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Morocco

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Morocco (摩洛哥)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Morocco hongti a kitakit (Arab: المملكة المغربية‎, Berber sowal: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ), tadasowal Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ[10]) o ka’amisay Africa pakaetip Maghreb a cecay Hontian Rikec a kitakit. O kawali matatongod to Algeria, katimol o nikowanan no Sahara sa’etal ato Mauritania, kaetip mirepingay to Tasiyang, tala’amis o Gibraltar a ’efong (Strait of Gibraltar) ato Tenokay riyar (the Mediterranean) ato Portugal, Spain masasikecor. O syoto o Rabat, ta’akay maci o Casablanca[11].

I likisi a Morocco o pararocorocok to nai adihayay misiikeday a hongtian sakowan, sa’ayaway hongti i 788 mihecaan mapatireng ci Idris hongti. I ci Murabit hongti ato ci Mowahid hongti a pikowan, o ’icel no Morocco o satadamaanay itiya, o sera tahira i kaetip ka’amis a ledef, o ’icel tahira i Iberia sa’etal. Padoedo ni Marin hongti ato Saad hongti itiya, mapatalaw no papotalay kitakit, nikawrira macalap no Ottoman Turkey, malamasiikeday i kaetip ka’amis a kitakit. O Alavi hongti i 1631 mihecaan mapatireng, o pikowan tangasa anini.

I 1912 miheca Morocco o micingcingan ko sakadama noni a kitakit, o sera maaisalay ko France ato Spain. I 1956 miheca Morocco miliyaw masiiked, nanoya malaci’icelay kitakit itira toya sa’etal, i 1979 miheca malaheci ko pi’emet to kaetipay a Sahara ’etal, oni kaetipay Sahara a pikowan caay kakahien no kasakitakit, nikawrira o Arab nipatatekoan kitakit mihayda to kaetipay Sahara a pikowan o Morocco ko ciseraay. Sacisowal sa ko Morocco to ka’amisay lilis no riyar o Spain ko citodongay masasicalay to Ceota, Melilla ato no Spain mikowanan a sera[12].

Morocco o malitosaay ko hontian Rikec a kitakit, o sifo ko citodongay to sakadademak, o pitelaek to rikec o sifo ato kalomaocan k citodongay, ira ko ’icel no malahongtiay to sakidemak atopitelek, saki sofitay, kacacofelan a demak ato pakayraan a demak ira ko ’icel a sowal. O Islam ko pakayraan no Morocco, no kitakit a sasowalen halo aniniay a Arab sowal ato Berber a sowal, nai 2011 mihecaan Berber a sowal malano kitakitay to a sowal[13][14]. Morocco a tamdaw o no Arab ko sakasasowal naira, no aniniay a sowal ira to ko caayay ka lecad; nao likisian, Morocco manga’ay naira somowal to France sowal ato Spain a sowal.

Morocco o no Arab kitakit a nipatatekoan, Africa nipatatekoan ato Tenokay nipatatekoan a lekakop, o saka loma a ta’akay kicay i Africa[15].

Flag of Morocco
Flag of Morocco

Likisi (歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mila’ed ta anini to ’ayaw no 40 ’ofad miheca no itiya:ay ho a tamdaw ira to ko dademakay i Morocco. Mikadkaday hakasi manengneng mihapiw itini to i ’ayaway iraay took tamdaw a maro’. Sa’ayaway itini maro’ a tamdaw o Berber a tamdaw awaay to ko kacipinangan. I 7 sici i, tayni ko Arab tamdaw, itira i 8 sici to ko pipatireng to hongti a kitakit. Tenok a sici (Middle Ages) itini mikowanay ira ko Berber a tamdaw. Morocco hongti kitakit (Arab: لمملكة المغربية‎, Lomaan: al-mamlakat al-Maġrib) ko ngangan no kitakit o nai Arab sowal ko pipangangan to saetipay “Maghreb”, I ’ayaway no Congko ira ko sowal to Morocco a nitilidan, ira ko Song a tamdaw ci Caw-ro-se (co-fan-ce)”Mokali kitakit”. Min miheca “kon-yi wanko cicu” pasowal sa to Morocco o “Maloko kitakit”.

