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Hata no Korociya kitakit

Korociya kitait(格魯吉亞; a sowal:საქართველო)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Omi ‘awasay to tosaay karopaw a kitakit, mihifalatay to Aciya ato Yoropa a koeopaw. Nikawrira, wataay ko pirecep no ponka no Yoropa,orasaka, o Yoropa a kitakit sanany ko pinengneng tona kitakit.[1] [2][3][4]itiya ho mikapotay i Solin Misakapotay-Lekatep, 1994 mihecasaka4 folad saka 24 folad malaheci ko pisiiked a patireng to niyah a kitakit, o sarakatay a congtong ci Ciwiyato-Kamusahorciya(茲維亞德·加姆薩胡爾季阿; Korociya a sowal:ზვიად გამსახურდია), yo misiiked to i,mafalic ko ngangan no kitakit to “Korociya kapolongan-kitakit”, mikapotay i “Misiikeday kitakit Lekatep” ‘arawhan ira ko lalood i Katimolay-Awsayti, ira ko piketon no Kalomaocan-kitakit to sapiliyasw to “Misiikeday kitakit Lekatep”, i 2009 miheca saka 8 folad saka 18 romi’ad malaheci ko ko sapiliyas a demak, tangsol sato miliyas.[5]

Kaitiraan no Korociya kitakit

O kakahad no sera ira ko 69,700 (mahaop ko Apuhaci ato Katimolay-Awsayti)[6], o tamdaw ira ko 4,352,224 ko tamdaw(2011 mihecaan a sa’osi).

Sakakaay a finacadan o Korociya finacadan(79.1%), oroma ira ho ko mamangay a finacadan Yaminiya-finacadan,Rosiya-finacadan ato Asaupayciyang-finacadan; ono sifoan a sowal o sowal no Korociya, nikawrira, ‘alomanay ko somowalay to sowal no Rosiya. Sahetoay o mitooray to Kawaliay-So’elinay Pitooran, ira ko papinapina mitooray to Islam pitooran.

O kaitiraan no Korociya itiraay i lawac no Kohetingay-Riyar(Black Sea)ka’amis o Rosiya, katimol mada’o'edo ko sera ato Torki, Yaminiya, Asaypayciyang kitakit. o kasofocan no Kakeridan no Solin ci Setalin itini.

Anini sato o Comahaday-Kitakit ko Korociya, ira ko takaraway a , ato mamangay a ka’engid no sifo.[7] O cecay a kitakit to sa’ayaway ko pihaipakarikec to Ahiyan, odengan a i’ayaway a misakiwsantoay kitakit to mihayiay to ahiyan.[8]

O cieci pasitiraay tona Yoropa-Lekatep ato Sa’etipay-Kitakit, mangalefay malalood ato Rosiya a malasawad ko kalawidang to sieci. 2022 miheca saka 3 folad saka3 romi’ad malaheci ko pikapot to Yoropa-Lekatep.

Ngangan no kitakit(國名)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

o sowal no Korociya.

O “Kartofilo”(ქართველები,Kartvelebi) sanay ko pitahidang to niyah a finacadan ko Korociya tamdaw,o pangangan to niyah kitakit i,o “საქართველო;Sakartvelo”, o sowal i,o “ქართული;Kartuli”. O palatoh no itiniay a tamdaw i,o tato’asan no Korociya ci “ქართლოს” (Ikiris a sowal: Kartlos), o wawa no wawa ni Yafo i Fangcalay Cudad a tamdaw konini.

Ona Korociya(საქართველო,Sakartvelo) mipatatekoan to tosaay tilid, o tatapangan o Kartifili “ ქართველ-ი, kartvel-i” , o ikawaliay no Korociya a Katoli-Ipiliya (Ikiris a sowal: Kartli-Iberia) tamdaw,itiyaay ho i Kawaliay Roma-Hontian kitakit kona pitahidang; o ka’ayaway ciping “სა”(sa) o teked no palapalan ano pangangan,o “ …niaro'an a pala” sanay, macacafi’ ko kafangcal ato ikoray ciping no Posi-sowal to -setan. Patateko han kona tosa a tilid o “ Kamaro’an no Katoliya-Ipiliya tamdaw” sanay, o aniniay a “ Katoliya-Ipiliya”.

