Kenya

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Hata no Kenya

Kenya Kapolongan-Kitakit(肯亞共和國)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kenya Kapolongan-Kitakit(肯亞共和國; Swahili a sowal:Jamhuri ya Kenya; Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Kenya) o Kenya hananay kalopitahidang.O itiraay i Sakawalian-Afrika, misi’ayaway to Indo-Riyar, madado’edo’edoay ko sera ato Somaliya, Isopiya, Katimolay-Sotan, Wukanta, Tansangniya, o kakahad no sera ira ko 58 ’ofad km².[1] o tamdaw no Kenya latek ira ko 5051 ‘ofad, ira ko 42 kasasiroma a finacadan,[2]masakilac to toloay a tata’angay rayray no sowal.[3] :o Panto-sowal,o Niro-sowal ato o Kusto-sowal,ono sifo a sowal o Ikiris a sowal ato Swahili a sowal. O polong no kitakit ira ko 47 a sakowan [4], o syoto Nairopi.[5]

Kaitiraan no Kenya

Itiya ho o nikowanan no Ikiris ko Kenya,1963 miheca saka 12 folad saka 12 romi’ad misiiked nani Ikiris. Hatosa mapecih no Tata’angay-Ta'eman no Sakawalian-Afrika( 東非大裂谷;Great Rift Valley)ko Kenya, mahifalat ato Sifo’ay-Konis no cikiw, sacingangan to “Ciwcika no Sakawalian-Afrika”.11 O cecay no Afrika a sanga’ay ko saka’orip no Kenia isakatimolan no Sahara-Tafotafokan,o liomah, o mihamhamay-tolafang a Tayal,ato misang’ay to dafong o sakakaay piti’eran no tamtamdaw, ira ko pipadahof no kalotamdaw to misanga’ to maamaan ato ira ho ko pira’oy no kalotamdaw to dafong, orasaka, o ‘etan no polong no kitakit i 2015 miheca mara’oday ko 614.1 ‘ok a Payso no Amirika,[6] o kacemahad no saka’orip tahiraay to i 5.6%.[7]

O cefang no Linheko, Afrika-Lekatep,Cowa Pisakakinih-Lekatep,Saopo no 77 kitakit, ato Sakawaliay-Afrika Patatekoan-Lekatep( 東非共同體(簡稱東共體;Ikiris a sowal:East African Community,EAC). Itiniay i syoto no Kenya i Nairopi ko Tatatpangan-Loma’ no Citodongay to Kamaro’an no tamdaw(聯合國人居署;聯合國人類住區規劃署; Ikiris a sowal:United Nations Human Settlements Programme) ato Citodongay to Sakafangcal no Taliyokan(聯合國環境署,又稱為聯合國環境規劃署; Ikiris a sowal:United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP;或 UN Environment).[8]

Rikisi(歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O cecay a katenakan no tamdaw ko Kenya,[9] itini ira ko makarkaray i’ayaway no 250 ’ofad a malafakelohay to a okak no tamdaw.[10] tahira to saka 7sici, ikatimolan no sakawaliay a lislis no riyar adihayay to ko patiyamay, itiniay to ko Arapiya a tamdaw maro’ a patiyam itini. I saka 26 sici, ma’eco no Potawya malanikowan ko lislis no riyar.[11]

Wuforo-Kenyata congtong

1890 miheca, o Ikiris ato Toic maa’isal a mi’eco to Sakawalian-Afrika, o lilam no Ikiris ko Kenya. 1895 miheca, milekal ko sifo no Ikiris to “nidipotan a Sakawalian-Afrika” ko Kenya saan. 1920 miheca, malanikowanan no Ikiris ko Kenya, itiya i 1956 tahira i 1960 miheca, o Cikoyo-Tamdaw(基庫尤; Cikoyo a sowal:Gĩkũyũ) mipacekil to Maomao-pilolol(茅茅起義; Ikiris a sowal:Mau Mau Uprising、Mau Mau Revolt), to sapifelihaw to pikowan no Ikiris.[12] o mikapotay tona Maomao-pilolol a tamdaw cowa ka o Maomao kako sanay to tireng, o "o naifaloco'ay-sofitay no Kenya a sera" (Kenya Land and Freedom Army,decdec a stilid:KLFA) sa ko pitahidang to niyah a tireng.[13]

1963 miheca saka 5 folad midemak to tata’angay sinkiw, Finacadan-Lekatep no Kenya Afrika pakalowaid tona sinkiw. Tona mihecaan saka 6 folad saka 1 romi’ad patireng to Niyah-Pikowan a sifo, saka12 folad saka 12 rom’ad milekal to pisiikedan, mapalasawad to ko 70 ko kakaya’ a pikowan no Ikiris. 1964 miheca saka 12 folad saka 12 romi’ad mapatireng ko Kenya Kapolongan-Kitakit, nikawrira, tahasiay ho i Tata'akay-Ikiris a Lekatep(大英國協;Commonwealth of Nations).[14]

