Notimolan ’Apocok

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Kamaro'an 位置[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Notimolan ’Apocok (ikilis: south pole) o pidotoc to nikaliyon no cikiw miketon to sakatimolay. O pahapinang to kasadefadefak Notimolan ’Apocok a palapalaan, patodong mipaketingan a kamaro’an. Do’edoen ko no kalokitakit to rarakaten a falono’, lalat no katimol no 60° o katimolay a pala o Notimolan ’Apocok no hekal todong, saka o Nantayang ato kalokanatal ato Notimolan ’Apocok no hekal a pala a sowal, 6500 ’ofad a kongli ko kadadahal.

Nipatonekan 定義[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No tilidan, katimolay no cikiw ko Notimolan ’Apocok. Nika ira ho ko notimolan ’apocok karopaw, notimolan ’apocok peno, notimolan ’apocok pala, notimolan ’apocok niyaro’, notimolan ’apocok taliyok sanay a tatodong. Sakipalapalaan to Notimolan ’Apocok o notimolan tolas no hekal ato notimolan cisyak no hekal.

Notimolan tolas no hekal南地極[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ona “Notimolan tolas no hekal” i salalomaan no notimolan karopaw, mapahecekay ko kacipinangan. Nika malinahay ko pala, i no cikiw a rikisi ’adihayay romi’ad notimolan karopaw o miraayay to Notimolan ’Apocok; o romasato, la’ed no romi’ad, Palapalaan a hakasi misasalof to Notimolan ’Apocok a kamaro’an. Inacila masalof Notimolan ’Apocok kaitiraan a romi’ad i 2000 mihecaan. Roma, no kakarayan a fana’, ano safi’en “Notimolan tolas no hekal” tayra i kakarayan a cikiw, mapacahcah i Notimolan tolas no kakarayan.

Notimolan cisyak no hekal 南磁極[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

“Notimolan cisyak no hekal” [1], o malatosaay no cisyak koni. i ngataay no Notimolan ’Apocok a palapala, nikawrira o kamaro’an niira o matayoay ko kafalifalic. 1909 miheca 1/16, nai ci Onaste Sakerton ko mikeriday to misolapay matamaay ko Notimolan cisyak no hekal.

Notimolan taliyok 南極圈[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

lalat no katimol no 66° 34 a calay no Notimolan taliyok. i taliyokay no romi’ad ato dadaya, taliyokay masiikeday to safala’faay ato li’etecay a tolas.

Notimolan karopaw 南極洲[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Notimolan karopaw halo notimolan pala ato taliyok no kitakit, o dadahal niira 1400 ’ofad kongli, kasaliyaliyad 2.47 kongli. Notimolan karopaw ira 158.2 kongli ko ki’etecay. Notimolan karopaw a dadahal no pala mo^etep ira ko cecay. [2]

Notimolan pala 南極大陸[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Patodongan: Notimolan ’Apocok karopaw 南極洲[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Notimolan pala o nano Notimolan karopaw i liyokay no kanatal a pala, o saikoray a matama a pala I hekal koni, matifahaw sa i satimolay a cikiw. Notimolan ’Apocok a pala 95% matahepoay no kifetolay a so^eda, o “fohecalay pala” a han ko sowal. I hekal enemay a pala i, ikaka no Austaliya pala ko dadahal to Notimolan pala, o saka 5 a rayray. Ona tosaay Notimolan pala ato Austaliya pala o nitaliyakan riyar a tata’angay pala, taliyok ira ko Taypinyang, Tasiyang, Intoyang, mitaliyokan a cikiw no tata’angay nanom, matiya o ma’edefay (nengneng ko nanpinyang), miliyasay to roma a pala, ato payrayrang hekal miliyasay a pala, tangasa anini awaay ko maro’ay tamdaw itira, dengan papinaay a kaki misokoliway tamdaw macacalicaliway itira maro’ ato matayalay.

