Serbia

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Serbia(塞爾維亞)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Serbia
Flag of Serbia
Location of Serbia (green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).

Takaray Sowal:[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sirbiya Kapolongan Kitakit(Sirbiya a sowal: Република Србија; Roma tilid:Republika Srbija; Kuwaping a tilid:塞爾維亞共和國). O itiraay i Parkan-Pecihkanatal a kitakit, kaitiraan i katimol no sakawali no Yoropa, ilaloma’ay no karopaw no Parkan-Pecihkanatal a kitakit, malalocok ko kalala’edan ato Montonikoro(Црна Гора), Posiniya ato Hersaykowina(Bosna i Hercegovina/Босна и Херцеговина),Koroaysiya(Republika Hrvatska),Syongyali(Magyarország),Romaniya(România),Pokariya(Република България; Latin a sowal: Republika Bŭlgariya),Ka’amisay Maciton:(Maciton a sowal:Република Северна Македонија; Roma a tilid:Republika Severna Makedonija)ato Kosofo(Republika Kosovo).

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Na i’ayaw to 8500 mihecan, itira i tatapangan a niyaro’ Pirkoro iraay to ko malahiciay a fa’elohay nafakelohan punka, o Stasaywo-Punka (Starčevo culture;斯塔賽沃文化)[1] [2], i’ayaw no 6000 mihecaan iraay to itini ko tata’angay a niyaro’ o Winca-Punka hananay.[3] O Soloy-tamdaw mikownay to Sirpiya, to ikor to i ‘ayaw no sakasepat no sici o Kirisiya tamdaw macowat ko satimolan no Sirpiya, mala’amisay no ikoray a Yarisanta Tata’angay Honti a kitakit.[4] [5] o Roma a tamdaw itiyaay to i ‘ayaw no saka 2 sici a misatapang micowat to Sirpiya, malosigo’an no sakowan, ora saka ira ko 17 a honti no Roma itiniay i Sirpiya a sofocen.[6] [7]

I sa’ayawan no 1910 mihecaan itira i Sakacecay Parkan-Pecihkanatal Lalood ato Sakatosa Parkan-Pecihkanatal Lalood,pasitimol ko kacowat no sera no Sirpiya, mapalolol ko Kosofo a pala, patokeled sa a mipatateko to Maciton Kapolongan kitakit,nikawrira, o i saka’amisay a pala ono Awsyong Hotian a sakowan, cowa ka i laloma’ no Sirpiya.[8] [9]

1914 miheca saka 6 folad saka 28 romi’ad,o Misaca'emot to Finacadan a tamdaw ci Kafulilo-Posilinpo( Sirpiya a sowal: Гаврило Принцип;Latin a tilid: Gavrilo Princip)kowangen ningra a mipatay ko mipalafangay a wawa no Honti no Awsyon ci Faranci-Fitinan ato fafahi ningra ci Sofi. 7 folad saka 28 romi’ad milekal to Sirpiya ko Awsyong Hontian Kitakit a malalood, onini ko lalengatan no Sakacecay Lalood no Hekal. O makatepay no Awsyong Hontian Kitakit, Toic Hontian Kitakit ato Porkaliya Hontian Kitakit mapapolong a mifora to Sirpiya, ma’eco a maaro’ ko Sirpiya.[10] [11]

Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait

1918 mihecaan, malowid no Sirpiya ko Lekatepay-Kitakit, mapalolol ko Sirpiya a kitakit,toya miheca saka 12 folad mapapolong ato fiyaw a kitakit Montonikoro ato oya nikowanan no Awsyong Hontian Kitakit o Srofako, Koroaysiya, Posiniya ato Foyfotina kitakit patireng to ’ayaway a Nansirafo Kitakit, i laloma’ noni kitakit ira ko Sirpiya tamdaw,Koroaysiya tamdaw ato Srofaniya tamdaw.[12] [13] [14] [15]

I Sakatosa Lalood no Hekal macikcik no Tokodan-Kitakit o Awsyong Hotian Kitakit,Arpaniya, Toic ato Porkaliya, o kakomodan no Nansirafo Kitakit ci Yisofo Puloci Tito(Sirpiya a sowal:Јосип Броз Тито;Roma a tilid:Josip Broz Tito) malowid ningra ko Naci-Toic.[16] [17] [18]

