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Sapisanamal no itiya:ay a tamdaw.

O sapisanamal no tamdaw o nano kacowat no kaki ato kafafalifalic no punka, kasasiromaroma no finacadan no tamdaw ato paloma’an a macowat to. Sapisanamal o sakanga’ay no tamdaw mirahekad to kakaenen, pakayni i ni’ecakan a kakaenen sakaci’iced ato mawanengay nanom. Padihekoay ko namal, sakanga’ay no tamdaw i li’etecay dadaya, ato si^enaway romi’ad a dademak. Padamso ko namal to roma nipatediay no tataparan a likat, malosapico’a’angaw to komaenay to titi a ’a’adopen a ’icel. [1]

I ’ayaw no pifalic no aniniay tamdaw, o itiya:ay ho a tamdaw o masetikay, mato sowal no aniniay tamdaw to masetikay a tato’asan, tinako tomirengay tamdaw, latek nai ’ayaw no 100 ’ofad miheca tangasa 150 ’ofad mihecaan ato i ’ayaw ho.

Patinako 證據[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nowalian Afelika 東非[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sa’ayaway pisanamal no tamdaw a patinakoan nai adihayay i Nowalian Afelika kacipinangan, tinako i Kenya ngataay no Palinko a fanaw Cisowanya (Chesowanja), Kopifara (Koobi For a) ato Olocisailiyi (Olorgesailie). I lalinik no Cisowanya a sera matama ko kahengangay sera, dotocen kai rikisi tangasa anini (Before Present) ’ayaw 142 ’ofad mihecaan. [2] onini a sota’ mato niliyawan ho mifa^edet ko kenel, pahapinang o sapipa’atekakaw miliyawan mipafa^edet tangasa 400°C ko cedet nira.

Itiraay i Kopifara a FxJjzoE etal ato i FxJj50 a etal matama to nano nicengelan to kahengangay mitaringay a sera, mato 200-400°C ko fa^edet a mafalic, pahapinang to tomirengay tamdaw mato ’ayaw no 150 ’ofad mihecaan o midemakay to namal. [2] o itiraay i Kenya a Olocisailiyi a etal, ira ko cecay matiyaay o paror ma’iyotay sera. Matama no tamdaw ko mimingay a ’afadeng itira, nikawrira latek o nano tataparan madematay kilang a kinatodoh. [2]

Itira i Isopiya a Gadeb no 8E etal, matama o malecaday nano pinatodoh a ’afadeng a ma’ariay ’ongcoy, nakawrira oni a ’ongcoy miliyawan a mitodoh alatek o nano itiraay a nidemakan no celal. [2] malecaday toni a ma’ariay pakayni i tomirengay tamdaw mapatireng no Auciwlian a punka malacalay ko tahasidayay dafong a matama.

Itira i Isopiya Awase ’alo’aloan, ira ko kahengangay a dita’ mataring i kasahefong, matiniay a sera latek nai 200°C to fa^edetay. Matiniay mapafa^edetay demak parorohen i nano makacorahay a kilakilang, saka itiyaay a tamdaw o mitodohay cangra to palapala a etal. [2] Nano matodohay a fokeloh makatama to, malecad to, o nano celal a ’afadeng a’ongcoy ira itira i liyok no etal a matama.

Notomolan Afelika 南非[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i Notomolan Afelika a Swatekelangs matama ko i ’aya:way a nidemakan no tamdaw a namal a tinako, itiya i Auciwlian a mihecaan a sakatayal, o nano ’okak pinasanga’ ato ira ko no ’ayaway nano ’okak pinatodoh. [2] Oni a etal pahapinang to tomirengay tamdaw a nikaenan to ’a’adopen tinako. Itira i Notomolan Afelika a Hearth a dihif matama mataringay a pinatodohan, matoor ’ayaw tangasa anini 20-70 ’ofad mihecaan. Ira ko pinapina a malecaday matamaay a tinako: Montagu dihif (la’ed tahanini 5.8 - 20 ’ofad muheca) ato Klasies ’alo (la’ed tahanini 12 - 13 ’ofad muheca). [2]

Piti’eran a tinako nai Zampiya a kalambo a cascas. Itira matama ko ’ayaway tamdaw midemakan a namal a nisanga’an sakadademak a nakenelan, halo mamalantoay kilang, ’afel, malakahengangay to a dita’, ira ko malahafelay a rengos, pinalengaw ato nano mi’id’idan a ’atekakay a kasoy. Toni etal nipipatedian a langto miheca malalat la’ed tahanini 6.1 ’ofad muheca ano Ancisoan pinalalat la’ed tahanini 11 ’ofad muheca. [2]

Namal nao saki Cinwan punka nipafa’edetan fokeloh a mipa’atekak a masanga’ ko sakadademak. [3][4][5] Pnini a pikingkiw caay kadengan la’ed tahanini 7.2 ’ofad miheca a etal ko midemakay to namal a nakenelan, oya la’ed tahanini 16.4 ’ofad miheca a etal ko nikaira. [3]

