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Ireland

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Hata no Ayerlan

Ayerlan Kapolongan-kitakit

Ayerlan(愛爾蘭;Ikiris a sowal:Ireland; Ayerlan a sowal:Éire)常稱呼為愛爾蘭共和國;Ikiris a sowal:Republic of Ireland;Ayerlan a sowal:Poblacht na hÉireann). O itiraay i Saka’etipan-Yoropa a Kanatalan-kitakit, o nipatatekoan to 26 a kanatal no 32 kanatal no Ayerlan-kanatal, o kakahad no sera latek ira ko 7 ‘ofad km² (o Taywan 3.3 ‘ofad km²), o madado’edoay to sera ato Saka’a,isay-Ayerlan no Ikiris a Salongocay-kitakit.

Kaitiraan no Ayerlan

O Cecayay-faco Kalomaocan a kapolongan kitakit. mataliyokay no Tasiyang-Riyar ko polong nona kitakit, isakatimolan o Kayerto-Riyar, isakatimol no sakawalian malala’ed to Sie-Ciyawci Tata’eman, makakecor ato Wiersi, isakawalian mingato to Ayerlan-Riyar. O tatapangan tokay ato sakakaay tokay o Topolin, itiraay I sakawalian no Ayerlan-kanatal. O tamdaw ira ko 500 ’ofad, ilal’ma' nonini mahaop ko 40% itiraay i Topolin a maro’Ireland (Inkiris: Ireland, Ireland sowal: Éire) [1], o sakasomowal to Ireland nikapolongan kitakit (Inkiris: Republic of Ireland; Ireland sowal: Poblacht na hÉireann), kaetipay Yoropa a cecay kitakit, nai Ireland kanatal ira ko 32 a sakowan a nipakapotan. O dengan o nano Inkiris a ka’amisay Ireland a milakapotay to sekal salawac a citatapangay salongoc kitakit. O maci ato ta’akay niyaro’ i o Doblin, i sakawali no kanatal. O tamdaw no kitakit ira ko 500 ’ofad ko tamdaw ira ko 40% maroay i Doblin a niyaro’. Mitaliyokan no Tasiyang, katimol io Celtic riyar, kawali katimol o St George ’efong a riyar, kawali o Ireland riyar. O cecayay kalomaoc a nikapolongan kitakit.

Itini i 53 00 N, 8 00 W, noYoropi ko Ireland. Polong no sekalay i 70,273 sq km “saka 120 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 68,883 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 1,390 sq km ” Polong i 4,952,473 ko tamdaw.

Ngangan (名稱)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nano to’as misolapay no Greece ci Pythias o kafana’an a sa’ayaway a matiliday no Ireland tamdaw, i nitilidan ningra a nikimadan “Iérnē”, itiya no Loma a matanengay ci Ptolemy toya ngangan pala “Iouerníā” ko tilid. Loma likisi a hakasi ci Tacitus i nitilidan ningra Agricola kimad i, oya a ngangan falican to Latin tilid “Hibernia” (Hibernia, si^enaway a sera), Ireland a kanatal mapapaya to “Himalayan”. Anini a Edinburgh mimaliay kapot Hibernian micokaray to mali a Club ko sakacingangan. Aniniay pangangan to kitakit “Ireland”, itiyaay ho mapapolong hongti kitakit ato Ireland a kalaliyangan. Masadak ko matiniay khinapecan, o final a sera no Ireland ira ko no Inkiris, yansaka Ireland a ngangan i nengneng no Inkiris caay ko matatodongay kina ngangan.

I 1937 mihecaan mahayda ko “Ireland kimpo” matelek, oni a kitakit a ngangan o no Ireland a sowal: Éire, ano eca no Inkiris a sowal to Ireland.

I 1948 miheca mihayda to lekapotan kitakit Ireland a rikec, o kitakit pala Nikapolongan Kitakit, saka 2 liyad masowal, manga’ay “patinakoen” kina kitakit to o Ireland Nikapolongan Kitakit (Republic of Ireland) a han. Nikawrira o sakaecaaw ka pifelih to kimpo, oni a rikec caay patodong mifalic to ngangan to Nikapolongan Kitakit Ireland, orasaka kimpo a ngangan oya to “Irelan”.

I 1989 mihecaan, Nikapolongan Kitakit Ireland a takaraway hoying nasa, o Nikapolongan Kitakit Ireland o citodongay caay kanga’ay paci’eci misetek to no tao kitakit pala Ireland a misongila’ pangangan[7]. Sacisowal sa ko hoying: “Ano saki tonian a kitakit mikilim to sadama to hoying no kitakit maemin caay ka kahi micoker to ni kitakit a kimpo o matatodongay, nikawrira pinengneng no mako, no kasakitakit a nihaydaan a ngangan, o tatayra tina kitakit a pihayda a salongoc tangasa i pisolof a masongila’.” Paherek to kokasararimokay, I 1998 mihecaan kapatayan ni Yis a romi’ad a mahayda kinapatonekan, masalof ko katatelekan to pakayniay i Ireland a demak, ato I Nikapolongan Kitakit Ireland a pihapiw a sasowalen. Ikor milayap to ko Inkiris to Ireland kitakit pangangan sa “Ireland” ato Dublin sifo a kasakitakit a katatelekan, o nian sato ko pangangan[8].