Nai 15 sici masateka, o Morocco micalap no adihayay kaetipay kitakit. I 20 sici o Morocco ira ko atalawan to saka 1 kalalood no hekal. I 1912 miheca 3 flad, France micingcing to Morocco. I 1956 miheca 3 folad, misiiked a kitakit[16].

Anini a Morocco Alavi hongti nai 17 sici mitekaay to mikowan, i 1957 miheca, Morocco Sultan Muhammad saka lima mihapiw mifalic hongti kitakit, Morocco Sultan kitakit mafalic pala Morocco hongti kitakit. Milaheci to Hontian Rikec, nikawrira Hontian ira ko ’icel tosaki laloma’an demak atokalomaocan, orasaka o tosaay Hontian Rikec sakiwan.

Sici (政治)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

The Kingdom of Morocco map

Morocco Hontian Rikec adihayay kasacefang a Islam kitakit, hongtoi ira ko sata’akay a ’icel sakowan. Kalomaocan masiiked to Kararemay pikaykian ato Fafa'eday pikaykian tosa, Fafa'eday pikaykian ira ko 325 tamdaw no lomaocay o finawlan ko misingkiway, lima miheca ko rekad. Kararemay pikaykian ira ko270 tamdaw to nai kasaniyaro’ a taypiaw nisingkiwan, tolo miheca mafalic ko tolo no cecay a tamdaw.

Muhammad saka enem nai 1999 miheca macakat pa’icel to saka nikapolongan a kitakit, saki laloma’an misacedeng to saki pakoyocay ato hosyo to sakarihaday nosyakasy, sakipapotal micedengay a Islam kitakit kodemak. O sasifo’ananay ko Morocco saki tenokay (Middle East) ato Europe Amilika a kalalicayan. I 2004 miheca 6 folad, Amilika congtong ci Bush mihapiw paini to caayay ko saka’amisay tata'angay sa'etipay riyaran a kakaketonan lekatep a lekatep ko Morocco.

Nai 2011 miheca 2 folad 20 romi’ad miteka, Morocco finawlan mirarakat i lalan to saki nikapolongan. I 2011 miheca 3 folad 9 romi’ad, ci Muhammad saka enem hongti mihapiw o mamilaheci mifalic to saki kimpo a demak, o salaloma’an o papatireng to kakeridan ato ’icelan, palowad to sakapakoniyah ato salongoc nofinawlan, patireng tomisiikeday a hoying a kasasipakayraan, milaheci to saki nikapolongan a sici[17]. I saka 6 folad 17 romi’ad, mipasadak ko hongti to sapifalic to sakisici a halaka, nai no tirengan nohongti pasayra nikapolongan a hontian rikec, misahalaka i 7 folad 1 romi’ad patorod i kapolongan pitopa.

Pakayraan no dademaken: o ’adihayay a ’icel no hongti patoroden i kakeridan no citodongay ato kalomaocan; ikor o mamidemak t no finawlan a pisingkiw, o kakeridan no citodongay i o pakalowiday a cefang ko misakapotay; o kakeridan a citodongay ko mamiocor to cacitodong no sifo, halo midemakay ato no kitakit a kakeridan no katayalan, sangayawen o kakeridan ko ci’icelay mipalasawad to kalomacan[18].

I 2011 miheca 7 folad 1 romi’ad, mikapolongan pitopa ko Morocco finawlat to fa^elohay kimpo. Saka 2 romi’ad to pacereman, o salaloma’an citodongay no Morocco ci Shar Awi mihapiw to nisilsilan a telek 98.49% ko mihaydaany. Onini a losid pahapinang to kitakit o halinga’ayay ko pakayraan to sapifalic to kimpo a rarakaten.

Fa^elohay kimpo a losid i:

Masataa’ang to ’icel no kalomaocan, mangalef mapa’icel ko tosaay ko kalomaocan faco no kitakit a fafa'eday kalomaocan ko cacitodong. Fafa'eday kalomaocan i limaay to cecay a lomaocay to nipicoker a mitomadaw to malatapangay, ano eca micoker to toloay no cecay a lomaocay to sakimalatapangay a sapipalasawat, nanoya o mamikotay to hongti a mihepolay a ’icel.