O pifakic tona tilid to hangangan no Korociya ira ko tolo kasasiroma:

1.Sa’etipay-Yoropa o ngiha’ konialaan(polong)

2. Rosiya o ngiha’ konialaan(mamang)

3.o itiraay a tilid a ngiha’ konialaan to Korociya(Litawan)

Sie-Coci

Toloay ko kasasirom no ngiha’ a nialaan no Sa’etipay-Yoropa, Ka’amisay-Yoropa, Ka’amisay-Amirika, Riyariyaan-Kitakit:

1.     Latin-sowal ato Kirisiya-sowal a tatapang o “omah”. O Kirisiya tilid “ γεωργος ;Georgos) o maomahay sanay ko imi nonini, ono Latin a tilid to “Georgicus” o liomah sanay ko imi nonini.[9]

2.     O ngangan no sofitay no Roma Hontian-kitakit ci Sie-Coci(St. George).

3.     O pangangan no Posi Hontian-kitakit(‘ayaw ni Yisoan 536 miheca tahira ikor ni Yiso to 638 miheca) o "Gurjhān/Gurzhan/Gurjan" hananay a pangangan. [10]

O Conghwa-Minkoku nialaay tono Ikiris a sowal to Ciyociya.

I 1939 miheca tahira 1991 miheca o mikapotay to Rosiya Nipatekoan-kitakit. itiya tosaay a sowal koni hatatanaman no Korociya a tamdaw, o no wina a sowal—Korociya-sowal ato no kapolongan a sowal—Rosiya-sowal, orasaka, ira ko masaangeray a pangangan to “Гру́зия(Gruziya)” o matiniay a pangangan mitodong ko Dipon to “グルジア;Gurujia), to ikor to i,ono Yoropa a pangangan ko nitodongan to “ジョージア”,no Kuwaping a tilid a pipangangan o “喬治亜”, ono Hanko “그루지야”(Geurujiya), to ikor to i,”조지아”(Jojia), o Posiniya ato Hesaykowina o “Gruzija”. O Congko i,ono Rosiya a pangangan ko nido’edoan o “格魯吉亞;Gélǔjíyà “. 2020 miheca saka 12 folad, malaheci no Litawan sifo ko pido’edo to sowal no Korociya a pangangan to “ Sakartvelas”.[11]

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Timor(帖木兒)

帖木兒 to’asan ho a mihecaan matenakay to ko punka no Korociya, miso'edac to mihecaan mikafitay to Fodawan-Mihecaan(青銅時代;Bronze Age), i Korociya maheraay ko i’ayaw no 180 ‘ofad ko mihecaan a Katerangay-Fokelohan a nalacolan, tona mihecahecaan iraay to ko masafacoay a niyaro’, wataay to ko fangcal to pisanga’ to fodawan a dafong, mapoliwal i kasasiromaroma a niyaro’.

I 337 miheca iraay to ko misakeristoay a pitooran, nikawrira, na micomod ko Keristo mapalasawad ko punka no Korociya, o tilid to macacamolay to Kirisiya ato Siliya ko fa’elohay a tilid.

Ikor to tolo so’ot a mihecaan mahaop no lalood no Kawaliay Roma Hontian-Kitakit ato Posi Hontian-Kitakit, to ikor to nonini makowan ho no Arapiya ato Arminiya; 1220 miheca mi’eco ko Monko Hontian-Kitakit nani Kaociyaso; 1386 miheca tahira i 1403 mihecaan milood ko Timor, mahadefek ko saka’orip ato punka no Korociya, sano yanan sato caka lomowad. 1453 miheca Awtoman Hontian-Kitakit matekop ningra ko Cinsetantin(君士坦丁堡; Kirisiya a sowal:Κωνσταντινούπολις Κωνσταντινούπολη;Latin a sowal: Constantinopolis), na onian ko kaketon no kakafit no Korociya ato Sa’etipay-Kitakit to tolo so’ot mihecaan.