Likisi (歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ireland nai 1801-1922 miheca o nano tata'akay Ikiris a lekatep ato Ireland tapangan kitakit mikowanan.

1845 miheca nawhani pakayniay to kakakedalan to cango’ot ko pilitod to potato, o Inkiris a sifo a cisafangad to nai Amilika a kakaenen, caay patodong to matatodngay sadama, mafo’ot kopipacomodan to kakaenen, saka malowan to ko tamdaw no Ireland to sepatay ira ko cecay, alomanay Ireland a tamdaw macangal to Inkiris.

I 1916 miheca 4 folad kalomowadan ni Yis mikowad ko Ireland, tatodong sa i saka 1 kalaloodanno hekal Inkiris ato Germany malalood itiya, o Germany kitakit misanga’ to kalifotan no Inkiris patayraen i Ireland ko sakalalood ato kakaenen sapico’ay to Inkiris, ano mitiratira aca, saikor oya pikowat mapaterep ito.

I 1919 miheca, alomanay i 1918 mihecaan a nipisingkiw maalaay a Ireland a iing mana’ay i Kararemay pikaykian midemak, lonok saan cangra patireng to Ireland kalomaocan,

itiya I 1919 miheca 1 folad o misiikeday ko “Nikapolongan Kitakit Ireland” ko pipangangan mihapiw to niya pisiikedan. Itiya, o Ireland caay ka haydaen no kasakitakit, nikawrira i Inkiris ato Ireland kalalood (roma sowal o pisiiked no Ireland a lalood) ikor, o Inkiris at Ireland masasitelek to Inkiris at Ireland tatonekan, pafeli to Ireland matatodongay i kimpo to no niya pikowan no solongoc, oya kacitodong no niya pikowan to sera todong. Mapatireng no Ireland ko Ireland pakoniraay lekatep, mikowang to polong no Ireland a sera, nikawrira pihayda aca to ka’amisay enemay a sa’etal (ka’amis Ireland) caay pikihatiya toIreland pakoniraay sa’etal. Itiya matelek ko Ireland pakoniraay sa’etal a kimpo, o Ireland o nano Hontian Rikec, o hongti no Ireland o hongti no Inkiris ko citodongay, itiya patireng to congto dademakay, midemak ko kalomaocan to Tosaay ko pikaykian faco no kitakit, patireng to “sapidemak a wiyyinhuy” (laloma’ay), patireng to kakeridan no sapidemak a wiyyinhuy.

I 1937 miheca 12 folad 29 romi’ad, o Ireland pakoniraay sa’etal midemak to fa^elohay Ireland kimpo, misetek to ngangan “Ireland (Ireland sowal : Éire), patireng to Ireland congtong a dademakan, nikawrira hongti mido’edo midotoc to 1936 mihecaan to sakadademak salongoc (sician nipalafang) rikec i kasakitait o pasalongan aca a Ireland kitakit. Saka 2 kalaloodan, o Ireland pakasasifo’an, itiya o pikowan no Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep dengan mio pakasasifo’anay kitakit.

Nikawrira i 1940 miheca 5 folad Nazi Germany o sapipatodongaw to no riyar a laion halaka a micalap to Inkiris, patonek to sapicalapaw to Ireland kalalood a halakaan, o pahapinang o langdaway a dademakan. Saka 6 folad Inkiris ato Ireland mitelek to sapico’ay a demak to “W halaka” sapitena’ to mamicalap, nikawrira o pi’imer no Inkiris to kitakit, mapidah k Germany i Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep a lalood, o langdaway halaka mapaterep aca.

I 1949 miheca 4 folad 1 romi’ad mihayda to i 1948 miheca a Ireland Nikapolongan Kitakit a rikec, so’elin mapalasawad ko sawara'an, o demak no hongti mapafeli i congtong a todong, o Ireland mala o Nikapolongan Kitakit. Midotoc to kimpo no Ireland saka 4 liyad, “Ireland (Éire)” o ngangan no kitakit, mahecad i saka 2, 3 liyad ko pihapiw no Ireland to ka’amisay Ireland ira ko piraoy toni a salongoc (I 1999 mihecaan mapalasawad to), orasaka o Nikapolongan Kitakit a Ireland i saki kacacofelan a demak a patodong o “Éire” (tinako kimpo no Ireland, congtong no Ireland). Nikawrira nao Inkiris to ka’amisay sa’etal nipidemak to salongoc, alomanay kitakit miliyas to “Éire” a sowal, o sapidipot a ka’amisay Ireland, miliyas to misakakinih.