1945 miheca, micomod ko sofitay no Rosiya i Nansirafo, micoker ci Titoan malasakaay a kakeridan nona kitakit, patireng to Kyosanto ko mamikowan a kitakit to Nasirafo Syakaisiwki Kapolongan Kitakit. 1961 miheca, ci Tito ato congton no Aykipto ci Ciamayle AtotuNaso Haysan(Arapiya a sowal: جمال عبد الناصر حسين‎; Roma a tilid:Jamāl ʻAbdu n-Nāṣir Ḥusayn) ato Conli no India ci Ciawahalar Niheru(India a sowal: जवाहरलाल नेहरू) malacafay a patireng to ’’Cowa ka pikapot a lekatep’’ sanay a saopo, ci Tito ko kakeridan nangra a pacomahad to syakaisiwki-kali’aca a faco, orasaka o sacipaysoay itini i sak’etipay a kyosangto a kitakit.[19] [20]

Tahira to i 1990 mihecahecaan, matekop ko Nansirafo a kitakit, i 1992 miheca Nansirfo ato Montikoro miliyaw a patireng to Nansirafo Kapolongan Kitakit. 1999 miheca ikor no kalalood ato Kosofo mapatireng no Linheko ko Pacarcaray Mikowan no Kosofo. Saka 6 folad saka 3 romi’ad laheci sato milekal ko pikaykian to pisiiked no Kosofo, i saka 6 folad saka 5 romi’ad o pikaykian no kitakit no Sirpiya milekal to pisiikeday a kitakit o mirocokay to ’ayaway a Sirpiya kitakit. Itiya sato i 2008 miheca saka 2 folad saka 17 romi’ad lonok sa ko Kosofo a miliyas to Sirpiya misiiked a patireng to kitakit, cowa ka pihai ko Sirpiya to nini.[21]

Kaitiraan(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i kakatekoan no lalan no sifo’ay ato satimolan a Yoropa ko Sirpiya a kitakit,[22] [23] o ilaloma’anay no karopaw a kitakit,o dadahal no sera ira ko 88,361km² (malapot ko Kosofo). o

Tonaw 'alo (Neue Donau)

Panoniya Dafadaf mahaopay ko cecay no kalitolo no sa’amisay no kitakit,[24] nikawrira, o lotok ‘i, mahaopay ko cecay no kalitolo no satimolan no kitakit,o sera no Sirpiya sahetoay o masakaratay a pala, matiya o salil ko ‘alo romakat i ‘edef no kitakit, oninian ‘alo saheto mitekoay i Tonaw-’Alo ta micomod i Kohetingay-Riyar, o Tonaw-’Alo ilaloma’ no Sirpiya ira ko 588km ko ka to’edaw,[25] o tadakalimelaan a nanom konini.[26] [27]

Masiwar no Yoropa-Karopaw, Tasiyang ato Sifo’an-Riyar ko kakarayan, o lalen no fa’edet 0°C i kasi’enawan, isakapito a fold lalen a fa’edet 20°C.[28]

O sera no Sirpiya mahaop ko 29.1% o matahepoay no kilakilangan, o dadahal no kilakilangan ira ko 2,252,000 kofo,[29] o karanih no tataparan no kilakilangan 5.29/10 ko ka lalen.itini i Sirpiya pakaala to 39% a cidodohay kina’orip,51 % a fotifotinan, 40% cacoay ato ‘a’adopen, 74% a ’ayam ato mipacocoay a ‘a’adopen.[30] O kakaolahan no masamaamaanay a pina’orip itini.

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong no Sirpiya ‘i, o katatekoan no Sifo’ay Sirpiya, Kosofo ato Foyfotina polongen 29 ko karopaw, ira ho ko Tadekan Sakowan no sakakaay sifo o Pirkorato,ilaloma’ nonini ’i,Kosofo ira ko 5 sakowan, Foyfotina7 ko sakowan ato adekan Sakowan no sakakaay sifo o Pirkorato, ikararem no sakowan o etal, o Kosofo ira ko 30 a etal, Foyfotina ira ko 54 a etal.[31] [32]

Sirpiya a finacadn (Srpska nosnja)

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nani 1990 miheca karacemcemay to ko kalwan no tamdaw no Sirpia, caay ka citolas ko kapatay no tamdaw to mihecahecaan,[33] [34] pakitinien i sa’osi ’i, i 1990 miheca ira ko 300,000ko miliyasay to Sirpiya, ilaloma’ no nini ’i,mahaop ko 20% o citanengay a tamdaw.[35] [36] Orasaka, o lalen a mihecaan no kalotamdaw i,42.9%,away ko ikakaay to Sirapiya ko kakerem no tamdaw itini i hekal.[37] Cecay no kalilima a loma’ cecayay ko tamdaw,cecay no kalisepat a loma’ sasepatay ko tamdaw.[38] O lalen no polong a tamdaw no Sirpiya 76.1 mihecaan.[39]

