Kanata

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Kanata(加拿大)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kanata (Inkiris, Ferans: Canada,IPA) o no ka’amisay Amilika masafaniyotay paka’amis a kitakit, nano sakaetip ka’amis a ’apelad no hekal, kacisera nai kaetip mililisay to Taypinyang, kawali mililis to Tasiyang, ka’amis mililis to Pipinyang, ra ko sera i salaloma’an no No’amisan ’Apocok. Kawali ka’amis no Kanata masasi’ayaway to Tienmark a sera Kerinlan, o Hans ko kasasilaedan, katimol ato kaetip ka’amis masasitongod to Lasfikas no Amilika, no Ferans a sera Sen piye ato Mikeron palapalaan i kawali a palapalaan. O dadahal a sera no Kanata 998 ’ofad 4670 pinfang kongli, o sakatosa kitakit a dadahalay sera i hekal, o cemahaday ho kitakit a satata’akay sera. Oni a kitakit o Otawa ko syoto, i 2016 miheca no tokay a tamdaw madadoedo, limaay tata’akay niyaro’ o Toronto, Montalio, Kakali, Atemonton[7]. 10 a kanatal ato 3 ’etal sakapot no Kanata kitakit. O Kanata a kicay o cemahaday to, o fangcalay ko liyok no pala, 2020 miheca sai “Fosepi” o kanga’ayan kamaro’an a misawad to sakiliteng a kitakit.

Kanata i ’ayaw no 1400 miheca iraay to ko maro’ay a yincumin ma’orip. 15 sici, Inkiris ato Ferans macalap no mcowatay miteka misolap nai kawali no Amilika kanatal, itiya patiren to nicowatan sakowan. I 1763 miheca, tona paherek ko 7 miheca a lalood i, Ferans mapatangic polong no micowatan a sera pafeli han ko Inkiris. Ikor no pinapina mo^etep ko mihecaan i, Inkiris micowatay pasietip ko pisolap tangasa i Taypinyang a niyaro’, patireng to fa^elohay nicowatan sakowan. 1867 miheca 7 folad 1 romi’ad, “1867 miheca kimpo rikec” mahayda, Kanata a kanatal malitosaay Ontario ato Kuepek kanatal, mikapot to Niw Polancewi, Niw Sekesiya tolo nano Inkiris ka’amisan Amilika nicowatan sakowan malakapot no Kanata nipatatekoan a kitakit. Padoedo to 100 mihecaan i, oroma to nano Inkiris a nicowatan sakowan madadoedo micomod to nipatatekoan a kitakit, sakapot aniniay a Kanata.

Takaray a sowal(概要)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kanata a kitakit o itiraay i sak’amisay no Sa’amisan Amirika Karopaw, misi’ayaway to Taypingyang i saka’etip, isakwali o Tasiyang, ika’amis o Li’etecay Riyar, ira ko

Hata no Kanata

a aera itira i Ka’amisay Pocok no Cikiw. Isakatimol malala’ed ato Amirika, i ka’amis no saka’etip malala’eday ato Alaska, isakawali no Kanata ira ko kanatal no Fransu o Siepiay ato Mikolong(Fransu asowal:Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon; Kuwaping a sowal:聖皮埃與密克隆) polongen ira ko 206 km².

O dadahal no sera no Kanata ira ko 998 ofad cisafaw to 4670 km², o sakatosa ko dadahal itini i kasakitakit, o sakakay ko kakahad ilaloma’ no Cemahaday Kitakit. O tata’angay tokai o Otawa(Ikiris a sowal:Ottawa; Kuwaping a sowal:渥太華), 10 ko sakowanetal ato tolo a kaloetal.

I ‘ayaw no 1400 miheca iraay to ko yincumin a maro’ itini, saka15 sici, satapang ko picowat no Ikiris ato Fransu ton apala,ikor to i,alapatireng sa to Nicowatan Pala. I 1763 miheca malalood ko Ikiris ato Fransu, 7 miheca ko kalaloodan, malowid ko Fransu, oya nikowanan a sera pafeli han to ko Ikiris.

I 1931 miheca saka 12 folad saka 11 romi’ad, mapalaheci no Ikiris ko cecay a rikec mihai to pisiiked no Kanata, nikawrira, o Sakakaay a mikomoday no kitakit o Honti no Ikiris ko

Inuit a Finacadan(Inuit Grandma 1 1995 06 11)

ci Cyoci sakalima(Ikiris a sowal:George V; Kuwaping a sowal:喬治五世), ano misiikeikeday ko Kanata o Ikiris ho ko mitatoyay to sapisalof to rikec a sakowan, tahira to i 1982 miheca saka 4 folad saka 17 romi’ad mitilid to ngangan ko Honti ci Ilisapay sakatosa i kakaketonan a tilid to pilinah to Sapisalof to Kimpo Sakowan tayra i Pikaykian no Kitakit no Kanata,itini to a mapahapinang ko kasasiiked nona tosa a kitakit.

