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o hata no Aysaniya

Aysaniya Nikapolongan Kitakit (愛沙尼亞共和國).[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono Aysaniya a sowal Eesti Vabariik, o cecay a kitakit no itiraay i Poloti-Riyar(波羅的海國家; Ikiris a sowal:Baltic states; Aysaniya a sowal:Balti riigid; Latowiya a sowal:Baltijas valstis;Litawan a sowal:Baltijos valstybės.又稱波羅的海三國). O tatapangan ato sakakaay niyaro’ o Talin..o kaitiraan nona kitakit i, itiraay I saka’amis no satimolan no Yoropa, o katatekoan no 2222 a kanatal, pasi’etip o Poloti-Riyar, pasi’amis misi’ayaw to Fenlan-Kihaw, isakawali o Cuto-Fanaw, malafiyaw ato Latowiya i katimol, malafiyaw ato Rosiya i sakawali, o polong a dadahal no sera ira ko 45,227km², o sa’emelay a karopawan kakarayan.

O sakakaay a tamdaw nona kitakit toya Aysaniya a tamdaw i, o mirocoday to Poloti-Riyar a Fenlan tamdaw.[1]

kaitiraan no Aysaniya kitakit

Tona pinapina a so’ot ko mihecaan marocok no Tanmay, Roytin, Toic ato Rosiya a mikowan, I 1918 miheca ta misiiked tono niyah a kitakit, ikor to i 1940 miheca mapatateko i Solin, 1991 miheca yo matekop ko Solin miliyaw hea a misiied patireng to kitakit.[2]

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I’ayaw no kairaan no tilid a mihecahecan, iraay to ko Fenlan-Wkor tamdaw maro’ itini i Aysaniya. Tahira to I 1227 miheca, ma’eco no Tanmay ato Rilman a Likoniya-Sofitay ko Aysaniya, orasaka, micomod ko Kristo a pitooran itini. Nanoyanan to ikor macacawi a makowan no ci’icelay kitakit ko Aysaniya, ilaloma’ nonini ira ko Tanmay-Norwi, Roytin-Hotian kitakit, ato Polan-Litawan Matatekopay kitakit.

I saka 18 sici ma’aro no Safang-Hotian no Rosiya, iikor tono Sakmo’etep-Foloaf Pilolol misiikeday, itira I satapangan no Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal maliyaw heca ma’aro no Solin. 1991 miheca matekop ko Solin, miliyaw heca ko Aysaniya a misiiked patireng tono niyah a kitakit.

Ona ngangan to Aysaniya sahanay i,nani itiraay pangangan no Sakantinawiya a tamdaw, o Isti(esti)han nangra ko itiraay I kawaliay no Sakantinawiya a finacadan.itira i 98 miheca,ira ko cecay a ohong “ Rilmanniya a Tilid” o mitiliday i ci Tasito, sowal sa Aisto (aestii) han nira,o Aysaniya a tamdaw sahetoay o “Eesti” sanay ko pitahidang to niyah a tireng. Ona pangangan tonini i’ayaway no saka 19 sici.[3]

i Kuroysaroy a Kamaro'an no Sikyo

Sakakinacecay a misiiked(第一次獨立)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I mamaleponan no Sakacecay-Lalood no Hekal I 1918 miheca saka 2 folad saka 25 romi’ad,o teloc no Toic a tamdaw I Aysaniya, keriden ni Tolinshasin Tadafayinayan (德林斯漢森男爵,Baron Dellingshansen)a mipalarawraw, mitahidang to sofitay no Toic micomod tayni I Aysaniya. O nani kasasowalan no Solin ato Toic a matatilid to Polisto-sakarihaday Kakaketonan (《布列斯特-立陶夫斯克條約》,Rosiya a sowal:Брестский мир, Toic a sowal:Friedensvertrag von Brest-Litowsk), pafelien no Solin i Toic ko Fenlan, Aystolan(Aysaniya), Liflan(Likoniya ato Latowiya), Litawan ato Wkolan, o sofitay no Solin ma’emin a miliyas toninian pala. Ikor to i, misafaloco‘ ko Toic patireng i naikoran no Solin to malamicongacongay kitakit to Toic a Poloti-Riyar a Matatekoay kitakit, toro‘ han ko itiraay i Mikolonpaw ci Atawfu-Folitolisi Tadafayinayan malamikowanay noni matatekopay kitakit.

1918 miheca saka 11 folad, cirawraw ko Toic to Saka Cecay-Safaw Pilolol (十一月革命, Toic a sowal:Novemberrevolution; 1918-1919 pilolol no Toic hananay ho a pangangan.) I saka 11 folad saka 11 romi’ad malowid ko Honti.Patatanga han no Solin a mipalasawad koya Polisto-sakarihaday Kakaketonan, misafaloco’ to sapipatikoran toya mipafelian a pala i Toic, o Aysaniya tangsol a milekal to pisiiked I 1918 miheca saka 11 folad saka 28 romi’ad, o teloc no Toic malacafay a misaopo to to tamdaw malasofitay mi taker to Solin. 1919 miheca saka 2 folad saka 1 romi’ad, ira ko kakeridan no sofitay no Toic ci Litiko-Feng-Korci misanga’ to “ Naifaloco’ay Kasafelaw” (Freikorps)tayra i Aysaniya mipadang to itiraay a sofitay no Toic, ikor to i,matatilid ko Solin ato Aysaniya to “Tarto-Sakarihaday Kakaketonan” (《塔爾圖和約》; Aysaniya a sowal:Tartu rahu), itini tona kakaketonan a tilid masongila’ ko pihayi no Solin to pisiiked no Aysaniya, naifaloco’ ko pisawad to sapikowanaw to Aysaniya a salongoc.