O Ireland i 1949 miheca 4 folad mhapiw patireng to Nikapolongan Kitakit to ikor, lonok sa miliyas to Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep. (Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep i 1950 mihecaan mafalic ko sarikec, mihayda to Intia o Nikapolongan Kitakit a ngangan mirenok to i Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep.) talacowa o Ireland caay to piliyaw misingsi to pikapotaw to Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep, nikawrira maparenok to o lekapotan to a salongoc, i Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep ko piraoy.

Ireland i 1955 miheca micomod i Linhoko[9], i 1973 miheca mikapot i Kicay Lekatep no Europe (aniniay a Lekatep no Yoropa). O Ireland to kasarayray a sifo misa’icel to sakalacecayaw no Ireland, malecad to Inkiris malakapot misalof to ka’amisay Ireland a mifolaway a siwtoc. Ireland ato ka’amis Ireland a pisingkiw i 1998 miheca mahayda ko Belfast katatelekan a pidemak[10].

Sici (政治)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ireland o masacecayay ko pikaykian faco no Nikapolongan Kitakit a rikec, midemak to Nikapolongan a kalomaoc.

O sakakaay ko congtong no Ireland kitakit, 7 miheca ko lekad, no nipisingkiw no finawlan, kinacecay aca ko lekad. Awaay kosakadademak no congtong, nikawrira i Ireland no Kitakit a kadademakan pacecay iraen ko sapikowan ato dademaken, halopipalasawad to kalomaocan. O congli no Ireland o kalomaocan ko mitoro’ay, ocongtong k patodongay, o nai sata’akay a sacefang ano eca mapapolongay sifo a kakeridan ko cacitodong.

No kimpo a nitelekan to dademakay caay ka ta’elif ko 15 ko tamdaw, no Fafa'eday pikaykian a iing caay kataelif ko 2 tamdaw, malecad to congli, micokeray congli, citodongay to payso kakeridan o Kararemay pikaykian a iing ko ciodongay. No Ireland a citodongay mikowan a cefang a congli ci Michael Martin mikeriday to Nikapolongan Kitakit no Ireland ato Ireland lekapot a cefang ato Ireland li cefang matateko mikowan to sifo. Ka’ayaw a tosaay talacowa mangangata ko sici, nika o rayray no likisi o mamasasi’adaay, ’ayaw noni caayho kapapolong milekapot to sifo. O miliyangay a cefang o fa^elohay Fenland(sinfen) cefang, malalokay a Kawiliay cefang, misaakoay to pifolaw to pakiraan mipalakomod to Ireland. Laloma’ay no kitakit a pasayraan no kasacefang halo Nikapolongan cefang, papolongay cefang ato malingaday cefang, o kicay ato syakay to sakadademak masasingataay, dengan o saki Inkiris ato Europe nipatatekoan a pinangan masasifelihay.

Sifo a saceker (政府架構)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ireland Tosaay ko pikaykian faco no kitakit, o Ireland Fafa'eday pikaykian ato Kararemay pikaykian.

Fafa'eday pikaykian a sa’icel mimingay, ira ko 60 lomaocay, lalomaan ira ko 11 tamdaw o congli ko mitoro’ay pangangan, 3 tamdaw o misawaday to daykako no Ireland ko misingkiway, 3 tamdaw o misawaday to  ko Dublin daykako misingkiway, 43 tamdaw nai limaay malingaday sa’etal (ponka, maomahay mifotingay, malingaday, malal’'acaay, syakay) ko misingkiway. Tata’akay ko ’icel no Kararemay pikaykian, nai 166 tamdaw lomaocan sakapot, kasacecay a sa’etal 3-5 ko taypiaw, taypiaw no Nikapolongan Kitakit no Ireland to 42 a sa’etal, o pisingkiw citodong to taypiaw manga’ay to masacecayay ko pidemak. Midotoc to Ireland kimpo, kalomaocan 5 miheca ko cecay lekad, nikawrira congli manga’ay paini to congtong mipalasawad to lomaocay. 2016 miheca a singkiw malowan ko 8 no lomaocaay.

o pisingkiw citodong to taypiaw manga’ay to masacecayay ko pidemak. Halo Kararemay pikaykian singkiw (I 1921 mihecaan), Europe lomaocan singkiw, kasaniyaro’ sifo a singkiw.

Rikec (法律)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sepat ko hoying, i 1802 miheca mapatireng, o sa’akawangay hoying no Ireland, ’akawangay hoying ato Dublin maliyokay hoying.