Ngata nowalian 近東[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1930 miheca matama[6] i Israil a Bnot Ya'akov Bridge latek o nano paror nitodohan nalacolan[7][8], mahapinang o tomirengay tamdaw ato misasayhoay tamdaw la’ed tahanini ’ayaw 79-69 ’ofad miheca[9] irato: ko no tamdawan a pisanamal. [10][11]

Itira i kawali no Taylawifo to 12 kongli a Qesem Cave, tinako ikoray a masafa^eloh kalelenan la’ed tahanini 382,000 tangasa 200,000 miheca marariday midemak to namal, adihayay pinatodoh a ’okak ato nifaedetan a mataringay sota’ pahapinang to i tatihiay no namal a pina’adop ato pinatolidacan a titi. [12]

Pa’esosan 遠東[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I Cungko Sansi a Sihoto nalacolan, matama ’ayaw 180 ’ofad miheca nao nicocoan a ’okak no ’a’adopen mafalicay ko cengel a pinatodohan. Itira i Yinnan a Yinmo nalacolan matama ko fohetingay nicocoan a ’okak no ’a’adopen. Cawa matama ko malafokelohay tamirengay tamdaw malakohetingay a ’okak ato mataringay a ’afel.

Cukotien 周口店[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I Cungko Cukotien a nalacolan matama la’ed tahanini ’ayaw 50-150 ’ofad miheca namal a tinako[13], nai Locality 1 tangasa Layer 10 a tamirengay tamdaw mala’ocoyay pinatodoh a ’okak, pinapecih a fokeloh, ’afel, ’afo ato masaparoday takar. Pinapina a ’okak o apelahay to ko cengel, caay ko nanoMon o nano nitodohan a ’okak, no Hongwaysyen a likat mahapinang a malamarar. Nano mikingkiwan to romaroma a ’okak matodoh malalangdaway, palecaden i tayhi latek i nalacolan ira ko fohecalay, kalaliyaway ato fohetingay a ’okak. Layer 10 masanga’ ko kahirahira no maramaradan (si, lyu, tyi ato cya) a ’afo, nika awaay ko no kilang a ’afo a Si.

Ilopiya 歐洲[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I Ilopiya adihay ko nalacolan patinako to tomirengay tamdaw misanamalay, I Hungkari a Vértesszőlős matama ko Samu ato matodohay a ’okak, nika awaay matama ko ’afo. I Sepaniya a Torralba ato Ambrona, matama ko la’ed tahanini ’ayaw 300-500 ’ofad miheca no Aseli punka a fokelohan[2]. I Feranse a Saint-Estève-Janson a Escale Cave matama ko kahengangay a sota’ ato limaay la’ed tahanini ’ayaw 20 ’ofad miheca a masaparoday takar[2]. Maedef ko tinako pahapinang la’ed tahanini ’ayaw 125,000 miheca o malenakay to ko pisanamal.

Kafalic no wakawak 行為改變[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pisanamal ato pihakelong sakaira no likat malosafalic no wakawak no tamdaw. [14] kadademak no tamdaw caay to kadengan noromi’adan. Roma, oya nicocoan a ’a’adopen atomikalatay to tamdaw a fao milaliw miliyas to namal ato ’acefel. [1][2]

Kafalic no nikaenan飲食改變[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nawhani o caayay ka nga’ay kemkemen pinalengaw, tinako kifetolay a canot ato koetengay, orasaka ’ayaw no ka ira no namal, ca’ang a lamit, ma’ikesay papah, milaladay lamit ato cilamitay o caay ko sa’ayaway malokakaenen. [15] Makotay, o cacepcepen no tamdaw a pinalengaw o ci’odaxay ato malananemay, tinako sapaloma, falo ato ciheciay losay. Patatekoen cisawarakay sapaloma ato milecaday malananomay saka nga’ay kakaenen no tamdaw, oya cisawarakay ato kiyasafa marahekad mapalawad to sawarak nira. [15] Tomirengay tamdaw a wadis ato mikafitay nikaenan mala’om to ko ’atekakay titi ato loengelay dating a makaen. [16][17]

Hafo taykako ci Richard Wrangham sanay o mirahekadan a pinalengaw makaen o sakalahad katelian no pano’, nawhani koetengay a kakaenen malopahakelongan malananemay kakaenen sakanga’ay no tatirengan, tatirengan no tamdaw mahetec ko Kaloli. [18][19][20] pakayni to namal mapafa’edetay a Tapayce mafalic ko nikaenan malaci’epocay.