Fa^elohay kimpo mileko to misiikeday a hoying, no hoying no kitakit o malahoyingay ato polong no salongoc no tamdaw wiyyinhuy misakapotay a satakaraway mikowan a wiyyinhuy, o citodongay satakaraway hoying caay ka i laloma’ay no wiyyinhuy.

I fa^elohay nokimpo, o hongti no Morocco o tatapangan no kitakit, o satakaraway no sakilalan, sakiriyar, sakikarayan a sofitay ato tatapangan no pakayraan, pasasiiked citodong to “malatapangay wiyyinhuy” at fa^elohay patireng “sakarihaday no kitakit a wiyyinhuy” a citodongay, mirepatay to ta’akay a dademaken saikoray miketonay, itiya o sakiniyaro’ a mikeriday ato miocor to kacacofelan a dademakay[19].

Palapalaan (地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i sakaetip ka’amisay no Africa, katimol no Gibraltar ’efong, sacomod to Tasiyang nai kasifo’ay riyar, no hekalay a calay to 1700 kongli. Masasifoday ko kasahefonghefong no sera, sasifo’ ato ka’amisay o masacakilay ko Atlas lotolotok, kawali ato katimol o takaraway ato a’ayaway no Sahara a taporo, dengan o kaetip ka’amis a lilis noriyar ko dadaya’ paeneray a dafdaf[20]. Nawhani masa’apilisay ko ledef a matena’ no Atlas lotolotok ko katimolay Sahara kohkoh tafotafokan fa^edetay calap, masamihecaan ko nga’ayay romi’ad no Morocco, malengaw ko hana rengos, kasaimahan no  sowal to “I fa’edatay romi’ad saemelay kitakit”, ira hook “ka’amisay Africa a pisahanaan” a sasowalen.

Mapahawikid kofa’edatay ato no Canary a si’enaway, masa’edasay ko fa’edetay romi’ad; Atlas lotolotok mifatelay to kitakit, ira ko Toubkal tadatokos (4,165m) satakaraway no kitakit.

Kadofah komasacilahay tayhi no Morocco, sa’sien ira ko 1100 qalqalan ton, calap to 75% no hekal. Roma a fodawan ira ko marar, temera, sin, men, pi, tong, cilah, cisyak, sikitang, simal fokeloh. simal fokeloh masoped 1000 walwalan ton, halo tadasimal 60 walwalan ton.

O kasasikiked a sakowan (行政區劃)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Morocco kitakit misaliyad 12 ko sa’etal. Halo misaetan no Morocco a kaetipay Sahara sa’etal malitoloay. Ta’akay sa’etal patireng to 62 kanatal ato 13 ko mikatok citodongay[21].

Fangko Ta’akay sa’etal Syotoko tamdaw(2014) [22]
1 Tangier-Tetouan-Al Houceima Tangier 3,556,729
2 Kawaliay ta’akay sa’etal Oujda 2,314,346
3 Fes -Meknes ta’akay sa’etal Fes 4,236,892
4 Rabat -Sierra-Kenitra ta’akay sa’etal Rabat 4,580,866
5 Beni Mellal -Henifra ta’akay sa’etal Beni Mellal 2,520,776
6 Casablanca -Setat ta’akay sa’etal Casablanca 6,861,739
7 Marrakech -Safi ta’akay sa’etal Marrakech 4,520,569
8 Rashidia -Tafilalet ta’akay sa’etal Rashidia 1,635,008
9 Seuss-Massey ta’akay sa’etal Agadir 2,676,847
10 Galmin -Nong River ta’akay sa’etal [A] Galmin 433,757
11 Laayoune-Sakia-Amra ta’akay sa’etal [A] Laayoune 367,758
12 Dakhla-Golden valley ta’akay sa’etal [A] Dakhla 142,955

Tadamaanay maci (主要城市)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Syoto no Morocco o Rabat; sata’akay maci o minato Casablanca. Roma i 2014 miheca tona mitoki to pangangan a tamdaw mata’elif 500,000 ko tamdaw a maci Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Sirra ato Tangier[23].