1978 miheca, o sa’ayaway a congtong ci Ciyawmo-Kenyata ato Sapadang congtong ci Tannier-Alapo-Moyi satapang matayal.1982 miheca saka 6 folad mideamk to Cecayay-Kasafelaw Faco (一黨制:Ikiris a sowal:one-party system,又稱單黨制:single-party system;或一黨專政:single-party state) no sieci. 1991 miheca saka 12 folad mafalic a midemak to Adihayay-Kasafelaw Faco no sieci. O kalacongtong ni Moyi ira ko 24 mihecaan ko kato’edaw no mihecaan, tahira i 2002 miheca ko tolas. 2007 miheca saka 12 folad saka 27 romi’ad pakalowid ci Mowayi-Cipici tona mihecaan a sinkiw malacongtong,oya Pacoliay a Koletoay-Cenger a Finawla-Demak ( 橙色民主運動 ; Orange Democratic Movement) to ikakaay a kiing i kalomaocan, oya kakeridan no pacoliay ci Layila-Awtinka malacongli. Oya sato micokeray ci Layila-Awtinka mipacekil to fodfod icowacowa a niyaro’. 2013 miheca, Wuforo-Kenyata pakalowid to sinkiw malacongtong.[15] 2022 miheca tahakedal to sakakaay i Sakawalian-Afrika.[16]

Kaitiraan(地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Cilimacaro-Tokos

Itiniay i Sakwalian-Afrika ko Kenya, mingataay to Indo-Riyar, itiniay kalalaedan no Somaliya ato Tansaniya. O kakahad no sera ira ko 582,650 km², ilaloma’ nonini o sera 140 km², o nanonanoman 11,227 km². o mililisay to lawac no Indo-Riyar ira ko 536km.

O kakarayan o kaitiraan ko pi’arawan a mafalic, oroma a pala sa’emeray, ira ko cowa kafilo ko fa’edet a kakarayan pala.[17][18][19] o itiraay i lilis no riyar o fa’edetay-romi’ad, cecay miheca sahetoay o fa’edetay kala’oraday a romi’ad. Patinako ham Mompasa, Lamolincen ato Malinti a lilisay no riyar a niyaro’, masafalifalic to cecay a romi’ad to fa’edetay ato sa’emeray.[20]

Tayra to i kemod no Kenya,mangalefay ko ka’icang a makedal ko romi’ad. Itini i kakedalan awaay ko mamamang a ‘orad, o fa’edet matongalay ko kasasiroma to romi’ad ato dadaya,tahiraay to 20°C ko kafalic.[21] [22] [23] o tongroh no riyar ko misiwaray tona fa’edet, i taka’raway tongroh no riyar malowanay ko fa’edet.[24][25][26]

Tata’angany ko kasasirom no faci no sera no Kenya,mingataay to Indo-Riyar, mahaop ko sina’sina’an a Mangoropo i sakawalian-Afrika, ira heca ko kakahaday a dafdaf ato taporo.

Mahatosa mapecih no Tata’angay-Ta'eman (東非大裂谷;Great Rift Valley) no Sakawalian-Afrika ko Kenya o sifo’ay-Kenya ato sa’etipay-Kenya, mahifalat ato Sifo’ay-Konis no cikiw, sacingangan to “Ciwcika no Sakawalian-Afrika”.

O sa’akawanay a tokos o Kenya-tokos, ato itiraay i laed no Kenya ato Wukanta a Ayerkong-tokos. O itiraay i saka’etipan-Kenya a Kakami-Kilakilangan o naikoran no ‘ora’oradan-kilang no Saka’etipan-Afrika. Ikakaay ko katata’ang no Mao-kilakilangan pasasotili’en ato Kakami-Kilakilangan, onini i,o iakakaay i Saka’etipan-Arika a macacamoray a kilakilangan. o ikakaay ko ka’akawang a lotok itini i Afrika a Cilimancaro-Tokos ( 吉力馬札羅山; Swahli a aowal:Kilimanjaro) itiniay i Kenya.

Saka’orip(經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itira i 1994 miheca tahira i 1996 miheca,o polong a nili’etan no kitakit a lalen ikakakaay no 4%.[27] satapang i 1997 miheca, pacarcar ho ko kacemohad no kalotayal; 2003 miheca ‘edengan 1.4%, tahira to i 2004 miheca macakat to 2.3%, i 2005 ato 2006 mihecaan mingataay i 6% ko karongal. O saka’orip no Kenya ono kitakit a katatalan ko sakakkaay, midemak to paitekeday faloco’ a paliwal to dafong. O mihamhamay to lafang a tayal tata’angay ko tatinakoan i polong a saka’orip, mingataay to 60% o mihamhamay-tayal a GDP.

