Hawai

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Hawai[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takalay sowal (概略) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pacific Culture Areas

Ona Hawai katal (Ono Hawai a sowal: Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi; Ikiris sowal: State of Hawaii ,Kuwaping sowal:夏威夷) o cecay a sakowan no Amirika anini, o kanatanatal ko kalacecay nona sakowan. itiya i 1778 miheca tayra i 1898 miheca ma’eco no tapan no riyaran sofitay ci Sanminci sa pangangan han to Sanminci Kanatal (Sandwich Islands), nikawrira, i ikor to 'i, matawal to no tamtamdaw kona ngangan lahedaw sato.

Flag of Hawaii

O tatapang a niyaro’ itiraay i Honolulu (Tansyaangsan han no kaping a sowal), o isatimoaly a sakowan no Amirika, ikatimola nonini i iraho ko tada katimolay a sera no Amirika oya malanikowanan no Amirika a kanatal o Samoa hananay. O tandaw no itiniay i cowa ko kohecalay, miliniay tono Aciya ko tatirengan. O taliyokay pala o saadihayay ko kina’orip i nitahepoan no kakarayan, nikawrira, ona masamaamaanay kina’orip adhihayay to ko sakapatayaw sanay, o liomah i o kafi ko nipalomaan, dengan onini sakowan no Amirika ko o kikay to ko sapisanga’ to kafi.

Rikisi (歷史) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

To’asan (史前時期) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya i 1776 miheca o mikalicay to tata’angay tamina a tamdaw no Yoropa ci Kuku, o sa’ayaway a tamdaw no Yoropa macakat tona kanatal, sa pangangan han to Kuku tapangan no mikalicay to tamina kona tamdaw.

Ona ngangan to Hawai sanay i, o nani tiraay to sowal no Polinisya to kasofocan niyaro’ Sawaiki ko pangangan.

Kamehamehaii

Kamihamiha Hontian Kitakit (Kamehameha 王國) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1795 miheca mapalacecay no kakitaan ci Kamihamiha kona polong a kanatal, tireng sa a malahonti, tona miheca matatangaay to kacakat ni Kuku tapang no tamina I Ofu kanatal ona kanatanatal. i 1818 miheca mahemek a mingengeng toya cifelacay tilid no kaping hata no Ikiris ci Kamihamiha [1], sa todong han nira a misanga’ malo hata no Hawai kanatal, tahanini malo hata no Sakowan no Amirika. Yo mapatay sato koya sakacecay a honti o sakakaay a wawa ningra ko malahontiay o sakatosa Kamihamiha (Kamehameha II, 1797 miheca-1824 miheca, sakapito folad 14 romi’ad) hananay, o ngangan ningra i ci Liholiho, o tadangangan i ci Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu `Iolani.

Liliwkalani fafahiyan honti (Liliuokalani, c. 1891)

Mapateko no Amirika (美國兼併時期) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nikawrira, nani 1843 miheca tatootor sa ko Yoropa a kitakit i 1843 miheca o Ikiris, 1849 miheca o Feransu a milekal ono miyam a sakowan konini saan. Tahira to i 1893 miheca, o misanga’ay to odax a kohecalay tamdaw rawrawen nangra ko hoti a miriyang, o ngangan no Kristo tintosi ato kyokay ko sapifelih to Hawai Hontian Kitakit. Mapalasawad ko sa’ayaway a Fafahiyan Honti ci Liliwkalani (Hawai sowal: Liliʻuokalani, Ikiris: Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; 1838 miheca, sakasiwa folad, sakatosa romi’ad-1917 miheca, cecay safaw folad, cecay safaw romi’ad), o tada ngangan nira Litiya·Kamakaiha (Lydia Liliʻu Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamakaʻeha), o salikolay to a fafahiayan honti koni.