Kicay (經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Morocco o saka tolo a kinaira ko sakaira no kicay, o mamala cemahaday a kitakit, i Africa saka lima, ka’amisay Africa saka tolo a sakikicay. Sakaira no kicay i o mirarakatay, mifotingay ato sakikoyasi a pasadakan, cilah a koyasi nisopedan ira ko 1100 walwalan ton, sakakaay no hekal. O maomahay ato mipakaenay kanga’ayan to, nika o rmi’ad ko haenen. O adihayay a sakinaira mitier to papotalay to sadama ko Morocco, o France ko saka tosa padamaay, saka cecay ta’akay ko Spain. Macedeng ko kacomahad to kicay nofinawlan. I 2010 miheca i salaloma’an no Morocco a kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc (GNP) 917 walwalan Amilika payso, no tamdaw 2,839 Amilika payso. Kacomahad no kicay 3.2%, kafeso no dafong 1.4%.

Sakaromakat (交通)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pakaseraay a lalan ko kimetoay. I laloma’an sakaromakat ko micalapay a todong, saheto 90% ko faso ato 75% a micolo’ay to dafong i lalan.

Marar lalan: o patodong tolalan ira ko1907 kongli, o roma a lalan 483 kongli, no tingki a marar lalan 1014 kongli. Roma 765 kongli ko lalan no micolo’ay to cilah a tayhi. I 2003 miheca, o Morocco ato Spain masasowalay, malakapot misanga’ to pakayraay i lalinik no riyar i Gibraltar ‘efong (Strait of Gibraltar) patireng to marar a lanan. Nai 2010 miheca miteka tina tayal, matotongod to Europe, Africa tosaay kanaal sarakatay no marar a lalan, nikawrira tangasa i 2021 miheca, onini a tayal awaay ko so’elinay nidemakan. 2018 miheca, i Casablanca – Tangier saharakatay marar faso, o no Morocco sakacecay a saharakatay marar faso, o i Africa sakacecay a saharakatay marar faso[24].

Sera lalan: o karaya’ ira ko 64452 kongli, o saka cecay lalan 15907 kongli, saka tosa lalan 9367 kongli, saka tolo lalan 39178 kongli. Tangasa i 2009 miheca, saharakatay lalan 916 kongli, ira Rabat – Tanggier, Rabat – Casablanca – Sedat, Rabat – Meknes kasa calay no saharakatay lalan. Midotoc to Morocco saka tosa no kasaniyaro’ a lalan 10 miheca a halaka (2005-2015), to mihecaan mipatireng to 1500 kongli ko lalan, tangasa paherekan polong no kitakit 80% ko maomahay lalan marakat ito.

Nanom lalan: iraay anini a minato ira ko 30, o 11 minato o kahiraay sakadademak, ira ko 11 picolo’, pifoting a minato. Tadaminato o Casablanca, Mohammedia, Safi, Tangier, Agadir, i 2009 miheca polong no micomoday masadakay ira ko 6682 ’ofad ton. I Casablanca o sata’akay minato, micalap to polong no minatoto 37%; Tangier-tenokay riyar sakacecay nitayalan malaheciay to, misadadahal to saka tosa, o mala’a'akay i Africa ato tenokay riyar minato.

Kakarayan picolo’: polong no kitakit ira ko 28 a hikokiciw, 12 o kasakitakit a hikokiciw, tinako Casablanca Muhammad saka lima kasakitakit hikokiciw, Rabat-Sierra kasakitakit hikkiciw, Marrakech-Minara kasakitakit hikokiciw. Morocco hongtian hikoki kosi ira ko 33 hikoki, mapalalan ko 75 calay lalan, tayra i sepatay masafaniyotay a 32 kitakit, o nirakatan 30 ’ofad kongli. I 2008 miheca faso nicolo’an 1060 ’ofad tamdaw. 2005 miheca, Morocco ato Europe nipatatekoan masasi tilid “mafohat kakarayan” latelek, Morocco hikoki a icifa saki Europe hikoki kosi mafohat mapalalan.