Ngangan 名稱[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

“Canada” nai Sen Lolons Ilokuy a sowal “Kanata” a tilid, o todong “niyaro’” ano eca “paloma’an” sanay[11]. I 1535 miheca, maro’ay i Quebec ci a yincumin pako Ferans misolapay Yakop Kartiya keriden patayra i Setakona, itiya o Kanata han konian[12]. Ikor ci Yakop Kartiya o Canada han ko toro’ to Tonakona (o Setakona a ngangasawan) mikowanay tina niyaro’. 1545 miheca, Ilopiya ato cicu o Canada ko taypiaw nonini a kasadefadefak. I 17 sici ato 18 suci, Canada o pitoro’ to New France a St. Lawrence ’alo no niyaro’. O sapiliyang to Inkiris no 13 nicowatan sakowan finawlan, Inkiris sifo i 1774 miheca mihapiw to Quebec a rikec, onion a rikec mipadadahalay to mikowat tangasa i katimolay no limaay a fanaw a niyaro’, tahira i Ohio ’alo ko ray. Onini a sera polong nai 1783 miheca mapatorod i fa^elohay Amilika, nika limaay a fanaw ka’amis a sera, oya aniniay a Ontario kanatal a niyaro’aro’, materek no Inkiris. Nanoya o Niw Ferans macalap no Inkiris, makilatosa ko Kanata, fafaed Kanata ato laeno Kanata. 1841 miheca, fafaed ato laeno mapapolong malo Kanata kanatal[13].

I 1867 miheca, Kanata kanatal ato New Brandsway ato Nova Scotia mapapolong Kanata mikowanan[14]. Nanoya a miliyas to Inkiris ko Kanata, o sifo pasodsod sa i sifo a tilid ato tatonekan sakadademaken no Kanata. 1982 miheca, Kanata a lisin no kitakit pako niya a nikowanan Kanata romi’ad han to ko pangangan[15].

Yincumin a mihecahecaan(原住民時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tiri’en kono To’asan Nikinkiwan ato kadado’edo no ‘Ilang, sa awaay i ‘ayaw no 24,500 mihecaan i sa’amis no Yukong ( Ikiris ato Fransu a sowal:Yukon; Kuwaping a sowal:育空) iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, o itiraay i sakatimolan Antali a tamdaw pasifafaw to 7,500 ko miheca.[1] [2]  O itiraay i Ciwkoro Dafda ato Lanyi Dihif a tamdaw o samatelangay a nalacolan no tamdaw.[3] O kasasiikedan no niyaro’ no yincumin ’i, mahadekdekay ko kamaro’, maomahay, sasifed ko faco no ‘orip ato masasalilay ko kali’acaan.[4] [5] nikawrira, i’ayaw no kataynian no Yoropa a tamdaw matekopay to ko pinapina a niyaro’, anini sa to odengan o paini no pikakinkiw tono to’asan ho ko kafana’an.[6]

Itiya ho o tamdaw no yincumin ira ko 200 ofad, anini sato 50 ofad ko ma’osaway.[7] Away ko sapitaker a ‘icel no yincumin to nihawikidan no

Mitis a Finacadan (A Métis man and his two wives, circa 1825-1826)

a tamdaw a adada, madenga no masamaanay a lifong, ora ko saka lowan no tamdaw no yincumin nahaop 40% to 80%.[8] O maro’ay i Kanata a yincumin ira ko tolo kasasiroma, Sakacecay a Finacadan, Inuit ato Mitis, o Mitis hananay a finacadan ‘i, o ciramramay to ‘ilang no Teloc no Fransu a finacadan,[9] ano pasasotiri’en odengan o Inuit ko saawaay ko kasacofelis ato Yoropa a tamdaw.[10]

Micowatan Sakowan no Yoropa (歐洲殖民時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I naikoran ni Yiso amihecan latek i 1000 miheca, miripa’ to ko Yoropa a tamdaw to sota’ no Kanata,oya Ka’amisay Yoropa cingisngisay to kahenganay ci Ayriko(Kunos a sowal: Eiríkr hinn rauði; Kuwaping a sowal: 紅鬍子艾瑞克)mipatireng to pacalcalan a kamaro’an i Lasayaucu Rengorengosan,[11] I saka16 sici o Portokaru a mifotingay patireng itini to pacacalan a minato to pifoting to ‘iso.12] 1534 o mihahinamay a Fransu a tamdaw ci Yakokatiya(Jacques Cartier; 雅克·卡蒂亞)

panganganen ningra ko Honti no Fransu a mi’eco to itiniay a pala.[13]