Sofitay (軍事)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No Ireland mi’adingay sofitay halo lalan hitay, riyar hitay, kakarayan hitay ato mihopedan sofitay. Hitay kamimingay nika marocek ko sapidemak, ira ko 10.000 tamdaw no sofitay. I 1922 mihecaan patireng, o sapipa’ading a ’icel o nai sofitay (PDF) ato pasatarod (RDF). O pa’adingay sofitay halo lalan, riyar, kakaraya toloay sofotay, o satarod a sofitay o sakilalanay hitay ato riyaray hitay a sakapot. Sakakaay a kakeridan no sofitay ko congtong. Sofitay o mi’adingay ko kakeridan. O sakimangalayay a hitay, 6 miheca ko lekad, tadasofitay 3 miheca. 2008 miheca 3 folad, maolahay mi’adingay mihapiw “2008 miheca -2012 miheca lalood a halaka”, pasadak to sapipatireng i laloma’ay papotalay a sapidipot, ta maleko ko sofitay a ’icel, maolahay mileko to sasifo’ay a sofitay nikawrira micoker to no Linhoko a parihadayay a demak, mido’edo micoker to Europe Lekatep sakarihaday ato sapi’ading a halaka, midotoc mikapot to ka’amisay kalatelek kalanga’ay, o sapipa’ading a payso to mihecaan 18 walalan payso no Europe[11].

Palapala (地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Taliyok no kaitiraan (位置範圍)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O dadahal no Ireland ira ko 84,421 pinfang kongli, ono Ireland Nikapolongan Kitakit ira ko 70,273 pinfang kongli, roma i ono Inkiris a nikowanan a ka’amis Ireland. O Ireland kanatal kaetip miingiray to Tasiyang, kawali ka’amis milaed to ka’amis a ’efong ato Scotland masasikecor, kawali o Ireland a riyar, kawali katimol cilaed to St George ’efong ato Wells masasikecor, katimol o Celtic riyar.

Salong a sera (地表景觀)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O masatono’ay ko lawac no kaetip no Ireland, o ’apapolo (sa’akawangay o Carenteo lotok, 1,041 m takaraw). Laloma’ no kanatal masadafdaf, saheto o kaliomahan, Shannon ’alo ko tada’alo, roma ’alo i o Profit ’alo, ira ko pinapina a fanaw. Laloma’ no kanatal o senasenaan, o sota’ a ’afelan. O papotal no Ireland atya o cecay a kakangdaway a tomay ko fatiian (liyok no Ireland), o nano ’apolopoloay ato rafar, maledefay no kilakilan ato fanaw. Kaetipay a lilis no riyar o Moher a kasatono’ ko Ireland, o sa’akawangay tonotono’ no Europe, kaetipay no Ireland lilis no riyar o kasatono’ 8 kongli ko kakaya’, o tadamaanay kahiceraan pacarcaran no ’ayam no riyar, itira toya tonotono’an adihay ko tadamaanay a molengaway a rengorengos, o kaolahan no misaikaay pasyasing.

Kafafalic no romi’ad (氣候)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O fala’faay ko nano riyar a kafafalic noromi’ad no Ireland, o nai ka’amisay Tasiyang a fala’fa, kasi’enawan fala’fa kaciherangan saemelay[12], i kasienawan caay ka i -5˚C ko kacekel (25 °F), kaciherangan caay ka kaelif i 29℃ (79 °F) [13]. Ira ko tilid i ’ayaw sakakaay fa’edet no Ireland tangasa i 33.3℃ (91.9 °F) i 1987 miheca 6 folad 26 romi’ad i Kilkenny niyaro’ malalat, o tilid to li^etecay -19.1℃ (-2.4 °F), i Sligo niyaro’ malalat[14].

Maedeng ko kara’orad, ira ko pala 275 ko romi’ad to a’oraden to cecay miheca. Tadamaanay maci i sakawali a Dublin, kaetip katimol a Cork, kaetip Limerick ato Galway, kawali katimol Watford. (sapinang i Ireland mac) i kasi^enawan romi’ad mararid ko a’oraden, ’ayaw no kaciherangan o rasmasay ko ’orad. Sakaetip a niyaro’ matakop no kaetip katimolay fali kala’oraday, malecad tono kawakiay ato Dublin caay kala’orad. Pinatedi no cidal a toki i kawali katimolay no Ireland. Ka’amis ato kaetip a lilis no riyar o polong no Europe satata’akay ko kalafaliay, manga’ay o pipatirengan to no fali ’icel pisadingkian[15].

O rocek no hakal (世界遺產)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tangasa i 2011 mihecaan, ira ko tosaay a rocek no hakal i Ireland, I Boyne Palace ato Kesliga Micheal pala.

I Ireland kawali ka’amisan a Mies niyaro’ a pi’ot’otan pikomod (Boyne Palace), ira ko Newgrange tomb o satadamaanay no Ireland a nano ’ayaway to’as a pitademan, Newgrange tomb salongan mapatireng i fa^elohay nofokeloh to’asan ’ayaw ni Tis to 3,200 mihecaan itiya, tangasa katayni no Celtic tamdaw, ikor Newgrange tomb o kamaro’an no kawas naira saan. Newgrange tomb a sacomod salongan ira ko 60 incm ko kakaya’, pasayra i toloay a fawahan (recess) no rawang.

