞歷山德羅維奇·澤倫斯基) pakaala to 70% a sayopa maala malacongtong.[10]

Faco no sici(政治制度)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ukolan a kitakit midamakay to Toloay ko Kasasiiked no Sakowan 'Icel, oranan i, o misanga’ay to rikec, misawkitay ato matayalay kona toloay kasasiked no ’icel a matayal. O kimpo ko pado’edoan no kalosakowan to tayal, nilalangan ko micowatay to demak no roma a sakowan.

O congtong ko Sakakaay Kakeridan no kitakit, Sakakaay Lata o misanga’ay to rikec,[11] citodongay to tayal no kitakit o Sakakaay Sifo, mitengil to sowal no congtong. Cecayay ko Pikaykian no Kitakit, o Sakakaay Lata konini, o miketonay a misang’ to rikec no kitakit, o mihaian no rikec ira ko 450 ko tamdaw no kiing, o kalotamdaw ko mitopaay a misinkiw, sepat miheca ko kalakiingan.

O sinkiw no congtong o kalotamdaw misimedan ko ngangan a mitopa, 5 miheca ko katayalan no congtong, milalangan to cilafas to tosa riyad a malacongtong(10 miheca).o kakeridan no sifo o congtong ko panganganay, mahai no Lata nga’ manga’ay malacongli.[12]

Viktor Yanukovych (01910428) (cropped)

O Ukolan mihaian no rikec ko adihayay a centang, o mipanganganay i pisawkitan ira ko 349 ko kasasiromaroma a kasarekarekad.

Larengatan no rawraw no sici(政局動盪)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

2004-2005 miheca a sanokoltoay cengel a nipalolol.(橙色革命)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

(Ukolan a sowal:Помаранчева революція; Kuwaping a sowal:橙色革命又譯栗子花革命), itiya ira ko sinkiw no congtong, o kakeridan no 「Nomita a Ukolan」(Ukolan a sowal: Наша Україна) sanany a Rekad(tang) ci Wikoto Antoriyiwici Yusinko(Ukolan a sowal:Віктор Андрійович Ющенко)mipacoli toiraay ko milipaysoay tona sinkiw sanay a pakokot a mopakarat,sakakinatolo a miliyaw mitopa lahecai sato a maala malacongtong no Ukolan. Yo malacongtong ci Yusinko mikiteked tono niyah finacadan to demak,palalak saan a pafeli to finawlan to payso no sifo, ora sako ka’emed to ko payso macakat a ’atekak ko maamaan a dafong, itira to ko ka serer no ’orip no tamtamdaw. Roma sato i, ona sifo cilacila macacoli ko malatapangay, mangalefay ko mitao’ay to kitakit a「Nomita a Ukolan」a tang ato Malekateapay ni Yuliya Timosinko marari’ari’ang, o Tapang tono sifo ci Yuliya mapaci’eci a mapalasawad ko kamaro’an i sifo. Itiya sato i 2006 miheca a pisinkiw to iing no Pikaykian no Kitakit oya misawidangay to Sa’etipay Lekatep malowid, o misawidangay to to Rosiya ci Wikoto Fiawtorowici Yanukowici (Rosiya a sowal: Виктор Фёдорович Янукович; Ukolan a sowal: Віктор Федорович Янукович; Kuwaping a sowal: 維克托·費奧多羅維奇·亞努科維奇) ko maalaay malacongtong a miliyaw.

2013 miheca o patalaw a mikangyi(toker)to sifo ko misawidangay to Sa’etipay Kitakit, oya sato o misawidangay to Rosiya a congtong ci Yanukowici paterep han to ningra ko Kakaketonan no Paifaloco’ay Kali’aca ato Sa’etipay Kitakit, misa’icel ato Rosiya a mapapadang. Oya sato mitadipiay to Sa’etipay Kitakit a kasafelaw a tamdaw,misaopo to to finawlan a mipacoli mitoker to sifo.[13]

O Tapang no Ukolan, Rosiya, Toic ato Fransu (Normandy format talks in Minsk (February 2015) 03)

2014 miheca saka 2 folad saka 22 romi’ad,mangalef to ko larawraw sato ko ’edef no kitakit,mapalasawad to ko kamaro’an ni Yanukowici laliw sato a tara Rosiya madipot no Rosiya. Lalowadan no rawraw konini.

2014 miheca o karawrawan no Kolimiya Pecihan Kanatal(2014年克里米亞危機)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O maro’ay i Kolimiya kanatal a tamdaw i, o Rosiya ko ’alomanay ora sa ka mikiRosiyaay ko faloco’ no tamtamdaw, yo malaplap no Ukolan ko misawidangay a congtong ci Yanukowici,sowal sato ko congtong no Rosiya:「misaharateng to kita to sapipanokayaw to Kolimiya patatiko tayni i Rosiya」saan. Tona miheca saka 2 folad saka 27 romi’ad o citapodoay a sofitay mi’eco to Sakakaay Pikaykian no Kitakit, maaro’ ko tadamaanay a kaitiraan no Kolimiya, orasaka, ma’emin sato no Rosiya a mapa’eker ko Kolimiya.