Patiyamay-Etal no Nairopi

O liomahan ira ko kacemahadan ira ko kakedi’an, nawhani, o ‘orad ko pi’arawan, cecay no kalisepat ko ‘etan no liomah. Oroma sato i, talacowa o cemahaday ko misanga’ay tayal no Kenya i Saka’etipan-Afrika, o ‘etan no misanga’ay to dafong ‘edengan 14% no GDP. I 2006 miheca, o polong nili’etanan no Kenya kitakit ira ko 173.9 ’ok ko Amirika-Payso, o lalen no cecay tamdaw nipili’etanan ira ko 450 Amirika-Payso.2014 miheca o polong nili’etanan no Kenya kitakit ira ko 609,37 ’ok ko Amirika-Payso.[28]

O nipasadakan a dafong no Kenya o sakakaay o potal-sapanasensen ato ociya, oninian a ‘etan i 2005 miheca ira ko 11.5’ok Amirika-Payso. 2011 mihecaan a nipaliwalan i roma a kitakit o ta’elifay ko Slilanka, malasakakaay nipaliwalay to ociya a kitakit i hekal, o sakakakaay pipaliwalan itiraay i Afrika, do’edo sa i, o Yoropa, o sakakakay pipaliwaln o Ikiris,Tansangniya, Wukanta ato Holan, o sakakaay pi’acaan to dafong nani tiraay i Congko, Indo, Arapiya-Lekatepay kitakit, Sawuti-Arapiya ato Katimolay-Afrika kitakit. O nipa’acaan i Amirika o riko’.[29] o malakapotay mali’aca ato Wukanta(pasadakan 12,3%,mi’acaan 15,6%) ato Roanta(pasadakan 30,5%, mi’acaan 17,3%).[30][31]

O ociya ko cecay no sakakaay sapili’etan to payso no roma a kitakit. nikawrira, masiwar no kafalic no kakarayan no hekal, malowanany ko pipalomaan to ociya a sera, masiwar ko saka’orip no pinapina ’ofad a tamdaw.[32]

O syoto Nairopi no Kenya o kahiceraan no pakipaysoay-demak. Tahira i kaleponan no 2009 miheca, o i kinkoay a payso ira ko 40 ’ok Amirika-Payso, o kiyam ira ko 8603 Kenya payso(Kensinlin), onini i,o halafinay a pikiyam, ilaloma’ nonini o kiyam i roma a kitakit ira ko 4297 Kensinlin. Mahaop ko 21% no GDP. Tahira i 2008 miheca, ira ko 42 kinko, cecay ko cowa ko kinko a pakipaysoay-kowan, tosa ko pilikiyaman kaysya, tosa ko lekatep no loma’ ato 95 pifalican to payso no roma a kitakit, iloma’ nonini sepat ko tata’angay kinko, tinako Pakolay-Kinko, Cata-Kinko, Kenya Patiyamay-Kinko ato Kenya Finawlan-Kinko, o nitayalan mahaop ko 60% no kinko no Kenya.[33]

Tamdaw (人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mama ato wina o Kenya a tamdaw

I 2009 mihecaan a sa’osi ira ko 3861 ’ofad ko tamdaw no Kenya;[34] 2014 mihecaan matongal tangasa i 45000 ’ofad ko tamdaw,[35] tosilen ira ko 42 ko kasasiroma a finacadan o sakakaay o Cikuyu-finacadan ko sakakay(mahaop ko 18%), do’edo sa o Rosiya-finacadan(14%), Rowo-finacadan(13%), Kalonkin-tamdaw(12%), Kanpa-finacadan(11%) Somaliya-tamdaw(10%) ato Miro-finacadan(6%). O roma sato i, ira ho ko mamangay finacadan o Inpa-tamdaw, Arapiya-tamdaw ato Yoropa-tamdaw, ano polongen mahaop ko 1%.[36]Nanoto’asan a pinangan o mihayiay to Ka’alomanay-Ramod, tahira to i 2014 miheca nga’ masanga’ ko Romad-Rikec, malaheci ko Cecay Fainayan ’Aloman ko Fafahi Ramod-Faco sanay a rikec.[37]

O cinganganay i hekal a tamdaw no Kenya ci Ciyawmo-Kenyata o mama no kitakit, ’ayaway congtong ci Tannier-Alapo-Moyi, ’ayaway congtong ci Mowati-Cipici, 2004 miheca milayapay to Nopier Rihadayay-Hofi ci Wangkali-Matayi, ’ayaway congli ci Layila-Awtinka, o cinganganay a mikinkiway to kicay a mama ci Palako-Awpama. Iloma’an nonini ci mama Palako-Awpama mala saka 44 riyad congtong no Amirika ko wawa ningra ci Palako-Awpama.