O Boyne Palace i kimad no Celtic marariday masadak. O patademan masongila’ay ko piadifat. O sapitahepo to patademan a fokeloh salongan ira ko 20 ’ofad ton ko kareteng, yo 97 ko sa’apelad no fokeloh malaparena’an a miceker. Newgrange tomb lakapot to kakarayanay pifana’an mikingkiw, nai tina demak mahapinang i Newgrange tomb a pipatirengan maki’ayaway toi Icip a masa’ipocay to 500 mihecaan, i ’ayaw to kasatisil no ta’akay ’ongcoy to 1,000 kiheca. Alatek o pahapinang to nipipatireng pahapinangay to satapangan no fa^elohay mihecaan, ano eca o lalowadan no saka’orip ato sakapatay.

Kacacofelan a demak (外交)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ireland nai 1973 miheca misatapang mala o Europe Lekatep. O kacacofelan a demak saheto o pikinengneng to Europe Lekatep a kacacofelan a demak, masasiket ato masasinga’ay to Inkiris ato Amilika. Midotoc ko Ireland to kacaay pilekatep, o pipatongal to sakinahekalan a tadamaanay a sici, kicay ato ponka ko safaloco’an, sakimasararemay ato i kalaloodan a niyaro’ paini to masamaanay kicay ato sadama to tamdaw, nawhani midotocay ko Ireland to masasifo’ay to Kacacofelan a demak, orasaka caay ko no Saka’amisay Tasitang a Kakaketonan Lekatep a nikapotay kitakit, nika ira ko kasasili’ay a malahakelong[16].

O kasasikiked a sakowan (行政區域)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nikapolongan Kitakit a Ireland pala 26 ko niyaro’ (Ireland: contae, Inkiris: county, caay kacitodong to ka’amisay Ireland enemay niyaro’), matelangay a Ireland a kanatal (Ireland: cúige), no to’asan rayray mali 4 ko kanatal, oya Ulster kanatal, Leinster kanatal, Munster kanatal ato Connaught kanatal, i Dublin sa’etal mali tolo ko niyaro’ ato cecay ko maci, roma a sa’etal mapatireng ko tosaay maci, 2014 miheca niyaro’ a sifo mafalic to sarikec a mitelek, mafalic a 31 ko niyaro’ay sifo: 26 ko niyaro’ kalomaocan sifo, tosa ko ci niyaro’ lomaocan sifo ato toloay maci lomaoc a sifo. Laeno (dengan o Dublin niyaro’ ato toloay sisifo) a si a kowan, caay to katayra i si lomaoc sifo a ’ayaway faco[17].

Sakaromakat (交通)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tadamaanay no Ireland a kasakitakit a hikokiciw i Dublin, Shannon ato Cork, ira ko adihayay nai Europe ato calay a nirakatan no hikoki paromi’adan ato mi^efawan hikoki a sapatado. O nai London ato Dublin a calay a rakat saadihayay a tayal i Europe no kasakitakit a calay, to mihacaan ira ko 450 ’ofad tamdaw romakatay toni tosaay maci a ma^efer, 2006 mihecaan[18][19], o Ireland hikoki kosi ko no Ireland hikoki, nikawrira Ryan hikoki ko sata’akay hikoki kosi i kitakit no Ireland. Ryan hikoki kosi o sata’akay a ka’emeday ko ’aca a hikoki i Europe[20], o midadakaway a lafang o saka tosoa i hakal.

Laloma’an no kitakit o marar lalan ko sakaromakat, citodongay to laloma’ay a calay no kitakit , saki lafang ato lalosidan no Ireland ko pipatado. O Dublin pitalaan ko sakatayra i Hughes ato Connolly, matatongod i kasa maci ato niyaro’ no kitakit. Ira ko citodongay to nai Dublin ato Belfast a lalan. Dublin maci masongila’ ko sacalay a lalan, halo Dublin sa’etal a cyi-in, maci a kahemaway lalan (Luas), Dublin paso, ato kasasicaliwan to sakaromakat a safaco (dublinbikes).

O tada lalan no Ireland malitoloay, iro ko feriway lalan, sakacecay lalan ato sakatosa lalan, ono sa’etal lalan ato niyaro’ay lalan o niyaro’ay sifo ko citodongay mikowan. Masiiked i maciay calay a lalan, feriway lalan misadadahal patayra i romaroma a niyaro’, tadamaan ko sakilalan pisahalaka. Patosokan i 2006-2015 mihecaan kahapinangan ko pisadadahal ato pifalic to sakilalan a calay no Ireland. I Dublin ko tadamaanay a fafalicen lalan a halaka, tinako kawali calay a lalan ato kaetip calay a lalan a kayakay to pa’acaan, ato Dublin minato a pongkang pa’acaan. I Cork a maci tadapongkang mata’esel i Li ’alo a Jack Lynch a pongkang, oroma i Limerick a pongkang mita’esel tayra i Shannon ’alo.