’Ecoen no Solin a maro’(被蘇聯吞併)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1939 miheca saka 8 folad saka 23 romi’ad, o tapang no citodongay to demak no kalokitakit no Toic ci Lipintorof ato Solin ci Morotof matatilid to ” Caay ka milangat a malapalo kakaketonan” (《德蘇互不侵犯條約》), icani’iw nona kakaketonan ira ko pihayi to karakilac to sera no taliyokay a kitakit.orasaka, i 1941 miheca saka 6 folad saka 14 romi’ad mapateko i Solin ko Aysaniya, mikakopt to Solin-Lekatep.

Yo mapatay to ko tapang no Solin ci Stalin mahoka’ to ko pikowan no Solin to Aysaniya, nani 1950 miheca mihay to ko Solin to Tamdaw no Aysaniya malawidang ato roma a kitakit a tamdaw. Tahira sato ci Kopacifo ko malatapangay no Solin, matongal ko kahoka’ no pikowan no Solin to Aysaniya, ira to a masadak ko roma ko harateng a sieci kasafelaw ato sieci a tang. I 1988 miheca saka 11 folad saka 16 romi’ad milekal ko Aysaniya ira kono niyah a Tatapangan-Salongoc no kitakit saan, 1989 miheca saka 1 folad masang’ ko ono sifo a sowal ko sowal no Aysaniya sanay a rikec. Tona miheca masanga’ kono niyah a hata no kitakit, i 1989 miheca saka 8 folad saka 23 romi’ad o Aysaniya, Latowiya ato Litawan ira ko ko demak to “Poloti-Riyar a Lalan”sanay a kalakitikiting no tamdamdaw (波羅的海之路; Ikiris a sowal:Baltic Way;Aysaniya a sowal:Balti kett; Latowiya asowal:'Baltijas ceļš';Litawan a sowal:Baltijos kelias;Rosiya a sowal:Балтийский путь) to pikoning to pi’eco no Solin i Sakatosa Lalood, misa’icel to sapisiiedaw.

Sakakinatosa a misiiked (第二次獨立)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1990 miheca saka 2 folod saka 24 romi’ad,misinkiw ko finawlan no Aysaniya to malamisanga’ay to rikec a iing no Aysaniya (halo mapafolaway 35 tamdaw i roma a kitakit a tamtadaw i 1940 miheca) polong 464 ko kiing no Pikaykian no , kitakit. Tona mihecaan saka 5 folad misinkiw to sakacecay riyad a Fafa’eday-Pikaykian, tangsol a milekal to kacisalongoc no kitakit, tona miheca saka 5 folad mipalolol to ’ayaway a ngangan no kitakit to “Aysaniya-Kapolongan Kitakit“,ira heca ko pipatsetek o nisanga’an no Fafa’eday-Pikaykian a rikec nga’ ira ko halifetay.

BaltskýŘetěz.jpg

1991 miheca saka 8 folad saka 19 romi’ad ira ko kafelih no sifo no Solin toya ’’ 8.19 Lolol“ (蘇聯解體; Rosiya a sowal:Распад СССР). O sifo no Rosiya-Kapolongan Kitakit milekal a mihayi to pisiiked no Poroti-Riyar a kitakit ato mikapotay a kitakit no Solin, ira heca ko pihayi no Rosiya cowa ka pisa’eli to sapifalicaw to kakala’edan ato tona atoloay kitakit no Poroti-Riyar, Rosiya miliyas i 1994 miheca.

I 2004 miheca mikapot i Yoropa-Lekatep (歐洲聯盟/European Union, EU) ato Saka’amisay-Riyaran a Kakaketonan-Lekatep(北大西洋公約組織; North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO ).i 2007 miheca saka 12 folad 21 romi’ad mikapot to Sinken-Kakaketonan (《申根公約》; Toic a sowal:Schengener Abkommen;Fransu a sowal:Convention de Schengen;Olanta a sowal:Verdrag van Schengen).