Salongoc a Kitakit 主權[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1820-1940 mihecaan, kasakitakit a misolapay madado’edo pakatama to kasasiroma no palapala i Notimolan pala, Ikilis, Niwsilan, Toic, Nanfiy, Austaliya, Ferans, Nowiy, Cili, Akenting, pelasil 10 kitakit a sifo to saki Notimolan karopaw a liyad pasadak to Salongoc a Kitakit, o halafinay to maledefay no so^eda to ’ofadan mihecaan o kafangafangan to no kalokitakit. Dotoc nai 1961 mihecaa saka 6 folad mahayda to “Notimolan ’Apocok tatonekan”, mafedi’ ko sasiwaay kitakit to pilongoc to Notimolan ’Apocok a sera to salongoc, telekan ko Notimolan ’Apocok o sapilinga’ay ko patosokan, ona Notimolan ’Apocok caay ko no nima a kitakit ko citodongay, o no polong no tamdaw i hekal koni.

Sakaromakat 交通[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Notimolan ’Apocok pala o caayay ko rahodayay ngataen nina pala. Mingataay to Notimolan ’Apocok  pala o timolay Amilika a karopaw, o Terike a riyar ko kalalaed to 970 kongli. O kararaay to Notimolan ’Apocok pala ato roma a pala ikaka ko kararaay, o taliyok o kifetolay a so^eda ato mapawpaway so^eda ko mitaliyokay, kasi’enawan sai mapawpaway so^eda tangasa 1900 ’ofad kongli ko dadahal; Notimolan ’Apocok pala taliyok no riyar a mapawpaway so^eda caay to ka sa’osi ko adihay no masalotokay a so^eda, masa kararimaan ato katalawan to romakatay i riyar.

Ditek no sera 地勢[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Toni a cikiw o sadadaha:lay ko Notimolan ’Apocok pala[3]. I fafaed no cikiw a pala to takaraw naira: Asiya karopaw 950 mi, ’amis Amilika karopaw 700 mi, timol Amilika karopaw 600 mi, Afelika karopaw 560 mi, Iropiya karopaw sapoeneray, 300 mi aca, no Tayang karopaw caay ka sapinang ko takaraw, latek somo’otay aca. Nawhani, Notimolan ’Apocok pala, o fadic niira, o takaraw 2350 mi, makikaka ko no roma a pala to takaraway a Asiya karopaw. Nikawrira, ano lihedaken ko ya mitahepoay so^eda i fafaed Notimolan ’Apocok pala, o takaraw niira ma’eden 410 mi aca, palecaden to ciseraay no cikiw a sapa’eneray.

Kasafalifalic no romi’ad 氣候[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nawhani takaraw ko so^eda, kihepic ko fali, patongal han no li’etecay so^eda a pipatedi no cidal, Notimolan ’Apocok pala mala o sasienaway a pala, o falawfaw ikaka to No’amisan ’Apocok ko kalietec to 20°. Notimolan ’Apocok pala to mihecaan a ki’etec falawfaw isafa no ciro to 25°. Notimolan ’Apocok pala i lilis no riyar a ki’etec falawfaw isafa no ciro to 17-20°; i laloma’ay no pala no mihecaan ki’etec falawfaw isafa no ciro to 40-50°; i kawali to timol a Notimolan ’Apocok takaraway pala o sasi’enaway, mihecaan a ki’etec falawfaw isafa no ciro to 57°. Tangasa anini, fafaeday no cikiw ma’araw o saki’etec falawfaw isafa no ciro to 89.2°, onini 1983 miheca saka 7 folad i Solien kawaliay a kacawan a manengnengay.

[4] Notimolan ’Apocok o satakaraway ki’etec falawfaw nano Aispilansa kacawan i 2020 miheca 2/6 malalatay 18.3° a Ses, ma’awid to ko no 1961 muheca kasafalifalic matilid satakaraway a fa’edetay a falawfaw[5].

