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Haiti

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Hata no Hayti kitakit

Hayti Kapolongan-Kitakit(海地共和國;Fransu a sowal:République d'Haïti;Keriyolsowal no Hayti:Repiblik d Ayiti),kalopangangan o Hayti(海地); Fransu a sowal:Haïti;Keriyolsowal no Hayti:Ayiti[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O itiraay i Karopi-Riyaran a kanatal. O polong nona kitakit itiraay i saka’etipan no sakatosa a katata’angay kanatal o Yisponiawla-Kanatal(Hayti-kanatal hananay ho a pangangan), isakawalian malafiyaw ato Tominika Kapolongan-kitakit.

Kaitiraan no Hayti kitakit

O tamdaw no Hayti o itinitiniay aca a Intian-Yincumin o Alawako-tamdaw.nama’eco no Sipanya mahadefek a payayen no Sipangya, sanoyanan sato ko Alawako-tamdaw malowan,lahedaw sanay to. Oya sa o mikowanay ton apala a kohecalay tamdaw misaadihay a mipacomod to kaohetingay-tamdaw nani Afrika to mamatayal, oninian ko sakamalakohetingay-kitakit ko Hayti, matayal to liomah to saka’orip.

Ona Hayti o sa’ayaway a teloc no Afrika a kohetinay-tamdaw ko mikowanay, o koli ko patirengay tona kitakit, yo malamicowatan-sakowan ko Amirika-Karopaw o sakatosa misiieday a kitakit, o sakacecay misiikeday o Karopi-Riyaran Eyal(o sakatolo kapolongan-kitakit ato sakacecay Kohetingay-tamdaw a kapolongan-kitakit). I 2012 miheca milekal ko Hayti to sakalakapotaw no Afrika-Patatekoan Lekatep.

O saadihayay ko kohetingay tamdaw i Amirika-Karopaw ko Hayti(mahaop ko safaw no 95%) a misiikeday-kitakit. nikawrira, tada matatiwtiw ko kacemahad ato fiyaw Tominika kitakit o teloc no Latin-tamdaw ko maro’ay itini. O samanikaway ko Hayti-kitakit i Amirika-Karopaw, I 2021 miheca a lalen no ni’etanan no kalotamdaw ‘edengan 1943 payso no Amirika, itiraay i la’eno ho Sa’osi no Kacemahadan no Tamdaw(人類發展指數;Ikiris a sowal:Human  Development Index), o cecay no sasafaay ko kacemahad a kitakit(最低度開發國家;Ikiris a sowal:Least developed country,decdecan a tilid:LDC、LDCs) ihekal. I 2019 miheca, o lalen a ‘orip no Hayti a tamdaw 64 mihecaan.

Rikisi(歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

fafahiyan no Arawako tamdaw

Ono to’asan a kamaro’an no Hayti Indian-Alawako kona sera. 1492 miheca saka 12 folad saka 6 romi’ad pahicera ko tamina ni Kolompo itini, pangangan han nira to Ispaniawla-kanatal(伊斯帕尼奧拉島; Sipanya a sowal:Isla de La Española; Fransu a sowal:Île d’Hispaniola; Hayti-Keriyol sowal:Ispayola),1502 miheca laheci sato malamicowatan-sakowan no Sipanya. Mahawikid no Yoropa a tamdaw ko kefing a lifong ato pihadefek a mipatay to itiniay a yincumin, hadefek sato malahedaw ko Alawako-Indian. To ikor misaadihay a micoro’ to kohetingay-koli nani Afirika, malamatayal no itiniay. Do’edoen ko “Leswiko-Kakaketonan” I 1697 miheca, mapa’aca no Sipanya ko Hayti i Fransu, malamicongacongay no Fransu a Sietominiko. 1791 miheca o kakeridan no kohetingay-tamdaw ci Tosang-Lowitor(杜桑·盧維杜爾; Sipanya a sowal:Toussaint L'Ouverture) milengat to sapisiikedaw a lalood, o sa’ayaway a midemakay to sapisiikedaw a tamdaw i Latin-Amirika Karopaw. 1804 miheca, o sofitay ningra ma’afas a maro’ ko Tayci-Minato(太子港;Fransu a sowal:Port-au-Prince) milekal to kalaheci a misiiked, patireng to Kapolongan-Kitakit. I 1822 miheca tahira i 1844 niaro’an no Hayti ko isakwaliay a sera(aniniay a Tominiko kitakit).