Pakayni i pirahekad no tamdaw to kakaenen pakayni i malantoay koheting a ’okak no nicocoan a ’a’adopen matama, matiniay a pirahekad to titi rahoday kaenen, fangsis ko kaen to manta’ay titi. [23][24] Ranikay malasakaci’icel no tatirengan ko ma’ecakay to manta’ay, matengeran ko pirahekad ato nilacadan ko pirahekad, “oya makakafitay ’odax malahoper, malasakanga’ay mahetec.” [24] pirahekadan itiya a mapatay ko fao ato sakaci’adada a fayking makaen saka’eca kawarak a ciadada.

Tanengnengan pitiri’an 參考資料[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

參見

1.人類演化

2.狩獵假說

3.生火

4. en:Savanna theory

5.社會文化演化


1.Price, David. Energy and Human Evolution. [2007-11-12]. (原始內容存檔於2012-06-17).

2.James, Steven R. Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence. 3.Current Anthropology (University of Chicago Press). February 1989, 30 (1): 1–26 [2007-11-12].  

doi:10.1086/203705.

4.Brown KS, Marean CW, Herries AI, Jacobs Z, Tribolo C, Braun D, Roberts DL, Meyer MC, Bernatchez J.

(2009). Fire As an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans. Science, 325: 859 862.doi:10.1126/science.1175028

5.Webb J. Domanski M. (2009). Fire and Stone. Science, 325: 820-821.doi:10.1126/science.1178014

Callaway. E. (13 August 2009)Earliest fired knives improved stone age tool kit. (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) New Scientist, online

6.An Acheulian biface assemblage from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: indications of African affinities The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, discovered in the early 1930s..

7.古人類也會野外燒烤?[永久失效連結], 歐亞人用火史79萬年 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) 歐洲和亞洲古人類可能早在79萬年前就已經開始使用人工火了。

8.《新發現》-盜火80萬年[永久失效連結] 2008年10月,以色列考古學家尼拉·阿爾珀森-阿菲爾(Nira Alperson-Afil)發表的論文將人類用火的歷史指針撥到了79萬年前存档副本. [2010-05-09]. (原始內容存檔於2010-01-18).

9.Rincon, Paul. Early human fire skills revealed. BBC News. April 29, 2004 [2007-11-12]. (原始內容存檔於2018-06-13).

10.人類浩大的家族史展覽 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) 人類第一次自己生火來使用的時間大約是79萬年前,可靠證據來自以色列 Hebrew University 的蓋謝爾貝諾特雅各布(Gesher Benot Ya'aqov)。

11.Karkanas P, Shahack-Gross R, Ayalon A; 等. Evidence for habitual use of fire at the end of the Lower Paleolithic: site-formation processes at Qesem Cave, Israel (PDF). J. Hum. Evol. August 2007, 53 (2): 197–212 [2010-01-15]. PMID 17572475. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.04.002. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2019-11-28).

12.First Control of Fire by Human Beings--How Early?. [2007-11-12]. (原始內容存檔於2011-08-24).

13.Stone, Linda; Paul F. Lurquin, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. Genes, Culture, And Human Evolution: A Synthesis. Blackwell Publishing. 2007: 33.

14.Stahl, Ann Brower. Hominid Dietary Selection Before Fire. Current Anthropology (University of Chicago Press). April 1984, 25 (2): 151–168. doi:10.1086/203106.

15.Viegas, Jennifer. News in Science - Homo erectus ate crunchy food - 22/11/2005. November 22, 2005 [2007-11-12]. (原始內容存檔於2020-08-02).

16.Early Human Evolution:  Homo ergaster and erectus. [2007-11-12]. (原始內容存檔於2017-07-25).

17.William R. Leonard. Food for Thought: Into the Fire. Scientific american. [2008-02-22]. (原始內容存檔於2012-06-17).

18.Wrangham R, Conklin-Brittain N. Cooking as a biological trait (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol

Integr Physiol. 2003 Sep, 136 (1): 35–46 [2010-01-15]. PMID 14527628. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00020-5. (原始內容 ([失效連結] – Sep&btnG=Search Scholar search)存檔於2005-05-19).

19.Lambert, Craig. The Way We Eat Now. Harvard Magazine. May–June 2004 [2010-01-15]. (原始內容存檔於2017-12-16).

20.Weiner, S.; Q. Xu, P. Goldberg, J. Liu, O. Bar-Yosef. Evidence for the Use of Fire at Zhoukoudian, China. Science. 1998, 281: 251–253. doi:10.1126/science.281.5374.251.

21.Eisley, Loren C. Fossil Man and Human Evolution. Yearbook of Anthropology (University of Chicago

Press). 1955: 61–78.

22.What evidence is there that Homo erectus used fire? Why did they use it?. [2007-11-12]. (原始內

容存檔於2015-07-09).

23.Gibbons, Ann. Food for Thought (pdf). Science. June 15, 2007, 316: 1558 [2007-11-12]. doi:10.1126/science.316.5831.1558. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2008-12-16)


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