Korpaciyafo

1783 miheca micomod a tayni ko pikowan a ‘icel no Hontian-Rosiya, madipot no Rosiya ko Korociya, ngalef sa ira ho ko kacitatapangan no Rosiya to Korociya. 1804 miheca tahira i 1864 mihecaan, o kasapecipecih a pala no Korociya mahaop no Hotian-Rosiya.1918 miheca saka4 folad i Sakacecay-Lalood no hekal mala o cecay no Papotalay-Kaociyaso Patatekan-Kapolongan Kitakit a misiiked, saka 5 folad mi’eco ko Awtoman Hontian-Kitakit, orasaka matekop kona Patatekan-Kapolongan Kitakit,madipot no Awtoman-Torki ato Toic Hontian-Kitakit ko Korociya a patireng to Finawlan-Kapolongan kitakit. 1921 miheca i saka 2,3 folad, maaro’ no Rosiya kona Korociya Finawlan-Kapolongan kitakit, mapatireng to Siyakaysiyuki a sifo, i 1936 mihecaan papateko i Solin, falicen ko ngangan no kitakit to “Korociya Sowiay-Siyakaysiyuki Kapolongan-Kitakit”. I 1985 miheca malakakeridan no Solin-Kyosanto Sakakaay-Iinkay ci Korpaciyafo, misa’icel a micokeroh to Mafawahay ato Mifelicay a demak, oya sato mikapotay i Solin a kitakit ala sapiliyasaw sato to Solin; 1990 miheca o Sakakaay-Kalomaocan no Korociya ira ko piketon to sowal: o miri’angay to rikec ko Kapolongan-Rikec saan, milekal heca to kaira no Tatapangan-Salongoc, falicen ko ngangan no kitakit to Korociya Kapolongan-Kitakit.

1991 miheca saka4 folad saka 9 romi’ad milekal to miliyas to Solin a misiiked. 1991 miheca saka 8 folad, yo caay ka laheci ko pifelih no sapi’afasaw to kamaro’an i sifo a cefang a milofo ci Korpaciyafo, makerid no Solin ko mikapot a 11 kitakit a mipatireng to “Misiikeday kitakit a Patatekoan Lekatep”, isa’aya’ayaw ho cowa ka pikapot ko Korociya tonin lekatep, tahira to i 1993 miheca saka 12 folad nga’ mikapotay tona Lekatep, 2008 miheca saka 8 folad saka 12 romi’ad milakel a miliyas. 1996 miheca saka 4 folad, “Korociya Kapolongan-Kitakit” mafalic ko ngangan no kitakit to Korociya. 2003 miheca ira ko Miekun-Mapalol mapacici a mapalasawad ko congtong ci Aytofa-Siewartonaci(愛德華·阿姆夫羅西耶維奇·謝瓦爾德納澤; Korociya a sowal:ედუარდ შევარდნაძე; Rosiya a sowal:Эдуард Амвросьевич Шеварднадзе; Ikiris a sowal:Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze), ci Mihair-Sakasinwili(米哈伊爾·薩卡什維利; Korociya a sowal:მიხეილ სააკაშვილი; Wukolan a sowal:Міхеіл Саакашвілі),patokitok to Finacadan-Ca’emot a harateng, mangalef a pasitira i Sa’etioay-Kitakit a Demak.

Tata’angay Kaociyaso-Lotolotokan

2008muheca saka 8 folad saka7 romi’ad, mamahop ko sofitay no Korociya to malafiyaway to Rosiya a Katimolay-Awsayti a niyah pikowan, misaharateng to sapi’afasaw a pateko i Korociya.15 oni ko lalengatan no “Katimolay-AwsaytiLalood”. 2008 miheca saka8 folad saka8 romi’ad,milifong ko sofitay no Rosiya to Korociya. Pasowal ci Mihair-Sakasinwili i caay ko kallodan a niyaro’ malifong to no sofitay no Solin, misaharateng to sapisawadaw a mikapot to Awun, nikawrira, cowa ka pihai ko Rosiya to pilifong to Korociya. Tangsol sa ko Yoropa-Lekatep to sapipasasowalaw to Rihaday-Demak, nikawrira, tangsol ko Rosiya a mirarang to “ Pihidefong no Yoropa ato Amirika”. 2008 miheca saka 8 folad saka28 romi’ad mihayi ko Rosiya to pisiiked no Katimolay-Awsayti ato Apohaci. Mipacoli ko Korociya tonini a demak, orasaka, to cila a romi’ad misawad to kalawidang ato Rosiya.