Nikawrira, yo misiiked to ko Hayti cowa ka songila’ ko faco no kitakit, orasaka, cacororok sa ko nisatekeday-pikowan a tapang, cilacila mafalic ko malamikowanay mafelih ko sifo, ira ko pisa’osi nani pisiikedan no Hayti tahira i 1915 miheca, tona 100 ko mihecaan ira ko 90 a mikowan macacorok matayal. I 1957 miheca ira ko padama no sofitay malacongtong ci Toawliay, o satapangan a kalotamdaw malacongtongay, patireng tono laloma’an a pikowan, tahira i 1986 miheca mafelih. Ikor to o tapang no sofitay ci Henli-Nafi(亨利·南菲; Fransu a sowal:Henri Namphy) malakakeridan no ” matayalay to polong demak no kitakit a saopo” , o sofitay ko mikowanay to kitakit. 1990 miheca malacongtong ci Lang-Pitolang-Atilistito(讓-貝特朗·阿里斯蒂德;Jean-Bertrand Aristide), nikawria mafelih no sofitay. 1994 miheca Leni-Poroywar(勒內·蒲雷華;Fransu a sowal:René Garcia Préval) to ko malacongtongay. 2000 miheca, miliyaw heca ci Atilistito malacongtong. 2004 miheca saka 2 folad o mifelihay to sifo a sofitay mipacici a papisawad ci Atilistito malacongtong malaplap tayra iroma a kitakit tahira i 2011 mihecaan.

Tosang-Lowitor o mama no Hayti kitakit

To ikor to i, do’edoen ko piketon no kimpo malapacarcaray congtong ci Ponifis-Alisanta o tapang no Sakakaay-Pisawkitan, ocoren no Linheko ko misimaway to rihaday a sofitay. 2006 miheca saka 2 folad saka 7 romi’ad, midemak to sinkiw to congtong ato Kalomaocan-nokitakit, ira ko 33 tamdaw masadakay to sinkiw no congtong, roma i,ira ko 1300 ko tamdaw mala’afas to 129 kiing no Kalomaocan-nokitakit.[1]saka 2 folad saka 16 romi’ad, mipatarahekal to sowal ko pacarcaray a kakeridan no midemakay to sinkiw, pakaalaay to 51.15% ko masadakay to sinkiw no cacirihaday-siecian kasarekad ci Poroywar a malacongtong.[2] tahira i 2011 miheca ko katayalan.

2010 miheca saka 1 folad saka 12 romi’ad, ira ko Loysi7.0 a ‘atoray, mingataay to Tayci-Minato(太子港;Fransu a sowal:Port-au-Prince) to 16 km,orasaka, tata’ang ko kapeleng no maamaan. Latek ira ko 10-20 ‘ofad ko tamdaw to mapatayay, nikawrira, ono sifo a pisa’osi ’edengan 15 ‘ofad ko maalaay ko tatirengan, osaw to 20 ’ofad maselenay i mapelpelay a loma’, oninian i, ira ko 35 ‘ofad ko mapatayay yo sanay.2021 miheca saka7 folad saka 8 romi’ad mapacok a mapatay ko congtong ci Lofonir-Moisi(若弗內爾·摩依士 ; Faransu a sowal :Jovenel Moïse), oya nili’ayawan a nitoro’an to mamisawad a congli ci Kolawto-Yiesofo(克洛德·約瑟夫;Fransu a sowal:Claude Joseph) toro’ han to pakatayal to tayal no congtong, milekal to ” kakafolawan-rikec ” i ‘edef no kitakit.[3] saka7 folad saka 21 romi’ad, de’edoen no sifo no Hayti ko palimo’otan ni Moisi mitoro’ ci Aliayr-Henli(阿里埃爾·亨利 ;Fransu a sowal :Ariel Henry) malaheci a malacongli, mipatokeled ho to tayal no congtong, ci Yiesofo patatikor ho to tayal no midemakay to tayal no roma a kitakit.[4] Tona miheca saka 8 folad saka 14 romi’ad ira heca ko Loysi7.3 a ‘atoray, ira ko 1419 ko mapatayay a tamdaw, 5700 ko madoka’ayay a tomdaw[5][6][7]; oya satapang sanay ho ko katayal a congli ci Aliayr-Henli milekal ho to ” kakafolawan-rikec ” to ‘edef nona kitakit, cecay folad ko pidemakan tonini ; o Linheko misa’icel a padang to sak’orip no Hayti, o Sakanga’ay-Sakitatirengan a Lekatep (World Health Organization, WHO) nipaini to sapipaada to madoka’ay.