Punka(文化)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Maramramay to Swahili-Punka, Sawalian-Punka, Selilangka-Punka ato Indo-Punka ko punka no Kenya. O iriniay a 42 finacadan mangangodoay roma finacadan a punka ato pinangan no ‘oripa, tahanini ma’osaway ho kono litengan kararamod, pitadem ato macakat malakapah.[38]

Itini i Kenya ira ko ’enem rocokan no hekalay, sakilac o Kitakitan Toerkana-fanaw Pisalamaan(801), Kitakitan-Pisalamaan no Kenya,(800 ) ato Rayray no Fanaw i Sakawalian-Afrika Tata’angay-Ta’eman(1060) kona tolo Kinaira no Pala a Rocokan.ira ho ko roma o Lamo Katelangay-Niyaro(1055),Micikenta-Fangcalay Kilang(1231), Monpasa Yieso-Niyaro’ ona tolo a Punka-Rocokan i Hekal.

Sowal (語言)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono sifo a sowal o Ikiris ato Swahili Sowal.[39] o sowal no Swahili ono Panto-Finacadan a sowal ko nini, ato Arapiya-sowal ato Hawsa-sowla o skakaay a sowal itini i Afrika.[40] itini i Swahili-sowal adihayay ko nicaliwan nani Arapiya.[41] o ngangan to “Swahili” sanay i,o nani Arapiya a sowal to سواحيل‎(Sawahil)o “mingataay to riyar a sera” sanay ko imi nonini.[42]o tayniay a palafangay to romi’ami’ad o matengilay a sowal “kadepo” i,o mihamhamay sanay ko imi a Swahili-sowal.[43]

Pacefaday a tilid(註腳)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

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  6. Central Intelligence Agency. Kenya. The World Factbook. 2012 [2013-05-28]. (原始內容存檔於2018-02-13).
  7. 肯尼亚财政部公布2015年GDP增长5.6%,预计2016年增速可达6%. [2016-10-13]. (原始內容存檔於2019-05-02).
  8. 肯尼亚国家概况. 中華人民共和國駐肯亞共和國大使館. 2011年3月 [2016-10-04]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-08).
  9. 周幸叡. 站在赤道吶喊「Jambo!」─肯亞中部遊記. 自由時報. 2015-09-21 [2016-10-24]. (原始內容存檔於2019-06-26).
  10. Glynn Llywelyn Isaac, Barbara Isaac. Olorgesailie: archeological studies of a Middle Pleistocene lake basin in Kenya. University of Chicago Press. 1977: xiii [2016-10-12]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-08).
  11. Ali, Shanti Sadiq. The African Dispersal in the Deccan. Orient Blackswan. 1996. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1.
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  19. "Mombasa, Kenya: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data", Climate-Charts.com, 2008, web: CC820 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館): May precipitation was reset as "246" mm, converting 9.7 in.
  20. "Mombasa, Kenya: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data", Climate-Charts.com, 2008, web: CC820 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館): May precipitation was reset as "246" mm, converting 9.7 in.
  21. "NairobiDagoretti, Kenya: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data", Climate-Charts.com, 2008, web: CC741 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館): 比較奈洛比/Dagoretti和基塔萊/蒙巴薩的資料
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  24. "NairobiDagoretti, Kenya: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data", Climate-Charts.com, 2008, web: CC741 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館): 比較奈洛比/Dagoretti和基塔萊/蒙巴薩的資料
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  28. 肯尼亚GDP数据及经济发展状况2015-2016年. [2016-10-13]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-08).
  29. enya country profile (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (June 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
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  39. Constitution (2009) Art. 7 [National, official and other languages] "(1) The national language of the Republic is Kiswahili. (2) The official languages of the Republic are Kiswahili and English. (3) The State shall–-–- (a) promote and protect the diversity of language of the people of Kenya; and (b) promote the development and use of indigenous languages, Kenyan Sign language, Braille and other communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities."
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  41. [永久失效連結]
  42. “这是阿拉伯语”——源于阿拉伯语的英文词汇. 杜拜人. 2013-03-23 [2013-12-12]. (原始內容存檔於2015-03-20)
  43. 关于肯尼亚 文化. 肯亞旅遊局. 肯亞旅遊局中國代表處. [2016-10-13]. (原始內容存檔於2016-10-13).

Pikafitan i papotal(外部連結)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

CIA