1583 miheca o Tadamaanay a Ikiris tamdaw ci Hanfolay Cirpoto(漢弗萊·吉爾伯特;Humphrey Gilbert),patireng to niyaro’ i Sieyohani(Saint-Jean de Terre-Neuve; 聖約翰斯), ono Ikiris a pala i Saka’amisay Amirika koni sa milekal.[14]

1783 miheca matatilid to Pali Kakaketonan(《巴黎條約》;Treaty of Paris)mihay ko Fransu to kalakitakit no Amirika, o Ikiris a sifo sapinekeran to faloco’ no Ikiris tamdaw, i 1791 miheca pasadak Facoan a Kimpo, papecihan ko Kupiko sakowan to somowalay to Ikiris a Faga’eday Kanata ato somowalay to Fransu a La’enay a Kanata, alamitaoy to pisikiw ato sakowan.

Aniniay Kanta(現代加拿大)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1949 miheca miteko i Kanata ko Niwfenlan Niyahsakowan,[15] matongal ko kacomahad no saka’orip no Kanata, matongal ko olah tona kitakit, onini ko sakapihay no faloco’ to ono Kanata a tamdaw kako sanay a harateng,mapatinako i 1965 miheca mihay ko finawlan o tahapinangan no hata no kitakit ko papah no Momici,[16] masaiked ko punka to maramramay ko Ikiris ato Fransu a tamdaw, orasaka, i 1969 miheca satapang ko pipasifana’ to Mahatosay Sowal a Faco no kitakit,[17] ato i 1971 miheca midemak to Kasiromaroma Punka a Faco.[18]

Hata no Inuit Niyah Pikowan(Flag of Nunavut)

1999 miheca malacafay ko Inuit tamdaw ato Kapolongan Sifo a milongoc, misiiked ko Nunafoto(Inuit a sowal:ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ,o sera no niyam sanay ko imi nona sowal;Ikiris ato Fransu a sowal:Nunavut; Kuwaping a sowal:努納福特指「我們的土地」.malo sakatolo a sakakaay sakowan a etal.[19]

I 1976 miheca pamalowid no milongocay to sakasiikedaw no Kupiko a Kupiko Kasarekad ko sinkiw, 1980 miheca midemak to Kapolongan Pitopa to pihay to sakasiikedaw no Kupiko, malowid kona demak.i 1995 miheca miliyaw heca midemak to Kapolongan Pitopa, o maalay a satopa ira ko 49.4% cango’ot to 0.4% ta maala ko fatad no satopa. I 1997 miheca ira ko piketon no Sakakaay Pisawkitan to sapiliyasaw to Kanata a misiiked o mifelihay to Kimpo sanay, to ikor masanga’ no Sakakaay Pikaykian no kitakit ko rikec, ano ira to ko mahapinangay a nisafaloco’an no ‘alomanay tamdaw nga’ mangaay masasowal ato Kapolongan Sifo.[20]

I 2001 miheca mihay ko Kanata pasadak to sofitay i Afuhan, nikawrira, yo mitahidang ko Amirika to sapiloodaw to Ilako, nihanay ko Kanata,[21] itira sato 2009 miheca tadaawaay to ko manga’ayan no kicai saka’orip, 2001 miheca o sofitay no Kanata mikihatiya to NATO micara to Lalomaay Lalood no Lipiya.[22]

Matakaway wawa(失竊的一代)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ona matakaway wawa(Ikiris a sowal:Stolen Generations,ano ca:Stolen children; Kuwaping a sowal:被偷走的一代ano ca失竊的一代). Itini i Kanata o Pilafinan a Pitlidan no

Pilafinan Pitilidan(Quappelle-indian-school-sask)

Wawa no Indian, o halopitilidan no ka’emangay no Sakacecay a Finacadan, Inuit ato Mitis a yincumin no Kanata,ona pitilidan ‘i, o Citodongay to Indian ato Saka’amisay Demak Sakowan no Kanata ka papaysoay to Kyokai no Kristo. I 1894 miheca tahira i 1947 miheca o cimacima to a wawa no yincumin mapaci’eci a papilafin itini.