Notimolan ’Apocok a si’enaw o kaitiraan ko sakamatira, nawhani itira i si^enaway a pala ko kaitiraan, orira masamihecaan ko dadaya awaay ko tedi no cidal. Nasaan, o tedi no cidal ko nihaenan, ’akawang ko lalat, dadahal ko nikaselic no cidal, malowan ko pisolot to fa^edet no cidal. Itini i cikiw i ’akawangay a lalat ko kaitiraan no Notimolan ’Apocok, o sasafaay ko tedi no cidal, salongan to ko tedi no cidal. Roma i, Notimolan ’Apocok pala 95% madapong no so^eda, o pi’eceng to cidal 80%-84%, ’osaw caay to pakatahira 20 % ko i seraay, o hatiraay to ko fa’edet a matarang, mapatikol tayra i kakarayan. Ono Notimolan ’Apocok katakaraw no pala ato kihepic no fali caay pakasoped to fa’edet, samasa o marariday ko si^enaw no Notimolan ’Apocok.

Fali ’Apocok 風極[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Notimolan ’Apocok pala o mangalefay ko ’icel no fali tina pala, o rakat no fali mata’elif ko 100 kongli to cecay toki a mararid. Mililisay to lawac no riyad a pala i Notimolan ’Apocok pakinali, o cikay no fali 40-50 mi ko widi. Itini i Felans a kacawan a pilalatan “Tielwiel” malalat kai widi 100 mi ko katata’ang (360 kongli ko cecay toki, ikaka to no faliyos Taypay ko kaci’icel), matiya to Pofose a fali ko kangalef 17 awid a 1.78 kakinali nira, o pikari’ang nira tangasa 12 awid to 3.18 kinalian. Tangasa anini o sa’akawangay ta’angay ’icel no fali matilid. Orasaka, Notimolan ’Apocok o “Fali a ’Apocok” ahan.

O pakaka no si^enaw, halofali ko katalawan no kakak misolapay a malitemohay naira. Halofali paranikayay palasawad to fa^edet no tireng, sakaranikay madoka’ no ’okot a cimapatayay a demak. No dadaya a fali a pikari’ang, o cikay no fali cecay widi 40 mi (13 awid fali). Ano ira ko i papotalay a tamdaw, o katalawan a mapades ko ’orip. 1960 miheca 10/10 herek no lahok, i Dipong Siyoho a pala midemak to kakok sapisolapan ci Futawsen hakasi, masadak taipapotal pakaen to Waco, talifahal sanay a cecay widi 35 mi ko cikay no fali, nanoya ^ca to patatikol. Tangasa 1967 miheca 2/9 romi’a, mapatayay tireng ningra cila’ed 4.2 kongli ko ray matama itira.

Kakingkiwen 探索[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I ’ayaw tona pakayra ko rakat no Ilopiya tamdaw pakanengneng to fa^elohay ato karomakatan a lalan, iraay to ko cicu no notimolan ’apocok karopaw, masapinang to ko lotok ’alo ato lilis no riyar no notimolan ’apocok karopaw. Ano aniniay fa^elohay a sapihelam to katato’edip no so^eda a mahapinang, matama salalinikay no so^eda o so’elinay pala no Notimolan ’Apocok, milecad to 16 sici a telangay cicu mahapinang to[8].

O sarakatay pakatama to Notimolan ’Apocok pala a pakataminaay tangasa anini o malaliyangay ho, nikawrira no ’Elosi tamdaw Pilinsikawcin ko sakamatini. Sarakatay miripa’ to sera no Notimolan ’Apocok pala a tamdaw, latek o Amilika mikakotangay to lokedaw no riyar a tamina ci Yohani Tafiti a kakeridan. Ci Roald Amundsen cangra tomireng i Notimolan ’Apocok kaitiraan, 1911 miheca 12 folad. Nai kawiki tala kawanan: Roald Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, ato Oscar Wisting, (sasing sakalalima ci Olav Bjaaland ko misasingay.)

O sarakatay tangasa i Notimolan ’Apocok kaitiraan ci Roald Amundsen ato mikapotay icingraan, katangasaan nangra a romi’ad i 1911 miheca 12/14 romi’ad. Ci Amundsen o sakalalifet ci Robert Falcon Scott i ikor no cecay folad tangasa i Notimolan ’Apocok kaitiraan. I pipatikolan, ci Scott ato kapot ningra a sasepat i nika cahiw ato pakinali no si’enaw a mapatay itira.