Tona miheca saka 3 folad saka16 romi’ad midemak to Kapolongan Pitopa(全民公投) no polong tamdaw no Kolimiya,mahaop ko 96.77% ko mihaydaay to sapitekkoaw i Rosiya,laheci sato ko pilekal patireng to Kolimiya Kapolongan Kitakit.[14][15][16][17] Nikawrira,o Yoropa Lekatep, Kanata, Dipon ato Amirika o caay ka tatodong i rikec konini a kapolongan pitopa saan,[18] [19]

2022 karawraw i Ukolan[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya 2015 miheca matatilid to kakaketonan tilid ko Ukolan, Rosiya, Toic ato Fransu to Fa’elohay Kakaketona i Misko(Ikiris sowal:Minsk II;Kuwaping sowal:《新明斯克協議》), to saka caaw ka ngalef ko saso’iring a malalood.

I 2022 miheca saka 2 folad saka 22 romi’ad mihai ko congtong no Rosiya ci Putin to pisiiked nani Ukolan ko ikawaliay a sakowan no Ukolan o Tonicuko(Ukolan sowal:Донецьк; Kuwaping a sowal:頓內次克) ato Rokansko(Rosiya a sowal:Луганская народная республика; Kuwaping a sowal:盧干斯克人民共和國), ocoren ni Putin ko sofitay no Rosiya tayra tona tosa a sakowan a midipot.[20] Tahira sato i 2022 miheca saka 2 folad saka 22 romi’ad saso’eli’elin[21] sato ko pilood ni Putin to Ukolan.

Tahapinangan Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Ukraine :: History – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. [2011-10-31]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-14).

[2] Activities of the Member States – Ukraine. United Nations. [2011-01-17]. (原始內容存檔於2011-05-03).

[3] Macroeconomic Indicators. National Bank of Ukraine. [2007-12-16]. (原始內容存檔於2007-10-21).

[4] Ukraine becomes world's third biggest grain exporter in 2011 – minister. Blackseagrain.net. [2012-08-25]. (原始內容存檔於2013-01-21).

[5] З Енциклопедії Українознавства; Назва "Україна". Litopys.org.ua. [2011-10-31]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-11).

[6] Yanukovych: The man who sparks revolution in Ukraine. Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 2014-02-20 [2014-03-07]. (原始內容存檔於2008-12-01).

[7] Damien McElroy. Ukraine revolution: live – Ukraine's president has disappeared as world awakes to the aftermath of a revolution. The Daily Telegraph. 2014-02-23 [2014-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2014-02-24).

[8] Ukraine conflict: Tymoshenko speech ends historic day of revolution. BBC News. 2014-02-22 [2014-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2017-02-13)

[9] Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk. Yanukovich toppled in new Ukrainian revolution. Financial Times. 2014-02-22 [2014-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2015-06-24).

[10] 乌克兰大选:喜剧演员泽连斯基高票胜出. BBC News 中文. [2022-02-27]. (原始內容存檔於2022-02-27) (中文(簡體)).

[11] 「會議」在烏克蘭語中為「Рада」,音譯「拉達」,在俄語中為「Совет」,音譯「蘇維埃」,「拉達」與「蘇維埃」實際上是同一個意思。2008年9月之前,中華人民共和國政府將「烏克蘭議會」譯成「烏克蘭最高蘇維埃」,從2008年9月4日起,中華人民共和國政府按照烏克蘭官方人士的意見將「烏克蘭議會」譯成「烏克蘭最高拉達」,參見 http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2007-07/26/content_6432574.htm (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

[12] General Articles about Ukraine. Government Portal. [2007-12-24]. (原始內容存檔於2008-01-20).

[13] 烏克蘭十萬人抗議政府延遲加入歐盟. 亞太日報. 2013-11-26 [2014-01-27]. (原始內容存檔於2014-02-03) (中文(繁體))

[14] Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russia union'. BBC News. 2014-03-16 [2022-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-17)

[15] Crimeans vote over 90 percent to quit Ukraine for Russia. Reuters. 2014-03-16 [2022-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2022-03-04).

[16] Crimea 'votes to rejoin Russia' after controversial poll. ITV. 2014-03-16 [2017-11-26]. (原始內容存檔於2022-03-05).

[17] Crimea applies to be part of Russian Federation after vote to leave Ukraine. The Guardian. 2014-03-17 [2022-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2014-03-17)

[18] Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russia union'. BBC News. 2014-03-16 [2022-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-17).

[19] Japan does not recognise Crimea vote – govt spokesman. Reuters. 2014-03-17 [2022-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2022-03-05).

[20] Putin orders Russian troops to Ukraine after recognising breakaway regions. [2022-02-22]. (原始內容存檔於2022-02-21).

[21] 联大通过决议要求俄罗斯立即从乌克兰撤军. 聯合國新聞. 2022-03-02 [2022-03-05]. (原始內容存檔於2022-03-03) (中文(簡體)).

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