O lalengatan a patireng toni a pitilidan o sapipadang tona ka’emangay malatamdaw no kohecalay tamdaw ta ira ko sapisinkiw a salongoc yo sanay, niwrira, tada tangongol ko pisakakinih no kohecalay tamdaw to yincumin, mirecep i faloco’ no kohecalay tamdaw ko Misakakaay to Finacadan ato pikorac to punka no yincumin, ora sa o mikowanay a kyokai mipalasawad to punka ato pipaso’elin to to’as, misiwar to harateng ato wayway no ka’emangay, ta halofaloco’ a miliyas to mama ato ina mikihamon to kohecalay tamdaw ato ‘orip no Kanata.tona cecay so’ot a mihecaan ira ko kalitolo(latek150,000 wawa) ko makidkiday tayra tora pitilidan, ilaloma’ nonini ira ko 6000 ko mapatayay a ka’wmangay, i 2021 miheca makera ko pinapina a kapolongan tadem.

I 2008 miheca saka 6 folad saka 11 romi’ad mili’ay to yincumin ko Congli(Tapang no kitakit)to yincumin,mipatireng to Kacipinangan ato Kalali’ay a Iingkay (Truth and Reconciliation Commission), mitengil to sowal no ma’oeipay ho a mitiliday,2015 miheca laheci han to no kitakit patireng ko kacipinangan ato Kalali’ay Iingkay no Kitakit(National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation), mirina to kimad no ma’oripay ho a tamdaw.2018 miheca niliyaw heca ko Congli mili’ay to yincumin.

Pacefafay a Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas (PDF). University College London 73:524–539. 2003 [2011-05-23]. doi:10.1086/377588. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2011-08-21).

[2] Wright, JV. A History of the Native People of Canada: Early and Middle Archaic Complexes. Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2009-09-27 [2011-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2011-08-21).

[3] Sonneborn, Liz. Chronology of American Indian History. Infobase Publishing. January 2007: 2–12. ISBN 978-0-8160-6770-1.

[4] Hayes, Derek. Canada: an illustrated history. Douglas & Mcintyre. 2008: 7, 13. ISBN 978-1-55365-259-5.

[5] Macklem, Patrick. Indigenous difference and the Constitution of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 2001: 170 [2012-07-22]. ISBN 978-0-8020-4195-1. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[6] Sonneborn, Liz. Chronology of American Indian History. Infobase Publishing. January 2007: 2–12. ISBN 978-0-8160-6770-1.

[7] Bailey, Garrick Alan. Handbook of North American Indians: Indians in contemporary society. Government Printing Office. 2008: 285 [2012-07-22]. ISBN 978-0-16-080388-8. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[8] Wilson, Donna M; Northcott, Herbert C. Dying and Death in Canada. University of Toronto Press. 2008: 25–27 [2012-07-22]. ISBN 978-1-55111-873-4. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[9] What to Search: Topics. Ethno-Cultural and Aboriginal Groups. Library and Archives Canada. 2005-05-27 [2011-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2009-07-05).

[10] Tanner, Adrian. 3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare'. Innu Culture. Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland. 1999 [2011-05-23]. (原始內容存檔於2011-08-21).

[11] Bailey, Garrick Alan. Handbook of North American Indians: Indians in contemporary society. Government Printing Office. 2008: 285 [2012-07-22]. ISBN 978-0-16-080388-8. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[12] Hornsby, Stephen J. British Atlantic, American frontier: spaces of power in early modern British America. University Press of New England. 2005: 14, 18–19, 22–23. ISBN 978-1-58465-427-8.

[13] Cartier, Jacques; Biggar, Henry Percival; Cook, Ramsay. The Voyages of Jacques Cartier. University of Toronto Press. 1993: 26 [2012-07-21]. ISBN 978-0-8020-6000-6. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[14] Rose, George A. Cod: The Ecological History of the North Atlantic Fisheries. Breakwater Books. 2007-10-01: 209 [2012-07-21]. ISBN 978-1-55081-225-1. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-12).

[15] Summers, WF. Newfoundland and Labrador. Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominion. [2013-11-27]. (原始內容存檔於2013-12-03).

[16] Mackey, Eva. The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. 2002: 57. ISBN 978-0-8020 -8481-1

[17] Landry, Rodrigue; Forgues, Éric. Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. May 2007, 2007 (185): 1–9. doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.022.

[18] Esses, Victoria M; Gardner, RC. Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. July 1996, 28 (3): 145–152. doi:10.1037/h0084934.

[19] Légaré, André. Canada's Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 2008, 15 (2–3): 335–367. doi:10.1163/157181108X332659.

[20] Sorens, J. Globalization, secessionism, and autonomy. Electoral Studies. December 2004, 23 (4): 727–752. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2003.10.003.

[21] Jockel, Joseph T; Sokolsky, Joel B. Canada and the war in Afghanistan: NATO's odd man out steps forward. Journal of Transatlantic Studies. 2008, 6 (1): 100–115. doi:10.1080/14794010801917212.

[22] Canada's military contribution in Libya. CBC. 2011-10-20 [2011-11-27]. (原始內容存檔於2011-11-26).

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