Itiya ira ko papitoay a misahinahinamay kapot pakayra i hekal ko rakat tangasa i Notimolan ’Apocok kaitiraan. Katangasaan nangra a romi’ad masilsil:

1. Roald Amundsen ato Robert Falcon Scott

2. Edmund Percival Hillary

3. Vivian Forks

4. Antero Havola

5. Albert P. Crary ato

6. Ranulph Twisleton ato Wykeham Fiennes

O pihiratengan ci Amundsen ato Scott South ato Pole Station i 1958 miheca Kalokitakit cikiw wuli mihecaan patireng, mida’ocay ko pikingkiw ato matayalay to kadamadamaan.

Samatelangay cokah no cikiw 地球上最古老的冰芯

Dipong Notimolan ’Apocok mikacaway a cefang i 2006 miheca 1/6 romi’ad i Dipong pikacawan “Fuji Dome” i ngata matama, midotoc to no Dipong a ’Apocok a pala pikingkiwan a kakeridan ci Yoshiyuki Fujii a pasowal, o nano midapongan no Notimolan ’Apocok so^eda lalinik to 9994 ingce matama; Dipong kiwyiko kakakpo a komoying ci Umezaki pasowal, lalinikay no cokah a folang adihay ko kasafolang, onini laloma’ay masafolangay, latek i ’ayaway no masamihacaay ’ofad no mihecaan a iraay to,ano pakayni i pikingkiw, o kafana’an ko itiyaay a pala no cikiw, manga’ay sapili’ayaw to ikoray a romi’ami’ad. Pipasa^esa, samatelangay cokah no cikiw, o halafin nira latek ira ko 1 iyok no mihecaan.

Paterep to waco. 禁犬令

Sarakat o waco ko sapikingkiwv ato sapisolap i Notimolan ’Apocok, mikotay to no tamdawan a mitaroh, o waco ko sakanga’ay dademak i Notimolan ’Apocok. Nikawrira macakat to ko no kikay, maserer ko no waco, ikor mala o daipoten to. Nikawrira o sakadademak no tamdaw ato pipacomod to waco malasakalasawad no roma a ’a’adopen, o saka^caaw ka matiya o ’ayam a malasawad. Orasaka “Notimolan ’Apocok katatelek a faco” o sapidama to pala no Notimolan ’Apocok ko pihirateng, 1991 miheca i Mateliya no Sepaniya mihapiw “Notimolan ’Apocok tatelek palapala sadipot tilidan” (Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty), pakapi to 2 tatelek: “Caay to pacomod to Waco i Notimolan ’Apocok pala ato so^daan;

i Notimolan ’Apocok kanatal a polong no Waco kai 1994 miheca 4 folad maemin miliyas.” [9]. Mido’edo tina sapaterep a rikec, nanoya micomoday i Notimolan ’Apocok a kalokitakit a mikingkiway a kasacefang o caay to pihawikid to waco, Notimolan ’Apocok pala o ciawaayay to waco a hekal.Nikawrira o sakadademak no tamdaw ato pipacomod to waco malasakalasawad no roma a ’a’adopen, o saka^caaw ka matiya o ’ayam a malasawad. Orasaka “Notimolan ’Apocok katatelek a faco” o sapidama to pala no Notimolan ’Apocok ko pihirateng, 1991 miheca i Mateliya no Sepaniya mihapiw “Notimolan ’Apocok tatelek palapala sadipot tilidan” (Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty), pakapi to 2 tatelek: “Caay to pacomod to Waco i Notimolan ’Apocok pala ato so^daan;

i Notimolan ’Apocok kanatal a polong no Waco kai 1994 miheca 4 folad maemin miliyas.” [9]. Mido’edo tina sapaterep a rikec, nanoya micomoday i Notimolan ’Apocok a kalokitakit a mikingkiway a kasacefang o caay to pihawikid to waco, Notimolan ’Apocok pala o ciawaayay to waco a hekal.