Kaitiraan(地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Isaka’amisay no Yisponiawla-Kanatal ko kaitiraan no Hayti, o kakahad no sera ira ko 17,750 km², ilaloma’ no nini i,mahaop ko 27.560 km² o sera, 190 km² o nanonanoman. O kato’edaw no lislis no riyar ira ko1,771km, o kalala’edan ato fiyaw Tominika ira ko 360 km.

O saka’etipan a lislis no riyar no Yisponiawla-Kanatal o sapikopiko saan, nikawrira, cowa ka pina ko kanatal i lawac no riyar. Itiraay i sasifo’an no Kotilela-lotolotokan, ira ko masahapinangan a faco no sera, sepatay ko tata’angay a naniwali pasitira i ka’etip ko rakat no lotolotokan.

Adihay ko masamaanay a tekedan a fa’edetay-kakarayan, o dafdaf i,o makedalay, o tokos i,o so’emetay, o Kotilela-lotolotokan o si’enaway ko kakarayan. tada maso’emetay ko sera,patinako han o miharharay to fali a ‘apilis no tokos, o ‘orad ira ko 1.905mm, malecad ko i ‘apilis no tokos a miki’adingay a ‘apilis, ‘edengan 559mm ko ‘orad.

O polong no sera no Hayti sakilacen: saka’amisan dafdaf, saka’amisan tokos, sasifo’an taporo, saka’amis no saka’etipan a tokos, sasifo’an tokos,Altiponito, Ciertosako, Layawkan, katimolan tokos siwa ko sakasiromaromaan no pitaparan.

Cilacila miletek to kilang, o rengos i,o fa’elohay to a cengo’, onini i,o fa’edetay-kakarayan a matakaray rengorengosan, fa’edetay- kakarayan a ilakelalay kilang,masatafotafokan a fa’edetay- kakarayan a ilakelalay semot, fa’edetay- kakarayan a kilang, no ’ora’oradan-kilang, o fa’edetay-kakarayan kilang, tokotokosan a langdaway kilang. O kinaira no pala ira ko ‘oteng, fodawan, tada’ekim, ‘adicaw ato nanomay-saprakat to kikay.

O sato’edaway a ‘alo o Atiponi-‘Alo, nikawrira, awaay ko manga’ay a parakat to tamina.

O mikowanan a lawacay-riyar 12 km no riyaran, o ingataay ira ko 24 kmno riyaran, o tekedan a riyar 200 km no riyaran.