Ona mifelihay to honti no Hawai a kohecalay tamdaw patireng sa to loma a sifo kami to ko mamicaliw a malamikowanay saan. 1893 miheca sakatolo folad sakasiwa romi’ad, oya sakakinatosa a malacontong ci Kelifulan (Stephen Grover Cleveland, 1837 miheca, 3 folad, 18 romi’ad-1908 miheca, 6 folad, 24 romi’ad) caay ka pihai a mipatateko ko Hawai to Amirika, nikawrira, itini I fafa’eday a pikaykian no kitakit ono Mincutang a lipoin ko ‘alomanay, sahetoay o miliyangay ci Kelifulan congtongan, o kakridan nona masacefangay i ci Sanfuto Tor, i 1893 miheca saopoen ningra ko ‘alomanay a kohecay tamdaw a parawraw a mipalasawad to Honti no Hawai ci Liliwkalani, patireng sa to kohecalay tamdaw a sifo Hawai Polongan Kitakit sifo.[1] Mapatireng to kona no kohecalay a sifo i, 1898 miheca sakafalo folad tosasafaw romi’ad laheci sato a malosera no Amirika, 1894 miheca patireng sato ko kohecalay tamdaw tono nganra a sifo, 1894 niheca pacalcal to malapala no Amirika ko Hawai.

1959 miheca falo folad tosapolo’ ira ko cecay romi’ad mapateko mala o cecay a sakowan no Amirika, o saka lima polo’ a sakowan no Amirika, oya no Yincumin no Hawai a hontian sakowan pacici sato a mapalahedaw.

Palapalaan (地理)

O Hawai a kitakit i 19 ko tata’angay kanatal ato rakarakaan ko polong, itiraay i sifo’ no Tayhiyow ko aro’ nnona kitakit, ano halomamangay a kanatal sa’osien mapolong i iraay ko 137 ko kanatal, o polong nona kanatal i, sahetoay o cinamalay tokas, tahanini mapakohacay ho ko tata’angay a Hawai kanatal, oromaroma a kanatal i, i’ayaw no 200 miheca a mapakohac.

O kaliwasak nona kanatal i:

Ngangan no kanatal o cimil kaitiraan dadahal (km2) tamdaw

[2010 miheca]

Hawai (Hawaii) Tata’angay kanatal (大島) 19°34′N 155°30′W 10,432.5 km2 185,079
Kaoay kanatal (Kauai) Potal a kanatal (庭園島) 22°05′N 159°30′W 1,430.5 km2 66,921
Kafolawi kanatal (Kaho’olawe) Patosokankanatal (目標島) 20°33′N 156°36′W 115.5 km2 0
Lanay kanatal (Lanai) Citalacayay kanatal (鳯梨島) 20°50′N 156°56′W 363.9 km2 3,135
Maoi kanatal (Maui) Ta’eman kanatal (峡谷島) 20°48′N 156°20′W 1,883.4 km2 144,444
Molokay kanatal (Molokai) Misawidangaykanatal (友好島) 21°08′N 157°02′W 673.4 km2 7,345
Nihaw kanatal (Niihau) Kacipaysinankanatal (禁断島) 21°54′N 160°10′W 180.0 km2 170
Ofo kanatal (Oahu) Kasaopoan kanatal (集合島) 21°28′N 157°59′W 1,545.4 km2 953,207

O tamdaw (人口) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O maro’ay tamdaw itini i, ono Aciya a tamdaw ko ‘alomanay mahaop ko 40%, ini kowanan no Amirika a sakowan i, odeng o Hawai ko matiniay, caay ko nini aca, o cilamlamay to roma a ‘ilang a tamdaw i, adihay ko mahaopay. I lamoma’ no nini i, o teloc no Sipanya ko matongalay, siwatik sanay ko kaca ka hakowa no kohecaly ato kohetingay a tamdaw. Orasaka itini i, o kohecalay a mitiliday ko masamsamay i pitilidan.

Ona maro’ay itini a tamdaw i, o i Amirikaay ko sofoc 82.2%, ono i romaay kitakit a sofocen i mahaop ko 75%, i raroma’ no nini i o nani Aciyaay kako sanay a tamdaw.