Kaitiraan(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Liawni-‘Alo

Omihefalat to Aciya Karopaw ato Yoropa Karopaw, [12] o saka’etipan no Korociya madado’edo ato Kahetingay-Riyar, ira ko 310 km ko kakaya’; isaka’amisan ira ko 723 km ko kalafiyaw ato Rosiya. O tosa no kalitolo no sera o taporo, ika’amisan o Tata’angay Kaociyaso-Lotolotokan(大高加索山脈; Ikiris a sowal:Greater Caucasus),isakatimolan o Mamangay Kaociyaso-Lotolotokan(小高加索山脈; Ikiris a sowal:Little Caucasus), sahetoay cirafasay ko 1,000 laya’ ko ka’akawang. Isasifo’an o dasdas, dafdaf ato taporo, o lilis no Kohetingay-Riyar o Korsita Dasdas. O satakaraway a ’oco' o kalala’edan ato Rosiya isaka’amisay a Sinhala-Lotok, nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 5,194 laya’.[13]

O sakakaay a ‘alo ira ko Kola-‘Alo ato Liawni-‘Alo, o rakat no nanom tadamatatifacay ko ‘akawangay ato po’eneray, orasaka, patahtahay to nanom a sakatayal.

O fa’edet no romi’ad o Safaay-Fa’edet a kakarayan, isaka’etipan so’emetay ko romi’ad, isakawalian o ma'icangay ko romi’ad. Maciro’ay ko kasasiromaroma no kakarayan i cowacowa to a sera. Isaka’etipan sa’emelay to kasi’enawan, roma sa i, i sakawalian ikakaay ko kasi’enaw, i kacifrangan fa’etay. O ‘orad to kasamihecaan ika’etipan ira ko 1,000 – 3,000mm, isakawalian ira ko 300-800 mm aca ko ‘orad.

Saka’orip(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

fadisoso' 'epah

Nano tato’asn o maomahay a kitakit ko Korociya, orasaka, o sakakaay a nipalomaan o losay ato ociya. i laloma’ nonini i o fadisoso’ 'epah no Korociya matafesiw ko 8 patek ko katelang no rikisi. Orama sa i, ira ho ko tadamaanay fakeloh a fodawan.

Tata’ang ko pisiwar no Solin to Korociya, sanoyanan sa o mido’edoay to mili’ayawan ko halaka a saka’orip a demak. Nikawrira, ilalomaan no kitakit ca ka lahoday,ira ho lalood i laloma’ no kitakit, oninian ko saka ca ka comahad no saka’orip a tayal, i 2001 miheca o manikaway a tamdaw no polong no kitakit mahaopay ko 54%.

Tada mirecepay i saka’orip ko pisiwar no Rosiya, 2006 miheca mataker no Rosiya ko fadiso’ ‘epah no Korociya, hato mamatekop ko saka’orip no Korociya. Patokeled sa pacakaten ho Rosiya ko poli’aca to kaso, tongal sa ko katekes no maamaan a dafong.tahira i 2014 miheca o awaay ko katayalan a tamdaw ira ko 13.7%,o Kapolongan a Nitayalan 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit( Gross Domestic Product ,GDP), ilaloma’ nonini o masanga’ay to dafong mahaop ko 17%, kali’aca mahaop ko 17.3%, roma sa i, o micolo’ay, o dingwa/calay ato patirengay mahaop ko 16.8%, ono maomahay sa i, dengan 6.2%. Nani saka 21 sici, ira to kacomahad no saka’orip no Korociya. 2007 miheca, o so’elinay a Kapolongan a Nitayalan 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit macakat to 12%, malasakakaay a comahaday a kitakit itini i Sawalian-Yoropa.[14] i cecay a miheca nani 112 rayray no polong kitakit i hekal macakat tayra i saka 18 rayray, ira sato ko sowal no Hekalay-Kinko( World Bank:WB) o “ o sakakaay a nifalicay to saka’orip i hekal” [15] saan. I 2019 miheca a “nikatayal to sapisolingaaw to kalali’aca” sowal no Hekalay-Kinko, macakat tangasa i saka 6 rayray.