Saka’orip(經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mililam to sak'orip kp pakosiya tamdaw

O samanikaway ko Hayti-kitakit i Amirika-Karopaw, I 2021 miheca a lalen no ni’etanan no kalotamdaw ‘edengan 1943 payso no Amirika, o pinengneng no Pacemahaday-Demak no Linheko(聯合國開發計劃署;Fransu a sowal:Le Programme des Nations unies pour le développement ; Ikiris a sowal:The United Nations Development Programme,decdecan atilid: PNUD ; UNDP) itiraay i la’eno ho Sa’osi no Kacemahadan no Tamdaw(人類發展指數;Ikiris a sowal:Human  Development Index), o cecay no Sasafaay-Kacemahad a kitakit(最低度開發國家;Ikiris a sowal:Least developed country,decdecan a tilid:LDC、LDCs) ihekal. I 2019 miheca, o lalen a ‘orip no Hayti a tamdaw 64 mihecaan. Itini i polong a 189 kitakit a rayray o saka 170 ko Hayti, tada mahapinang ko kasasiroma pasasotiri’en to i taliyokay a kitakit. I 2004 miheca, o GDP no Hayti ira ko 120.5 ’ok no Amirika a payso, o saka145 rayray ihekal; o lalen a GDP no kalotamdaw ira ko 380 no Amirika a payso, o saka 150 rayray ihekal. O kacakat no ‘aca no dafong a lalen ira ko 22%, o kiyam no kitakit ira ko 14 ’ok no Amirika a payso, cecay no kalimo’etep a tamdaw no Hayti cecay anoca tosa Amirika payso ko saka’orip to kaloromi’ad.

O payso no Hayti o Koerto(Gourde), decdecan a tilid o HTG, cecay a Koerto matatodong to 100 payci. O saka’orip no Hayti a tamdaw sakakaay o liomah, nikawrira, sahetoay a paloma sanay aca I taliyok no loma’ a mamangay sera, dedengdeng sanay aca o kaka’enen no lalomaan. O matiniay ‘edeng o kaka’enen aca ko nipalomaan cowa ka paliwal to nipalomaan a losay a maomahay ira ko 70%, nawhani oya kakahaday a pipalomaan to tefos a omah cikcik han ni Alisanta-Pitiong iikor no pisiiked nona kitakit pakilac i kohetingay-tamdaw(1791miheca oni paca’acaan i roma a kitakit a ‘odax no tefos ira ko 74,000 ton, tahira to i 1825 miheca malowan dengan 20,000 ton, tahira to i 1960 miheca malowan ho ‘edengan 13,000 ton). I pilololan no Hayti i 1791-1802 mihecaan , mapelen no kohetingay-tamdaw ko nipatirengan no kohecalay-tamdaw i saka’amisan a kanahikoan a sapipananoman a lalan, tahira to pisatapangan nis aka 19sici, matayi’ to koya sapipananoman a marad laheci sato a mapeleng, orasaka oya maro’ay i saka’amisan a 50% a tamdaw ‘edengan 17% ko sasaliomahen a sera. 1915-1934 miheca yo ma’eco no Amirika ko Hayti, miliyaw heca ko kohecalay-tamdaw a mipatireng to tata’angay-kaliomahan, o kakahad no kaliomahan mahaop ko 7% a sera no polong no kitakit, ira ko 30% a nipalomaan losay no polong no kitakit. talacowa o papa’acaen i kohecalay-tamdaw ko ninian losay, nikawrira, ira to ko ‘etan rihaday to mamangan ko ’orip.

Tamdaw(人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pisa’osi no Linheko i 2008 miheca, o polong a tamdaw no Hayti ira ko 980 ’ofad,[8] madedetay ko kamaro’ no tamdaw. sahetoay itira i lawac no riyar ato ita’emanay a dafdaf. Laltek ira ko 95 % a tamdaw no Hayti o teloc no Sa’etipay-Afrika a kohetingay tamdaw, o roma i,Mula-tamdaw, ira ko 93 % a tamdaw no Hayti itiraay ato i safaay no 1,000 ko tamdaw a niyaro’, 85% o maomahay. O sakakaay ko tiring no Mula-tamdaw, orasaka, itiraay i lawac no Taci-Minato matayal to no sofitay, sieci ato mala’acaay a tayal, o kohetingay a tamdaw itiraay i sanosa’etipay-loma’  Kanpayto hananay a niyaro a maomah, malasofitay ato matayal to kalokatayalan.

O tamdaw no Hayti o laciramram to ’ireng no kohetingay tamdaw, o saawaay ko ramram takaraway ko tiring.