O Yincumin no Hawai (夏威夷原住民) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Oya ititiay a maro’ a tamdaw no Hawai Yincumin rowan sanay to anini.[3] Nikataynian ho kohecalay tamdaw i ’ayaw no 200 ko miheca yo macakat ci Kuku tapang no tamina iraay ko 30 ofad ko Yincumin a tamdaw, to ikor to i 19 sici (19世紀) rowan sa sepatay to ofad ko osaw, mapatay no mihawikidan no kohecalay tamdaw a lifong, ’aloman ko mipatayan no kohecaly tamdaw. Tahini to aniniay a mihecaan mararamod to roma a finacadan, tongal sato ko karahedaw no tada Yincumin no Hawai.

I 1959 miheca mapateko malocecay a sakowan no Amirika ko Hawai, mapenec ko ’orip no Yincumin tahanini o sakararem ko ’orip nangra.[4] O Yincumin kako sanay a tamdaw i, iraay ho ko mo’etep a ofad sanay ko sowal, nikawrira, ona tamtamdaw o caay ka ciramram to roma a finacadan ko ’ilang i caay to ka hakowa ko osaw. O caay ka ciramram to roma a finacadan ko ’ilang i 8, 000 to ko tamdaw sa ko sa’osi, o romaroma sa i mahaop ko 98% ciramramay to roma a finacadan.[5] O pisetek to sowal o so’elinay a Yincumin no Hawai sanay a rikec i, oya misanga’an i 1920 miheca a 「Hawai Tmadaw」sanay a rikec, tona rikec i, i’ayaw ni Kuku tapang no tamina yo macakat tona kanatal maro’ay to itini a tamdaw ko ni toro’an, o itirengay a remes i mirocokay ho to 50% nani to’as sanay ko pisetekan nona rikec. Nikawrira, o pihaop no Yincumin i polong tamdaw no Hawai i, ’edengan 5.9% aca, o sapiparocokaw tono niyah a punka i, mapatireng nangra ko 「Citodongay tono Hawai Demak」 (OHA, Office of Hawaiian Affairs) , citodong a dademak to kalodemak no Hawai Yincumin.[6] Ona OHA caay ka piala to payso no sifo ta caay ka ngoyangoyen no sifo ko paiyincuminay a demak. Oyasato i 1990 mihecahecan, saadihay sato ko dademakay to sapipatikoaw tono niyah a salongac.[7]

O pisawkit to Kamihamiha Pitilidan (Kamehameha 裁判) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Oya nano to’asan a pitilidan no Yincumin no Hawai toya Kamihamiha Pitilidan, edeng o teloc no Yincumin ko mihaian a papicomod itini a mitilid, o ni’osawan no sa’ayaway a honti a dafong ko sapidemak tonini, caay ka piala to payso no sifo, o mitiliday a ka’emangay cidafohay, sa mapakokot no kohecay a tamdw o misakakinihay to roma afinacadan.[8] Nikawrira, misawkit sato ko sakaka’ay a pisawkitan i, ono Hawai Yincumin a teked pitilidan konini sa ko pipatosok sawkit, caay ka tama toya misakakinihay to roma a finacadan sanay a pikokot.

Onini i, o todongay o sapipatikoaw to niyah a salongoc sanay a demak, nawhani, na o mi’ecoan no kohecalay a tamdaw a pateko i Amirika a kitakit, mapalahedaw ko niyah mikowanay a honti no Hawai.

Mido’edo tona pisawkit i, 2009 miheca 12 folad 28 romi’ad, masongra’ ko pihai no Kinairaira no Pala a Iinkay no Lipoiing no Amirika (Congressional committee of the United States House of Representatives) ko Miliyaw a Patiren Niyah Sifo tono Yincumin no Hawai (The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 S1011/HR2314), ci AkaPil fafa’eday pikaykian no kitakit a kiing koni patarahekalay tona rikec, sa pangangan to Akak Rikec (the Akaka Bill after Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii)

Pakayni tona Niyah Pikowan a Sifo no Hawai Yincumin, ira ko sapifelihaw a kiing, nikawrira, micoker ci Opama congtong to Niyah Pikowan a Sifo no Hawai Yincumin.