I 1996 miheca 12 folad, pakayra i Algeria, Morocco tangasa Spain, Portugal a Maghreb tangasa Europe a tataparan a lahod macayat to ko calay. Onini calay 1385 kongli ko kakaya’, sa’ayaw mihecaan pataynian a tataparan a lahod 90 walwalan a m3, Morocco to mihecaan ira 10 walwalan a tataparan a lahod ko mialaan. I 2005 miheca, Morocco sa’ayaw palacalay tayra i sadingkian, sakadamso’ to 17% saka cidingkiaw.

Tamdaw (人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Morocco 80% a finawlan o taloc no Berber tamdaw, 20% o camel. 3000 ’ofad tamdaw a nisowalan o Arab sowal,. 1200 ’ofad tamdaw tangasa 1500 ’ofad tamdaw a nisowalan o Berber a sowal. 99% muslin, itini to 67% Sunni mitooray, 30% misatekeday muslin, roma ira ko 0.9% Kristokiw, 0.2% Yotayakiw.

Kiwiko (教育)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Morocco padamso to caayay papaiso a pitilid, tangasa i ka’emangay. Oni kitakit nai 2012 miheca a mafana’ay to tilid ira ko 72%[26]. Morocco ira ko 40 a daykako, takaraway kakoyin ato mikingkiway kakoyin, malesap i kasamaci no kitakit.

Ponka (文化)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nawhani o kaitiraan pala ato likisi, Morocco a ponka macamolay to Arab, Berber, Yotaya ato Europe a kasasiroma a ponka[27], ’ayaway hongti ci Hassan saka tosa pasowal: “Molengaway i Africa ko Morocco, nikawrira o papah sa mihedotay to fali no Europe a kilang” [28]. Nai misiiked, o picoka, pito’toan, kaloradiw, kikik misifay ato pisaika no Morocco macowatay[29].

Sasowalen ato pakayraan (語言與宗教)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Arab sowal ko sakasasowal, nika o Berber sowal nihaydaan no kitakit a kasasowalan, Arab sowal ko no kitakit a sowal ato Hasaniya sowal. Nawhani o nicalapan no Europe a likisi ato macowat ko rarakatan, ’alomanay tamdaw no Morocco mafana’ to sowal no France[30], Spain[31] ato Inkiris[32].

O Islam ko pakayraan no kitakit. I 1993 miheca 8 folad mipasarayan to Hassan saka tosa a Mosque, maro’ i Casablanca misi’ayaw to Tasitang, saheto o fahecalay fokeloh ko sapisanga’, o takaraw 200m, kisafa to i Mecca a Mosque ato i Azhar Mosque no Egypt a saka tolo ta’akay Mosque i hekal, o sapisanga’ a patireng o tadamaanay i hekal. O mafohatay a kitakit ko Morocco, saki fafahiyan o mamipengec ano eca pipengec caay pipatangic, manga’ay pakoniyah sa[33], mi’efec to kaciburqa ko kitakit[34].

Onto (體育)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O onto no kitakit micokaray to mali ko kaolahan. I 1956 miheca a no hekalan cup, o Morocco kitakit a micokaray to mali o malalifet i kasasikedan to Africa cefang. Roma a sasalamaen no kitakit a onto ira ko comikayay, lalimaay tamdaw micokaray to mali, lanciw, mikemo, sasemo, golf. I 2022 miheca a hekalan cup, o micokaray to mali micomod i sasepatay ko Morocco kitakit, malasa’ayaway micomod sakasepat i hekalan cup a Africa ato Arab mimaliay.

Pirarakatan (旅遊資源)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pirarakatan o satadamaanay sakaira nokicay no Morocco[35], i safa sakatosa no sakapicomod no payso ko cilah a tayhi sakaira. I 2018 miheca ira ko 1230 ’ofad ko mirarakatay i Morocco[36]. O pirarakatan itira i sepatay hongtian i ta’akay maci: Fez, Marrakech, Meknes ato Rabat; ika “ka’amisay Africa a spay” i Casablanca, ka’amis co’ed no Tangier, Rocok no hekal a maci i Essaouira, “landaway maci” i Chefchaouen; ato lilis no Tasiyang, Sahara kohkoh ato ka’amisay Africa sa’akawangay tokos Toubkal a tataparan ko pialaan to losid nina ika.