2006 miheca saka 9 folad saka 23 romi’ad, ira ko sinkiw to congtong, ci Tomas Hentelikes ko maalaay malacongtong.[4]

Kaitiraan(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i kawali no Poroti-Riyar, o polong no sera ira ko 45,227km² ko dadahal, o takaraw nani tongroh no riyar 50 laya’ aca ko ka’akawang. Tada minikaway to kinairaira no palapalaan, o tatafokeloh i, o cisimalay-dapiyac ato apolan-dapiyac. O kilakilangan i, matahepo ko 47% no kitakit. I laloma’ no Aysaniya ira ko 1400 a fanaw ( nikawrira sahetoay o mamamangay aca, o sakakaay i, o Cuto-fanaw, ira ko 3,555 km² ko kakahad), adihay heca ko henohenotan. O kakaya’ no lilis no riyar ira ko 3,794 kilo, i lilis no riyar adihay ko kihaw ato kanatal ato riyaran a ta'eman. O tata’angay a kanatal ira ko 1,500, o sakakaay a kanatal pacidek sanay a malakowan, onini i, o Saroy kowan ( 薩雷縣 ; Aysaniya a sowal:Saare maakondato ) ato Sio kowan (希烏縣; Aysaniya a sowal:Hiiu maakond), ona tosa a kowan a takaraw no sera nani tongroh no riyar caka pakalawis to 100 laya’, o tapolo to i, nani tongrah no riyar 317 laya’ aca ko ka’akawang.

O sa’emelay a kakarayan, so’emetay ko romi’ad, o ’orad to mihecaan i, 600-700mm, so’emetay ko kakarayan.

Kinaira no pala (資源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kinairaira no palapalaan no Aysaniya ira ko tatafokeloh a cisimalay-dapiyac ato apolan-dapiyac. O kilakilangan i, matahepo ko 47% no kitakit, tahira i 2017 miheca matahepo ko 51% no pala.caay ko cisimalay-dapiyac ato apolan-dapiyac ko tanamaanay a kinaira no Aysaniya, iraay ho ko asfaloto ato ’adicaw. Oya misanga’ay to dingki a Narwa-Dingkikofa tada matelangay to, ano caho ka safa’elohen a mifalic, o caay to ka pisanga’ to dingki.

Tamdaw ato pitooran (人口與宗教)

o mita'ongay to kalodafong a pitooran

O pisa’osi no misa’osiay to tamdaw no kitakit, tahira i 2020 miheca saka 3 folad saka 5 romi’ad o polong no Aysaniya ira ko 1,291,231 ko tamdaw.[5] Pasasotili’en to i’ayaway a sa’osi i, malowanay to mamamg ko tamdaw,pasila’eno ko ka sofoc no wawa. Ilaloma’an no nini i, o fainayan ira ko 60.3 ’ofad ko tamdaw, mahaop ko 46.4%, o fafahiyan ira ko 68.8 ’ofad ko tamdaw, mahaop ko 53.6%. Aysaniya a finacaan mahaop ko 68.7%, Rosiya finacadan 24.8%, o roma a finacadan 4.9%, o awaay ko kitakita a kika 1.5% ko tamdaw. O kasakilac no tamdaw to mihecaan i, o ka’emangay (0-14 ko mihecaan)nani 18% malowan to 15%, i kakaay no 65 mihecaan a tamdaw nani 15% macakat tahira i 18%, o matayalay a tamdaw (15-65 ko mihecaan) awaay ko kafalic, oyanan to 67%. o pisa’osian a romi’ad nani 2011miheca saka 12 folad tihira i 2012 miheca saka 12 folad saka 3 folad saka 31 romi’ad.

O Aysaniya a sifo cowa ka patangic to tamdaw a papitoor to pitooran, orasaka, cecay no kalitolo aca ko iraay ko pitooran, i laloma’ no nini i, o Fa’elohay-Misakristoay a Loto-Kasafelaw. O Rosiya a tamdaw o So’elinay-Kyokay ko pitooran.ira ho ma’osaw ko ko no katelangay ho a mita’ongay to dafong a pitooran(拜物教;fetishism).[6]

Sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono sifoan a sowal i, o Aysaniya sowal, ona sowal i, cikiharay ato Fenlan-Sowal. itini tona kitakit o tadamaanay ko Rosiya sowal. I tata’angay tokay no Aysaniya kalasowaln ko Ikiris a sowal. [7]‘Alomanay ko mafana’ay to sowal no Rosiya a tamdaw no Aysaniya, o pitilidan no Aysaniya I, misa’adihayan a patongal ko sowal no Rosiya a pasifana’. Ikaloromi’ad masowal ko sowal no Toic.[8]

Pacefaday a Tilid (註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. . Official website of the Republic of Estonia (in Estonian)
  2. Europe :: Estonia — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. web.archive.org. 2020-05-29 [2022-05-26].
  3. 《走進愛沙尼亞》愛沙尼亞駐華大使館《使館商社貿易快訊》雜誌社 編(2008)
  4. 存档副本. [2006-09-24]. (原始內容存檔於2010-01-18).
  5. 存档副本. [2020-05-03]. (原始內容存檔於2020-05-15).
  6. 吳明義. 台灣原住民的祭儀文化 (PDF). 吳三連臺灣史料基金會. 新台灣史研習營. [2002]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2018-06-20).
  7. 《波羅的海三國史》凱文·奧納康isbn 978-7-5000-8241-5
  8. 《走進愛沙尼亞》愛沙尼亞駐華大使館《使館商社貿易快訊》雜誌社 編(2008)

Mikafitay i Papotal(外部連結)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]