No Ireland a tadamaan a hikoki kosi ira o Ireland hikoki, Ryan hikoki, Chengjie hikoki.

Kicay (經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Cacowatan (發展)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Miming ko kicay no Ireland, saheto o picangray to nai papotalay a lali’aca. I 1995 miheca tangasa 2000 mihecaan, o Ireland pakaala to 10% a kacakat no kcay, malaka’ayaway i Europe, i 2003 miheca malasaka tosa to no tamdawan a GDP a kitakit (aikor no Luxembourg), itiya pakaala to Kyart a lokedaw a makapahay kacingangan. O kaliomahan maceroray to no kikay a tayal, o no kikat a nitayalan a GDP ira ko 38%, masadakay 80%, ato no dademakay a tayal ira ko 28%. Talacowa masadakay lali’aca a kicay o sacoker no Ireland, nikawrira tona pina mihecaan to sakidafong no finawlan no kitakit macakatay ato saki pipatireng ato pakadom sakalomowad no kicay a midotoc comahad.

I Wexford County a no fali ’icelan pisadingki (在威克斯福郡的風力發電場)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tina mo^etep miheca, mi’emet ko sifo no Ireland kamoleto no dafong, malowan ko localiw no sata, sapiserer to masadakay no sifo, pacakat to fana’ no matayalay, patoror to papotalay a malali’acaay mipakadom ko patosokan, to sakikicay a pasayraan. I 1999 miheca 1 folad, Ireland ato roma 11 ko kitakit mikihatiya to Europe a paysoan sa’etal. I 2001 mihecaan a no hekalan kicay a kacedengan, masa’et ko Ireland, o papasadaken a ’akawangay kacik malitosaay ko kaserer. O GDP oyaan to a macakat, 2001 miheca ato 2002 mihecaan 6%. O GNP caay kasalongan ko kacakat, 2001 miheca malitoloay to cecay ko kaserer, 2002 miheca pado’edo a maserer.

I 2008 miheca a ikor no mihecaan polong no hakal a paysoan a rodis, yaan saka pado’edo to 3 folad ko makofelet ko kicay no Ireland[22].

I 2010 miheca, paherek ko kaserer no kicay no Ireland, lomowad to ko masadakay[23]. Nikawrira o nano nicaliwan a payso ato no kingko a sapasadak miliyaw misomimet a macakat, mipasadak ko Ireland to 85 walwalan Europe a payso to sapidama, ato nai Europe Lekatep, Hekalay a Kiking no Payso a Lekatep(IMF) ato Inkiris, Sweden ato Danmark a kalocaliwan to payso[24].

Kaliomah (農業)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kaliomah atokalodafong sakicowatpo no Ireland, o citodongay to liomahan dafong a kingkiwan no Ireland, pinanaman ato pilicayan a pipatado a malitosaay no kitakit a citatodongay. Oni a citatodongay ira ko kasasirarem no pilicayan, hakyin ato kingkiwan ko mamidemak. Ireland a liomah ato dafongan kacomahadan a kamaro’an no citodongay i Carlo a Oak koying niyaro’ (Oak Park Estate).

Pidan (貨幣)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ireland tangasa 1999 miheca 1 folad 1 romi’ad mikapot to Europe a payso.

Sakicalay (通訊)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tingwa (電話)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No Ireland a tingwa a fangko patodong i misatingwaay. No Ireland a kasakitakit tingwa fangko+353, o kasa’etal ko aikoray.

Tamdaw (人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Midotoc to Ireland sakakaay mipolongay i 2006 miheca mirina’an tamdaw a tilid, tangasa 2006 miheca 4 folad, polong no tamdaw tahira 420 ’ofad, nai 2002 mihecaan matongal to 8.1%, onian ngataay miheca, ira ko malinahan tayni i Ireland, nai Europe lekatep tamdaw o Inkiris, Germany, France, Romania, POlan tamdaw, papotalan no Europe lekatek tamdaw o Amilika, Nigeria ato Holan tamdaw.

O polong no tamdaw 98.7% o maro’ay a Ireland finacadan (nano Celtic tamdaw), caayay kapapina a England tamdaw (30,000), Scotland tamdaw (5,000), Yotaya tamdaw (4,000) papotalay a dotoc. 2011 miheca mitoki pangangan a polong no tamdaw tangasa 4,581,269 tamdaw. No Ireland a masofocay sa’akawangay no Europe lekatep, o masofocay fafahiyan aikoray no Iceland i Europe.