Kakaenen (飲食)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kakaenen no Morocco macacamolay to no Moore, Europe ato tenokay riyar a sikaen[37], tadamaanay no Morocco a dteng halo Gusmi, macidemay sioy titi (Taji), Tacotuca salad. Kaolahan a nanoman o “atai”, cilamlamay to saemelay ato kasaociya; satadamaanay ko ociya i Morocco a ponka[38], o sakalali’ay no ’orip ko ociya. I lomaloma’an to, adihay ko masamaamaanay a sakatayal a copo. I Morocco, sapihamham to lafang o saemelay sapafangsis ko sapatala, pahapinang to mihamhamay pinangan.

Posi ponka (貓文化)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tadaponka no Morocco ko posi ato kasakapot i saki’orip to romi’ami’ad[39], ano i maci ato i niyaro’ ko Morocco a tamdaw, ira aca ko posi manengneng. Itiniay tamdaw to sakiposi o sakacipakahadidiay misanga’ayay ko pinengneng, onini paki Islam a kimadan, ato maolahay makorac a tataparan[33].

Lisin ato pahanhanan (節假日)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Romi’ad[40] Ngangan Niyaro’ Pakapi
1 folad 11 romi’ad Pisiikedan mihapiw
5 folad 1 romi’ad Malingaday romi’ad
7 folad 30 romi’ad Muhammad saka enem kala hongtian romi’ad
8 folad 14 romi’ad Milosimet (kaetip sahara sa’etal) pihiratengan
8 folad 20 romi’ad Hongti ato finawlan pifalican
8 folad 21 romi’ad Kapah romi’ad Muhammad saka enem kasofocan romi’ad
11 folad 6 romi’ad Kangdaway sapicomod romi’ad Morocco sifo i 1975 miheca palekapot to finawlan micomd kaetipay Sahara sa’etal
11 folad 18 romi’ad Pisiikedan romi’ad

Sofitay (軍事)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Naikora no Morocco i 1956 miheca misiiked miteka patireng to sofitay sakaci’icel no kitakit, i 2010 mihecaan polong no kitakit a sofitay 19.5 ’ofad ko tamdaw[41], ira ko hongti lalanay hitay, riyaray hitay, karayan hitay, ira ho ko hongti mirikecay, midipangay ato pataroday hitay. O riyaray hitay saikoray mapatireng, itiya i 1960 mihecaan mipatireng.

Seraan kalaliyang (領土爭議)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nai piliyas to France madipot a misiiked i 1956 mihecaan ko Morocco, itiyaay ho Franco Spain iraay ko kalaliyangan to sera. hongti ci Mohammad saka lima itiya, o Tangier mapatiko to Morocco, itiya masasowal to Spain, toya miheca nai ka’amis miliyas ko Spain Morocco. 1958 miheca Ifni kalalood masasitilid to “Sintra sapatonek” milayap ko i Tarfaya sa’etalay (Tarfaya Strip), mahayda i 1969 miheca a “Fes sapatonek” milayap Ifni, 1979 miheca Mauritania miliyas ikor micalap to katimolay a Golden ’efong a sa’etal (Oued Eddahab) [42]

I Africa picalapan itiya, o papinapina a sician no Morocco, o kapot no misiikeday cefang no Morocco, tinako Allal al-Fassi (I 1956 miheca marina’ pasadak “ta’akay Morocco” a cicu), pisiiked no Morocco to pinapina mihecaan mipaini to nisafaloco’an misadadahal to sera. sa’ayaw, Sutan caayay kapihayda a ci’iwi[43]. I 1963 miheca Algeria misiiked kalaloodan, Morocco micalap to kaetipay no Algeria a Tindouf ato Bechar, pasowal o no Morocco a sera. cecay folad ko kasasiwtocan a lalood ato mata’elif to somo’otay tamdaw ko mapatayay madoka’ay a caay ka sasipaterep. Tata’ak ko faloco’ ni Al-Fassi i 1960 miheca nicokeran no pinapna tamdaw, tangasa 1969 miheca, itiya mihayda ko Morocco i 1960 mihecaan to pisiikedan no Mauritania a sici sakowan[44].

I kasasi’adaan pinapina mihecaan, o Mauritania kaketeren ko Morocco pikihatiya to katalawan lalefoan, micingcing to sera[45]; I 1970 mihecaan, siwtoc itira to i kaetipay Sahara miteka.