Tona pinapina a mihecaan o pisalamaan no lafang a tayal, macakat ko kaikaka itini saka’orip, itini i Korociya adihay ko makapahay a pala ato nalacolan no ponka, ilaloma’ nonini ira ko 4 matoro’ no Sakakaay-Taneng ato punka a saopo no Linheko to “rocok no hekalay kitakit”, 2016 miheca ira ko 2,714,773 ko mipalafangay a tamdaw.[16]

Tamdaw(人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sa’osi i 2005 miheca saka 7 folad,o polong a tamdaw no Korociya ira ko 4,677,401 tamdaw, silsilen ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan:

Korociya tamdaw:83.8%

Asaypayciyang tamdaw:6.5%

Yaminiya tamdaw:5.7%

Rosiya tamdaw:1.5%

Sawalian-Mo’ecelay Pitoooran

Ono Rosiya a tamdaw yo misiiked ko Korociya tatootoor sa a maforaw miliyas tona kitakit. Oya sa itiraay i Apohaci kowan a Hapohaci tamdaw ato Katimolay-Awsayti a Awsayti yamdaw sapisiikedaw nani Korociya. I laloma’ nona kitakit ira ho tosa a Korociya a finacadan, o Sifan-tamdaw ato Minkolir-tamdaw, ato mamangay a Laci-tamdaw. Ona Laci- tamdaw itiraay i Torki ko ‘orip nangra. I laloma’ no Korociya a mamangay finacadan ira ko Siriya-tamdaw , Kirisiya-tamdaw, Korto-tamdaw ato Ukolan-tamdaw, Maysiheto-Torki tamdaw.

Ikor no katekop no Solin, o sapiliyasaw no Apohaci a kasafelaw, ato Acala ato Katimolay-Awsayti a fangafang, tada tata’ang ko pifolkok to sakarihaday no tamdaw no Korociya, tongal sa ko kakeror no ‘orip no tamtamdaw. Malahedaw ko katayalan, orasaka, cilafas ko mo’etep ‘ofad ko miliyas to kitakit a tayra i roma a kitakit mikilim to saka’orip, ilaloma’ nona maforaway sahetoay tayraay i Rosiya. Cowa ka rihaday ko kitakit, orasaka, cowa ka ci’angil ko tamdaw a misawawa, o sasafaay ko sofoc itini, malecad ko Aminiya. Aniniay a sa’osi no tamdaw makeroray to 50 ‘ofad patili’en i 1990 miheca toya no Solin a mihecaan, nikawrira, ira ko minengnengay anini o sa’osi no tamdaw no aniniay mapacakatay ko pisa’osi sanay.

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sakakaay a pitooran no Korociya o Sawalian-Mo’ecelay Pitoooran(Korociya So’elinay-Pitooran)mahaop ko 83.4%, oroma i,Rosiya-So'elinay Pitooran(1%), Aminiya Mitooray-Kiyokay, mahaop ko 2.9%, Roma Tinsikiw(0.8%), Fa’elohay-Keristoay Pitooran,Islam Pitooran(10.7%).itira i tatapangan a tokay ira ko cecay tata’angay a niyaro’ no Yutaya, tosa ko kiyokay.

Ano irairaay ko fodfod i kalala’dan no kitakit, o kiyokay itini i, halafinay to ko kalawidang ato rihaday to pitooran. O mamangay a finacadan mitooora to masasiromaroma a pitooran itini i Korociya matafesiw to ko pinapina patek ko mihecaan, itini awaay ko pisakakinih to roma a pitooran.[17] Yotaya a tamdaw matenakay a maro’ tona kitakit, o sakakaay i, masa’opoay i Tipilis-tokay(第比利斯;Korociya a sowal:თბილისი;falicen to tilid no Lati:T'bilisi) ato Kotaisi-tokay(庫塔伊西 ; Korociya a sowal:ქუთაისი) tona tosa tokay.