Sirpiya a tamdaw ira ko 600 ofad,o sakakaay ko ka’aloman no tamadaw, mahaop ko83%, Syongyali a tamdaw ira ko 25 ofad, o saaway ko tamdaw i Sirpiya, mahaop ko 3.5%, i saka’amisay no Foyfotina sakowan,[40] [41] [42] o Posiniya a tamdaw 14.5 ofad, itiraay i katimol no saka’etip ko kamaro’an nangra, ira ko roma a mamangay ko tamdaw a finacadan o Koroaysiya, Arpaniya, Montonikoro, Folahe, Romaniya, Mociton ato Pawciyaliya, o Kuwaping a tamdaw ira ko 15000 tamdaw, o dengay o caay ko Yoropa a tamdaw.[43] [44]

Sapili’etan kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O mili’etanay ko kicai no Sirpiya, itini i polong no kitakit isifoay ko katakaraw no ’eten no kalotamdaw no Sirpiya.[45] Tooren ko pisa’osi no Hekalay a Kiking no Payso a Lekatep (International Monetary Fund,IMF) i 2018 miheca o Kapolongan a Nitayalan 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit (GDP) ira ko 506.51 ok payso no Amirika, o lalen no mi’etanan no kalotamdaw ira ko17,555 payso no Amirika.[46] O mihamhamay to lafang a tayal ko sakakay kaci’etan, ilaloma’ no GDP mahaop ko 67.9%, do’edo sa o masanga’ay to dafong,mahaop i GDP to 6%.[47]

Nani 2000 miheca masorot ko babicowacoway a payso pateli i sakatayal no Sirpiya, o masortay a payso ira ko 400 ok payso no Amirika,[48] ira ko Fiyato misanga’ay to tosiya, Simonci, Filipomorisu, Miciling, kokakora…[49] itini i saparakat to kikay a kinairaira i,o palapalan kaso no Rosiya ato Roko Kasolin, o saadihayay ko pipateli to pasyso. Ira ho misanga’ay to Stinlis ato ‘ekeng a kofa no Congko.[50]

Oni pasadakan a dafong i 2018 miheca ira ko 192 ok payso no Amirika.Ci Safulo komi honyakuay tonini a tilid.

Tahapinangan Tilid (註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Nikola Tasić; Dragoslav Srejović; Bratislav Stojanović. Vinča and its Culture. Vladislav Popović (編). Vinča: Centre of the Neolithic culture of the Danubian region. Smiljka Kjurin (translator). Belgrade. 1990 [2006-10-28]. (原始內容存檔於2009-01-16).

[2] History (Ancient Period). Official website. [2007-07-10]. (原始內容存檔於2012-03-28).

[3] Kitson, Peter. Year's Work in English Studies Volume 77. Wiley-Blackwell. 1999: 5 [2009-05-05]. ISBN 978-0-631-21293-5.

[4] Blic Online - Najseverniji grad Aleksandrovog carstva. Blic Online. (原始內容存檔於2009-08-21).

[5] IWilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 85, "...the area [South Serbia] was originally populated with Thracians..."

[6] Serbia's rich and hidden Roman history. BBC News. [2020-02-02] (英語).

[7] Traces of Empire: Serbia's Roman Heritage. Balkan Insight. 2016-10-24 [2020-02-02] (美國英語).

[8] The Serbian Revolution and the Serbian State. staff.lib.msu.edu.

[9] Serbian Studies 9–10. North American Society for Serbian Studies. 1995: 91.

[10] Duffy, Michael. First World War.com – Primary Documents – Vasil Radoslavov on Bulgaria's Entry into the War, 11 October 1915. firstworldwar.com. 2009-08-22 [2010-04-28].

[11] Највећа српска победа: Фронт који за савезнике није био битан (塞爾維亞語)

[12] 20/7/1917 the Corfu Declaration: Plans for a future Yugoslavia. 2017-07-20.

[13] Arhiv Jugoslavije – 1 December Act, 1 December 1918

[14] Bojovi, Jovan,Zakonik knjza Danila,Titograd: Istorijski institut Crne Gore, 1982.––––––, Podgorič ka skupština 1918: dokumenta, Gornji Milanovac: Dečje novine, 1989.

[15] Jewish Heritage Europe – Serbia 2 – Jewish Heritage in Belgrade. Jewish Heritage Europe. [2010-04-28]. (原始內容存檔於2010-06-30).