O cecay a sowal ko Fransu a sowal ko kalosowal no sifo, nikawrira,’edengan 10% ko somowalay to sowal no Fransu. O polong no tamdaw no Hayti somowalay to Keriyol-sowal no Hayti ko kalosowal nangra, o ma’emangay ato nipaliwalay a tamdaw o Ikiris a sowal. O sakakaay a pitooran bo Hayti o Roma Tinsikiw, nikaweiea, ’alomanay ko pakaso’elinay to to’asan a pitooran o Wuto-Pitooran(巫毒教;Vodun vodṹ).

O skakakaay a tokay no Hayti o Taci-Minato, itiraay i Konafo-Kihaw, cisafaw to 200 ’ofad. Isaka’amisay no Hayti a Hayti-Waa’ o sakatosa a sakakaay a tokay ato minato, o syoto no Micongacongay-Faransu a Tatapangan tokay ato syoto no Hayti, i tini tona tokay ira ko ‘akawangay makapahay a loma’ ato kakahaday a lalan.potal. ikatimol nona tokay to 18 km ira ko nalacolan no pisalamaan ni Henli-Keristof Honti, ona nalacolan misositiri’an ko Tata’angay-Loma’ Pocitan no Toic(Palais Sanssucci), ato nalacolan ni Lafiayr-Nalacolan(o nalacolan no punka no hekal).

Pitooran(宗教)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ira ko 85% a tamdaw o miskristoay kako sanay,sahetoay o mitooray to Roma Tinsikiw.

Itini i Hayti tada ’alomanay ko mitooray to Tinsikiw, itini i tona mi’ecoan a mikowan a sera itiya ho ira ho a ma’osaw ko nipatirengan a Kyokay, roma sa i,ira ko mitooray to Wuto-Pitooran(巫毒教;Vodun vodṹ), o nani Afirkaay ko kalengawan nona pitooran to mita’ongay to ’adihayay a kawas, tokeled sa i, o nani tiraay i ono Tinsikiw to pita’ong to tato’asan konini a harateng, orasaka, misafaan no nipatenakay to sowal ni Yieso a tamdaw konini a harateng. Nahani tada’aloman ko ni palitan a kohetingay a tamdaw no Fransu nani Afrika a tayni, orasaka, mohawiket kona Wuto-Pitooran. Oya i’ayaway a congtong no Hayti ci Forangsowa-Towaliay(弗朗索瓦·杜瓦利埃; Fransu a asowal:François Duvalier) a nalacolan mala Rocokan no Hekalay-kitakit(世界遺產; Ikiris a sowal:World Heritage; Fransu a sowal:Patrimoine mondia).ona ci Forangsowa-Towaliay congtong mira'oy tona Wuto-Pitooran a patireng to "Tonton Makoto"(Tonton Macoute)a tekedan sofitay to midemak to katalawan a pikowan.

Pacefaday a tilid(註腳)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. 冷彤,周確,海地選民踴躍參加大選 部分地區計票工作已經開始 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),新華網
  2. 海地官方宣布普雷瓦爾贏得總統選舉 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),新華網
  3. 海地總統遇刺身亡 警方稱殺死4名僱傭兵 - RTHK. news.rthk.hk. [2021-07-08]. (原始內容存檔於2021-11-25) (中文(臺灣)).
  4. 海地20日成立新政府 總理為摩依士生前指定人選 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),中央通訊社,2021/7/20
  5. Haïti - FLASH : Séisme de magnitude 7.2 dans les Nippes. Haiti Libre. [2021-08-14]. (原始內容存檔於2021-12-12).
  6. 賴筱青. 海地地震死亡人数升至304人. 聯合早報. 2021-08-15 [2021-08-14]. (原始內容存檔於2021-12-12) (中文).
  7. 7.2 magnitude earthquake hits Haiti; at least 304 killed. 美聯社. 2021-08-14 [2021-08-14]. (原始內容存檔於2022-01-07) (英語).
  8. Country profile: Haiti, BBC News, 10 November 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-16.

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]