6-7sici a kimolmolay tilid

Ponka(文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tilid no Korociya misanga’an no Honti ci Farnawaci sakacecay(法爾納瓦茲一世;Korociya a sowal:ფარნავაზი) no Kaociyaso Ipiliya-Hontian Kitakit(伊比利亞王國;Kingdom of Iberia) i 284 miheca sanay ko sowal, nikawrira, tahanini o maheraay a samatelangay a tilid ira to i ska 5 sici sanay ko wacay. O ponka no Korociya nani saka 4 sici satapang masiwar no Sawalian-Mo’ecelay Pitooran ato Korociya Sawalian-Mo’ecelay Misawawaan, latek oninian ko misiwaray to katelangay niyaro’ no Kirisiya Paycantin(拜占庭; Kirisiya a sowal:Βυζάντιον; Latin a sowal:Byzantium),na onian ko masasiparaheker ta adihay ko misanga’an a dafong no pitooran, ona dafong ira ko kiyokay, pita’ongan, ato songila’ay-dafong,ilaloma’ nonini ira ko sapsanengseng a kunis ato cuka no Fangcalay tamdaw ato mitooray. Roma sa i, ira ho ko no kalo’orip a dafong o pakayniay i kitakit ato kawasay kimad.

Talacowa ma’eco no Arapiya i saka 7 sici, masiwar ho no Muslim-ponka i saka 8 sici, toya mihecahecaan macomahad ko niyah a ponka no Korociya, matongalmatongal ko kacacafi’ ato Paycantin. I saka 9 sici tahira i saka 10 sici,o edef no kitakit micoker to piraroy tono niyah a tilid, mangalef o nitilidan ato cuka. Ikor no pitedal ato kalacecay no kitakit o tilid no Korociya ko sakakaay mirecepay a misiwar, o sowal no Korociya matenakay a kalasowalen, o kalosowal ato fiyaw a kitakit a misawidang.[18]

Pacefaday a Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. Fernando de Mello, International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, p. 273 [4] (頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館)
  2. Texts adopted - Thursday, 17 July 2014 - Situation in Ukraine - P8_TA(2014)0009. www.europarl.europa.eu. 歐洲議會. [2018-03-01]. (原始內容存檔於2016-01-24) (英語). ...pursuant to Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine – like any other European state – have a European perspective and may apply to become members of the Union provided that they adhere to the principles of democracy, respect fundamental freedoms and human and minority rights and ensure the rule of law
  3. Stephen White. Valentina Feklyunina. Identities and Foreign Policies: The Other Europes, 施普林格科學+商業媒體, 350, 2014
  4. 10 things you might not know about Georgia. BBC. 2013-07-04 [2019-12-30]. (原始內容存檔於2019-12-29).
  5. 格鲁吉亚外交部称18日将正式退出独联体. 俄新網. 2009-08-17. (原始內容存檔於2009-08-30).
  6. Fernando de Mello, International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, p. 273 [5] (頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館)
  7. Georgia Poll Reflects Widespread Concern over Economic Issues (頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館), International Republican Institute, 2019
  8. Wayne, Shawn. Smoking Marijuana Legalized in Georgia. Georgia Today. 30 July 2018 [9 August 2018]. (原始內容存檔於2018-08-08).
  9. Wilson, Nigel Guy. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge. 2006: 320. ISBN 0415973341.
  10. A New Theory on the Etymology of the Designations of the Georgians. [2018-03-04]. (原始內容存檔於2007-09-30).
  11. 今日格魯吉亞. Lithuania Approves Sakartvelo as Georgia’s Official Name. [2021-01-11]. (原始內容存檔於2021-11-03).
  12. 格魯吉亞可被歸為亞洲或歐洲。聯合國 classification of world regions 將格魯吉亞歸類為西亞; 中央情報局的世界概況 [1], National Geographic和大英百科全書 歸為亞洲地區。但是BBC [2], Oxford Reference Online [3], Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary和 www.worldatlas.com,則將其歸屬於歐洲
  13. International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. 或施普林格, 11/24/1979, 273
  14. Georgia. Cia.gov. [2016-04-20]. (原始內容存檔於2020-04-11).
  15. World Bank Economy Rankings (頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館).
  16. Georgian National Tourism Administration – Researches. Georgian National Tourism Administration. [26 January 2017]. (原始內容存檔於28 February 2017).
  17. Spilling, Michael. Georgia (Cultures of the world). 1997
  18. Heinz Fähnrich: Geschichte Georgiens von den Anfängen bis zur Mongolenherrschaft S. 108 ff. Shaker, Aachen 1993, ISBN 978-3-86111-683-7.

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