[16] Savich, Karl. The Kragujevac massacre. (原始內容存檔於2012-12-17).

[17] Israeli, Raphael. The Death Camps of Croatia: Visions and Revisions, 1941–1945. Transaction Publishers. 2013-03-04: 31 [2013-05-12]. ISBN 978-1-4128-4930-2.

[18] Tito, Josip Broz. Nacionalno pitanje u Jugoslaviji: u svjetlosti narodnooslobodilačke borbe. Zagreb: Naprijed. 1945: 11 (克羅埃西亞語). Moram ovdje podvući činjenicu da su u redovima naše Narodno-oslbodilačke vojske i partizanskih odreda u Jugoslaviji, od samog početka pa do danas, nalaze u ogromnoj većini baš Srbi, umjesto da to bude obratno.

[19] Tanjug. Posle rata u Srbiji streljano preko 60.000 civila. Mondo.rs.

[20] Bokovoy, Melissa Katherine; Irvine, Jill A.; Lilly, Carol S. State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Palgrave Macmillan. 1997: 295–296, 301.

[21] Rift Emerges at the United Nations Over Kosovo. New York Sun. 2008-02-19.

[22] Serbia: On the Way to EU Accession. World Bank Group. [2014-10-21].

[23] Serbia. Southeastern Europe Travel Guide. Balkans 360. [2014-10-03]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-06).

[24] Carevic, Ivana; Jovanovic, Velimir. STRATIGRAPHIC-STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAČVA BASIN (PDF) (Report): 1. UDC 911.2:551.7(497.11). (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-08-30).

[25] National Tourism Organisation of Serbia. www.serbia.travel. [2019-04-27].

[26] Jolović, Dejan. Ten economic benefits of the Danube for Serbia. Danubius. 2016-08-19 [2019-04-27] (英語).

[27] Takić, Ljiljana M.; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Nikolić, Ljubiša B.; Vuković, Milovan V.; Živković, Nenad V. The assessment of the Danube water quality in Serbia (PDF). Advanced Technologies. 2012: 59.

[28] The Times Atlas of the World (1993). Times Books ISBN 0-7230-0492-7.

[29] ::SE "Srbijašume" Belgrade. Srbijasume.rs. 2010-12-31 [2013-10-21]. (原始內容存檔於2013-10-22).

[30] CARSKA BARA – Fauna ptica. Carskabara.rs. [2013-10-22]. (原始內容存檔於2013-10-23)

[31] CCRE: Serbia. (原始內容存檔於2012-06-04).

[32] Law on Territorial Organization. National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia. 2007-12-29 [2013-10-06]. (原始內容存檔於2013-10-12) (塞爾維亞語).

[33] Sebičnost žena u Srbiji nije uzrok bele kuge | EurActiv Srbija. Euractiv.rs. 2013-07-26.

[34] Roser, Max, Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries, Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, 2014 [2019-05-08], (原始內容存檔於2019-07-08)

[35] Serbia seeks to fill the '90s brain-drainage gap. EMG.rs. 2008-09-05.

[36] Survey S&M 1/2003. Yugoslav Survey.

[37] Country Comparison : Population growth rate. The World Factbook, CIA. 2002.

[38] Household numbers (PDF). pod2.stat.gov.rs.

[39] Bank, World. Europe Central Asia Economic Update, Spring 2020 : Fighting COVID-19. openknowledge.worldbank.org (World Bank). 2020-04-09: 71, 72 [2020-04-09].

[40] Slovakia's national minority makes Serbia nicer, richer. srbija.gov.rs. 2018-12-11.

[41] Lux, Gábor; Horváth, Gyula. The Routledge Handbook to Regional Development in Central and Eastern Europe. Taylor & Francis. 2017: 190.

[42] Filep, Béla. The Politics of Good Neighbourhood: State, civil society and the enhancement of cultural capital in East Central Europe. Taylor & Francis. 2016: 71.

[43] Chinese Migrants Use Serbia as Gate to Europe, ABC News, 13 July 2010.

[44] V. Mijatović – B. Hadžić. I Kinezi napuštaju Srbiju. Novosti.rs.

[45] Upper-middle-income economies. The World Bank.

[46] World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019. IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. [2019-04-11].

[47] Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2005–2017 - Revised Data Series (PDF). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 2018-01-10 [2021-11-01].

[48] Europe :: Serbia — the World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. 2021-10-26.

[49] US embassy: private sector investments. (原始內容存檔於2010-05-27).

[50] Mining, a new "ace up the sleeve" for Serbia?.