2016 miheca 4 folad a mitomadawan polong no tamdaw tangasa 4,761,865, midotoc to ’ayaway 5 miheca macakat to 3.8% tongal to 173,613 ko tamdaw. Pa’ayaw to saki’orip 80.6 ’ayaway macakat to 1.3% mihecaan.

I ’ayaw sa’alomanay tamdaw no Ireland ira ko 800 ’ofad. Nikawrira o kakedalan, kalofongan aloman ko mapatayay ato talapapotal malinah saka malowan ko tamdaw, tangasa anini, o polong tamdaw no Ireland a sa’alomanay no kalitosaan. Nika aniniay, ira ko 7,000 ’ofad ko teloc no Ireland pasataliyokay no hekal a kasaniyaro’, i Amilika a Ireland teloc tangaa to i 3,200 ’ofad ko tamdaw[25].

Sowal (語言)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sakasasowal no kitakit o Ireland sowal (o Celtic sowal) ato Inkiris. O Inkiris no ’alomanay a sakasasowal, no Ireland a sowal i ka’etipay niyaro’ somowalay, masa’ofadan ko tamdaw. O Ireland a sowal o nananamen i pitilidan. Kalisaotan no tamdaw tosaay a sowal ko matiliday, o pipahoso no kitakit tosaay ko sowal. O Ireland a sowal o nano Indo-Europe a sowalan a Caltic sowal no finacadan, atomalecaday a ngasaw Brittany sowal, Wells sowal, ato Scotland Gail sowal ira ko kasasiingiran. Ireland sowal o no Ireland Nikapolongan Kitakit a sowal, itiya o ka’amisay Ireland mihayda to no kanatal a sowal, nikawrira ka’amisay Ireland misasowal dengan 26 ’ofad ko tamdaw.

Pakayraan (宗教)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Tingsokiw ko pitooran no Ireland, salongan micalap to 84% tamdaw, o Ireland sainanengay mitoor to pakayraan a kitakit, 1973 miheca mirocokay to pikihatiya to Misa mata’elif ko 90%. I ’ayaw no 2014 miheca o pipesi’ to wawa o ma’odangay, i 2014-2018 mihecaan o sakanga’ay tomenek ko tireng no citiyaday ano eca sakaeca pikinapatay saan a micolek; 2019 miheca misitapang ko citiyaday fafahiyan i ’ayaw to saka 12 lipay manga’ay mipesi’. O Tingsokiw a kiwha o parana’an no syakay ato saka’orip no Ireland, nikawrira pina mihecaan a pitoor mato masereray to. I 1996 mhecaan tangasa 2009 mhecaan, o mikihatiyaay to kiwkay a tamdaw nai 66% maserer to 46% ko tamdaw, nika i kaka ho ka;’aloman to no Europe a kitakit. I 1990 mihecaan, kapolongan-pitopa ko Ireland 50.28% ko paya miketon palasawad to nikadadoedoan to 58 miheca a pilalang malaliyas ko ramod.

O Ireland kiwkay (Ireland Anglican church, no Kristokiw fa^elohay kiwha) saka tosa kiwha, 20 sici rarimaay to, pina romi’ad o Tingsokiw mafetiray, fa^elohay mimingay kiwha ato Islam a mitooray matongalay to ko mitooray. O i Ireland a Yotayakiw a niyaro’ masereray ko tamdaw.

Ponka (文化)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Picokaay (美術)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Radiw (音樂)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Talacowa o ’icel no kalohekal, no to’asan radiw no Ireland oya to a tariktik, masiday ho ko adihayay no tato’asan. Mipalalan ho ko kasaroma a radiw, tinako Amilika a niyaro’ay radiw ato lamitan radiw, mapatodong to saki aniniay radiwan. Mikapot to romaroma a pakayraan, tinako misa’iwa’iway ato Punk rock. I kasasiromaroma a radiw no Ireland, tinako rock, ’arosaysay, jazz, blue mapalowad ko maradiway i kasakitakit.

Kero (舞蹈)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kakaenen (飲食)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kahirahira milecokan kakaenen no Ireland o titi ato hacil ko kaen, sapacamol ko lateng ato foting. Potato i 16 sici mapacomoday, o lecokan kakaenen no Ireland[28].

I sakatimolan no Ireland ira ko Guppie cheese ko kakaenen, I 1980 mihecaan a masanga’ay, kaolahan no Ireland. Guppie cheese masakihepicay a moloay, kaliyalaway ko papotal, ira ko fangiitay sanek. i ’ayaw no tolo lipay ko pipa’aca, rariden misasaw to malananomay cilah.

Pinengnengan ato pa’arawan (博物館及圖書館)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pinengnengan (博物館)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Queer pina’angan Iitiraay i Dublin, misa’icel mihoped to salaloma’ay no Ireland a LGBT likisi a tilid ato pinasanga’an. Ireland Queer pina’angan nai pipatirengan i Ireland LGBT pikingkiw tadamaanay, nawhani mapadamso ko mikingkiway to sakakadofahaw to nikingkiwan a tilid no likisi.