Ano matiratira aca ko Morocco sifo oya to sowal o kaetipay Sahara ato ka’amisay o kaeferan no Spain a sera saan: Ceuta ato Melilla a sera, nikawrira ta’akay Morocco a sera mipaini to sowai i 1960 mihecaan ikoran nisawadan to no Morocco saan. Pasowal kaeyipay Sahara a Polisario a cefang ko taypiaw Sahrawi Arabian Nikapolongan Kitakit mala o caayay ko nipatatekoan a citodongay ko aro’ [46].

Pinengnengan tilid (參考文獻)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

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2. Morocco. World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. [2012-05-13]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2018-12-26).

3. Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, I-1 (PDF). [2013-01-09]. (nano nina’angan (PDF) tilid i 2012-05-18).

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(Inkiris).

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11.Jamil M. Abun-Nasr. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press. 1987-08-20 [2018-11-14]. ISBN 978-0-521-33767-0. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2020-09-02).

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13. Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers: "A Sketch of the Arab Invasion of Ifriqiya in the First Century of the Hijra" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Vol. 3, No. 4, (1925)

14. Schnelzer, Nadine. Libya in the Arab Spring: The Constitutional Discourse since the Fall of Gaddafi. Springer. 10 November 2015. ISBN 9783658113827.

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22. POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME

D’APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014. Haut Commissariat au Plan-High Commission for Planning. 8 April 2015 [29 September 2017] (Arab sowal

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D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014. High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015 [29 September 2017] (Arab sowal ato France

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2011), 124–28. ISBN 0230358519

30. "La Francophonie dans le monde." (Archive) Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. p. 16. Retrieved on 15 October 2012.

31. According to a survey made in 2005 by CIDOB, 21.6% of the population speak Spanish (realinstitutoelcano.org, afapredesa.org). According to the

Morocco Census of 2004, the Morocco population is 29,680,069 (hcp.ma)

32. British Council–United Kingdom (PDF). britishcouncil.org. May 2012. (nano nina’angan (PDF) tilid i 2014-05-13).

33.itini adihay ko hahedoten no posi. Morocco tadamaanay coka ponka. Yahoo! sinpong. Fa^elohay tangal. 2020-2-8 [2022-11-01].

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42. The Sahara conflict: Origins and realities of a regional dispute Embassy of The Kingdom of Morocco in Japan. 2018

43.Douglas Ashford, Johns Hopkins University “kaetipay sici casi”(The Western Political Quarterly)1962-12 saka 1 lolod saka 5fangko saka641-651felih,

saka 645 felih  tilidan The Irredendist Appeal in Morocco and Mauritaniap "total liberation" was Allal al-Fassi, who refused to enter France even to meet with

his Monarch or long-standing nationalist colleagues."(Inkiris)

44. Douglas Ashford, Johns Hopkins University “kaetipay sici casi”(The Western Political Quarterly)1962-12 saka 1 lolod saka 5 fangko saka 646 felih(Inkiris)

45. Mauritania denuncia a Marruecos. ABC Sevilla. 1961-03-16 [2010-05-14]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-08-17).(Spain sowal)

46. Greater Morocco calay mana’ang, mina’ang romi’ad i 2011-07-24.Itini i 32 00 N, 5 00 W, noAfilika ko Morocco.Polong no sekalay i 446,550 sq km “saka 58 ko rayray no ngangan. ”“O sekalay no sera i, 446,300 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 250 sq km ” Polong(全部) i 33,655,786 ko tamdaw.

Itini i 32 00 N, 5 00 W, noAfilika ko Morocco. Polong no sekalay i 446,550 sq km “saka 58 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 446,300 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 250 sq km ” Polong(全部) i 33,655,786 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 67.50%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 11.50%, malo no roma to a sera 21%.

siyoto(首都) O [[[Rabat]](拉巴特) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakapito 30 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Mohammed VI of Morocco(穆罕默德六世), patirengan(擔任) a romi’ad i 1999 a miheca(年) saka 6 folad(月) saka 23 a romi’ad.

Pi’arawan to lakaw