Sowal (語言) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Austronesian languages

I 1978 miheca malaheciay to a patalahekalen no kinpo no Amirika ko halasowal no Hawai i o Hawai sowal ato Ikiris sowal. O nano to’asan a sowal no Hawai o nani capa’ay no Aostoronisya sowal (sakacecay a cicu), o to’as atamdaw no Hawai i, nano capa’ay no Aostoronisya a Polinisya tamdaw (sakatosa cicu). Orasaka matiya to i Taywanay a finacadan no Aostoronisya caay to ka hakowa ko mafana’ay a somowal. Nikawrira, tona pinapina a mihecaan matongalay ko o ngiha’ no sowal no Hawai ko pitooran a mitilid to ngangan no pala.

Pitooran (宗教) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pitooran no ta’asan Hawai tamdaw i o kimad, o kongko no ’orip, ato o patinako. To ikor to i, tayni to a micomod ko Kristo Pitooran. O kawasan ho a kimad i, o nani Polinisya a kimad ko adihayay, nikawrira, kakaya’ to ko mihecan, mafalic mafalic ko pakimaday i, masasiromaay ko nikimadan, I ’ayaw no 1800 miheca, o Kawasan kimad i oraay kono Hawai a kacidekan, malalitilitingay to pitooran nangra, tahira to i 19sici malalang to ko no to’asan a pitooran, nikawrira, tahanini iraay ho ko mitooray sa maosaw tahanini kono to’asan a punka.

O Yincumin no Hawai o mita’ongay to palapalan a masasiromaromay a kawas, ano silsilen koriaan i o milooday kawas ci Ku ()、o ’orip kawas ci Kani (Kāne)、o liomah kawas ci Lono (Lono) ato no riyar kawas ci Kanaloa (Kanaloa). Caay ko nini aca, ira ho ko romaroma a kawas, ci Laka (Laka)、ci Kihawanihi (Kihawahine)、ci Papahanaumoku (Papahānaumoku), ato midipotay to karolomaan a kawas ci Aumakua (Aumakua).

Tatapangan kawas (Kuka'ilimoku)

Adihay ta to ko kawas silsilen a mitilid ta nalikay a mafana’:

  • Tatapangan Kawas 4 ko tireng: Ku、Kani、Lono、Kanaloa.
  • Fainayan Kawas 40 ko tiring:o nani Kaniay a masadak. (ke kanahā 之化身)
  • Fainayan ato fafahiyan kawas 400 ko tireng (ka lau)
  • Kasiromaroma a Fainayan ato fafahiyan kawas (ke kini akua)
  • O romaroma kawas (na ʻunihipili)
  • O midipotay kawas (na ʻaumākua)[9]
Pafilongan (USMC-101120-M-2339L-009)

Tooren ko nini a pinangan no ’orip no Hawai tamdaw, o pafilongan a romi’ad itiraay i micelem ko Supalu Fo’is do’edo sa a masadakay a folad, o pihafayan ato pahanhanan a romi’ad ko nini, ma’edemg I saka 4folad no aniniay. Ona pafilingan i o Makalii’ hananay no Hawai tamdaw. (Makali`i; Maka o mata sanay, lii’ o mamangay sanay)

Tona pafilongan i, itiya i piceleman no Supalu fo’is ko finawlan macakat nani riyar.

Punka (文化) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono to’asan ho a kaka’enen i o Luawa (lūʻau) hananay no Hawai a tamdaw, o todongay o mikocisoay koranan, o pisacacak tonini i, i potal korkor han a miofang ko sera, tafo han to papah no facidol ato tali ko foting ato titi, teli han tora ofang a mitamek.

Fula Sakero (Hula Kahiko Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 01)

Nano to’asan o Pa·ina (pāʻina) anoca o Aha·Aina (’aha’aina) hananay ko pangangan tona tangidaf, o dengan i Pakarowid a milood, Pipakelangan to kaherekan no dodang, Sakacecay miheca nasofocen ko wawa, Kararamodan ato Pihemekan to kato’edaw no ‘orip a komaen tona kociso. Nano to’asan cipaysinay a malacafay komaen ko fainayan ato fafahiyan, mikociso sato i malacidekay a komaen. Itiya to i 1819 miheca o honti Kamihamiha 2 ko mifalicay tona lisin ta manga’ay to polong sa ko fainayan ato fafahiyan a mitaheka. O ’epah koroma aniniay to a mangaay a mili’epah ko tamtamdaw.