Pa’arawan (圖書館)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Onto (體育)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Gail picokaran mali ato sapadan mali o kasalongan no Ireland a onto[29], nai Gail onto cefang ko picokeroh to sapatay ta’akay Gail onto a tosa. Oya wa’ayay mali o sakapolongan mihalhal no finawlan a onto, o wa;ay mali o todong no kitakit a salongan.

2011 miheca Europe kalalifetan saka 5 folad 18 romi’ad itiya, i Dublin a ontofa no Ireland malalifet. Nawhani o Europe a citodongay to wa’ay pimalisaka’ecaaw kao mili’acaay ko kacingangan, o pimalian a kalalifet mafalic to “Dublin pimalian (ontofa)” saan.

Kiwiko (教育)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pinengnengan tilid (參考文獻)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

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2012-08-21).

2. Ireland. CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. [2011-08-28]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2008-12-10).

3. CSO 2011 Census – Volume 5 – Ethnic or Cultural Background (including the Irish Traveller Community) (PDF). 2011 [2009-07-09]. (nano nina’angan tilid

i 2012-03-31).

4.https://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/ep/p-pme/populationandmigrationestimatesapril2021/mainresults/

5. Ireland. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund (IMF). April 2022

[2022-05-15] (Inkiris).

6. Human Development Report 2019 (PDF). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. [2019-12-21]. (nano nina’angan tilid (PDF) i 2018-10-

24).

7. Government of Ireland. Article 2. Republic of Ireland Act, 1948. Dublin: Government of Ireland. 1948

[2013-11-13]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2013-10-29). It is hereby declared that the description of the

State shall be the Republic of Ireland.

8. Official text of Ireland Act 1949 (PDF). [2011-11-04]. (nano nina’angan tilid (PDF) i 2012-01-13).

9. November getaways. Ireland at the UN. Independent.ie. 2010-08-22 [2010-11-12]. (nano nina’angan

tilid i 2010-08-25).

10. November getaways. Ireland's UN affairs. Independent.ie. 2010-06-26 [2010-11-12]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-05-13).

11. Lally, Conor. Numbers in Defence Forces hit 40-year low. Irish Times. 2009-11-25 [2010-11-12]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2010-12-31).

12. Climate in Ireland. Met.ie. [2009-10-22]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2010-02-09).

13. The Ireland Climate and What to Wear. TravelInIreland.com. [2009-10-22]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2009-09-19).

14. Temperature in Ireland. Met.ie. [2009-10-22]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-07-23).

15. Wind over Ireland. Met.ie. [2009-10-22]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2008-05-08).

16. Nina’angan a kapi tilid. [2014-01-10]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-09-24).

17. Local Government Reform Act 2014 (PDF). Environ.ie. [2014-06-02]. (nano nina’angan tilid (PDF) i 2015-9-24).

18. Seán McCárthaigh, Dublin–London busiest air traffic route within EU i kalocalay mana’ang, pina’angan romi’ad. 2010-12-06., Irish Examiner, 31 March

2003

19. Mark Frary. Heathrow dominates top 20. The Times (London). 2007-03-19 [2007-07-04]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2010-05-25).

20. Ash makes Ryanair cancel flights until Monday alocalay mana’ang, pina’angan romi’ad.2010-04-19..

Forbes. 16 April 2010.

21. WATS Scheduled Passengers Carried 53rd Edition. International Air Transport Association. 2008

[2013-11-13]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2012-02-17).

22. CSO–Central Statistics Office Ireland. Central Statistics Office Ireland. 2004-11-09 [2009-07-09]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-02-23).

23. Fottrell, Quentin. Ireland Officially Exits Recession. Wall Street Journal (Online.wsj.com). 2010-06-30

[2011-06-30]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-06-23).

24. Ireland to receive €85 billion bailout at 5.8% interest rate. Irishtimes.com. 2010-11-28 [2011-06-30]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2011-07-16).

25. The Irish-American population is seven times larger than Ireland. Washington Post. [2022-05-26].

ISSN 0190-8286 (Amilika Inkiris).

26. Press Statement Census 2016 Results Profile 8 - Irish Travellers, Ethnicity and Religion. [2020-09-26]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2021-04-07).

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29. ireland-information.com. [2008-03-06]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2008-01-09).


sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農耕) a sera 66.10%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 10.90%, malo no roma to a sera 23%.

siyoto(首都) O [[[Dublin]](都柏林) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakatolo 17 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Michael D. Higgins(麥克·丹尼爾·希金斯), patirengan a romi’ad i 2011 a miheca(年) saka 11 folad saka 11 a romi’ad.

Pi’arawan to lakaw