Ano mikociso i, caay aca ka ira ko radiw ato sakero, o sakero no Hawai to kafana’an no cimacima a tamdaw i, o Fula (sowal no Hawai: hula) hananay a sakero, onini ira ko sekero, ira ko romadiway, ira ko mi’olicay, ira ho ko misoniay to tiftif ato potoy. Ona Fula hananay a sakero ono to’asan i o Kahiko hananay, ono aniniay i o Auana hananay a pangangan, o polong nonini i o todengay o heci no punka ato pipakaso’elin to to’asan a kawas.

Pihapinangan Tilid (註腳) [misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Kamihamiha sanay i, o mato’olay, o matemoyay sanay ko imi ira.

[2] McWilliams, Tennant S. James H. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation. Pacific Historical Review. 1988-02, 57 (1) : 25–36 [2014-10-08]. (原始內容存檔於2016-02-16) .

[3] (大林純子・山中速人「<ハワイ> 12 カナカ・マオリ/ハワイアン」/ 綾部恒雄監修 前川啓治・訓棚橋編集『講座 世界の先住民族 -ファースト・ピープルズの現在- 09 オセアニア』 明石書店 2005年 217ページ)

[4] 大林純子・山中速人「<ハワイ> 12 カナカ・マオリ/ハワイアン」/ 綾部恒雄監修 前川啓治・訓棚橋編集『講座 世界の先住民族 -ファースト・ピープルズの現在- 09 オセアニア』 明石書店 2005年 218ページ

[5] 大林純子・山中速人「<ハワイ> 12 カナカ・マオリ/ハワイアン」/ 綾部恒雄監修 前川啓治・訓棚橋編集『講座 世界の先住民族 -ファースト・ピープルズの現在- 09 オセアニア』 明石書店 2005年 219ページ

[6] 中嶋弓子『ハワイ・さまよえる楽園』東京書籍、1993年、p.129-130。ISBN 4-487-75396-1。

[7] ハワイ人の主権回復運動④ 井上昭洋 Glocal Tenri, Vol.11 No.1 January 2010. 2015年9月9日閲覧。

[8] ハワイ人の主権回復運動④ 井上昭洋 Glocal Tenri, Vol.11 No.1 January 2010. 2015年9月9日閲覧。

[9] Gutmanis, June (1983). Na Pule Kahiko: Ancient Hawaiian Prayers. Editions Limited. pp. 4–14. ISBN 0-9607938-6-0

Pili'an a tikid(參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. ^ McWilliams, Tennant S. James H. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation. Pacific Historical Review. 1988-02, 57 (1): 25–36 [2014-10-08]. (原始內容存檔於2016-02-16).
  2. ^ Blay, Chuck, and Siemers, Robert. Kauai『’s Geologic History: A Simplified Guide. Kaua『i: TEOK Investigations, 2004. ISBN 9780974472300. (Cited in )
  3. ^ USGS GNIS: Island of Hawaiʻi
  4. ^ USGS GNIS: Maui Island
  5. ^ USGS GNIS: Oʻahu Island
  6. ^ USGS GNIS: Kauaʻi Island
  7. ^ USGS GNIS: Molokaʻi Island
  8. ^ USGS GNIS: Lānaʻi Island
  9. ^ USGS GNIS: Niʻihau Island
  10. ^ USGS GNIS: Kahoʻolawe Island
  11. ^ Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - 2018 Population Estimates. US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau. [2019-09-16]. (原始內容存檔於2020-02-13).

Makakafit i papotal(外部連結)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  • Star-Bulletin Newspaper -- 英文的日報 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • University of Hawaii -- 夏威夷大學 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • 夏威夷官方旅遊網站 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • OpenStreetMap上有關夏威夷州的地理資訊