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Eritrea

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Eritrea(厄利垂亞)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Orisoya kitakit(厄利垂亞國; Ikiris a sowal:State of Eritrea; Tikoliniya a sowal:ሃገረ ኤርትራ; Arapiya a sowal:دولة إرتريا‎)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

kaitiraan

Itiraay I ka’ami no sawalian no Afrika a kitakit, miingiday to Kahengangay-Riyar(紅海; Arapiya a sowal:البحر الأحمر‎ ; Fransu a sowal:Mer Rouge; Ikiris a sowal:Red Sea), o polong a sera ira ko 11.7 km²,o polong a tamdaw ira ko 5,750,433 ko tamdaw(2018 sa’osi), o syoto tatapangan niyaro’ o Asmala, o sakakaay a finacadan ira ko Tikoliniya- tamdaw,Tikoroy-tamdaw. o payso o (納克法;nakfa).I 1993 miheca midemak to Kapolongan-Pitopa ta malaheci ko pisiiked nani Isopiya. O kakeridan no Sakakaay-Iingkay no Finawlan ko sakakaay ato Mo’ecelay a kasafelaw no sieci ci Yisayas-Afiorci ko malacongtongay tahanini.[1] Matafesiway tao ko pisasakuli to tamdaw, o cecayay a kasafelaw no sieci ato salongoc no kalatamdaw mapenec no sifo, itini i hekal o cecay no sasafaay ko naifaloco’ay ko sinpon, orasaka, o Ka’amisay-Koriya han no mitiya a pangangan.[2]

Rikisi(歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Isayas-Afiolki sarakatay congtong

I’ayaw no makowan no Yoropa ko Oricoya kitakit, mapecihay makalitosa: o cecay i,o isalawacan no riyar, itini o Muslim ko ‘alomanay, ono Aykipto kowan no Otoman Hotian-Kitakit, I taka’raway a dafadaf i karopaw o mipatirengan no Isopiya a matang, 1890 miheca o edef nonini pala ‘ecoen no Italiya a maro’, malamikotoday no Italiya a Oricoya, ikor no Sakatosa-Lalood no hekal mihayi ko Linheko to patireng to Isopiya ato Oricoya Matekoay-Kitakit. 1962 miheca teked han no Isopiya a palacecay, malasaka14 a kowan.

I 1960 miheca mapatireng ko Mitedalay-Sofitay no Oricoya, o kowang sapilongoc to sapisiikedaw nani Isopiya. Ira ko pikerid ni Isayas-Afiolki patireng to Oricoya Finawlan Mitedalay-Sofitay a Saopo, onini to ko ci’icelay ceror han to ko Mitedalay-Sofitay no Oricoya i 1970 miheca Matekop ko Monkosto sifo no Isopiya i 1991 miheca, omiceroray a sifo ci Milas-Conawi-Asolaso mihayi to Finawlan a Kapolongan-Pitopa, milaheci a iliyas to Isopiya a misiiked. 1993 miheca saka 4 folad ira ko pipasasowal no Linheko ato pikantok a mitayal to Finawla Kapolongan-Pitopa, o laheci i,ira ko 99.8% a satopa mihayi to piliyas to Isopiya a misiiked, tona miheca saka 5 folad saka 24 romi’ad milekal to Pisiiked ptireng to kitakit. 1994 miheca Oricoya Finawlan Mitedalay-Sofitay a Saopo mafalic to Sakakaay-Finacadan ato Mo’ecel a Saopo.

2018 miheca saka 7 folad, malasawad to ko kala’iring no Isopiya ato Oricoya, o congli no Isopiya ci Api-Amayto-Ali(Amohala a sowal:አብይ አህመድ አሊ; Awlomo a sowal:Abiyyii Ahimad Alii)tangsolsol sa mipalafang to Oricoya matatilid to Sakarihaday-Kakaketonan Tilid. O tapang nona tosay kitakit patokeled sa a milekal to patatiyol to kalali’aca to dafong, Sapili’etan a demak, Micolo’ay ato kalawidang.[3] tahira to i 2021 miheca saka 7 folad caay ho ka piliyas ko sofitay no Oricoya i saka’amis no Isopiya malengat ko Tikoroy-Lalomaan Lalood.[4]

Kaitiraan(地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kahengangay-Riyar(Red sea)

Itiraay i saka’amisan no masawa’aay no Sa’etipay-Afrika ato Afrika, mienecay no sakatimolan no Kahengangay-Riyar. Isaktimol o Isopiya, isaka’etip o Sotan, madado’edo i katimol no sakawalian amda’edo’edo ko sera ato Cipoti, ka’amis no sakawali malala’eda to Kahengangay-Riyar ato Yiemen ato Saoti-Arapiya. O kakaya’ no lawac no riyar(mahaop ko Tahelako-Kanatanatal ato 355 a kanatal) polong ira ko 1,350 km. O sasifo’ay a taporo mahaop ko cecay no kalitolo, o takaraw nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 1,800 tahira i 3,000 laya’; isaka’etipan o dasdas a taporo, isakawalian lilis no riyar o dafdaf. Ilaloma’ nona kitakit a sakakaay ka’akwang a poco’ o itiraay a sasifo’an taporo a Aanpa-Soyila pococo’(Amba Soira) nani tongroh no riyar ira 3,013 laya’ ko ka’akwang, o sapa’eneray a pala i o itiraay i sakawalian a Kopar-Dasdas(Kobar),odengan a ‘alo i o Saytito’Alo(Setit), ira ko 180 km ko kato’edaw, o misakakarayanay a ‘alo o Maroypo-‘Alo, i kaka’oradan ira ko 440 km ko kato’daw. Itini i taporo sa’emelay ko romi’ad, o lalen a fa’edet 17℃, o ‘orad 525 mm. I saka 12 folad tahirai saka 2 folad o kafodo’an, o roma to a folad i o kakedalan. I sakawalian ato saka’etipan o tadafa’etay ma’cangay ko romi’ad, lalen no fa’edet ira ko 30℃ ato 28℃, o lalen no ‘orad cowa ka pakatahira i 400mm. I salawacan no Kahengangay-Riyar adihayay ko tafotafokan , i saka3 folad tahirai i saka 10 folad a kafa’edet i, matafesiway ko 40 ℃.

Sieci(政治)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Niyaro' no manikaway tamdaw.

Yo misiiked to ko Oricoya,Sakakaay-Finacadan ato Mo’ecel a Saopo [5](人民民主與正義陣線; Tikoroyni a sowal:ህዝባዊ ግንባር ንደሞክራስን ፍትሕን,Həzbawi Gənbar nəDämokrasən Fətəḥən; Arapiya a sowal:الجبهة الشعبية للديمقراطية والعدالة,al-Jabhatu l-Shaʻabiyatu lil-Dīmuqrāṭiyati wāl-ʻIdālah) ko dengan o miheyian no rikec a kasafelaw no sieci a tang,7 I 1997 miheca ano mihayihayiay to roma a lasafelaw no sieci, nikawrira, milalang ko sifo to patireng to roma a kaisieciay a saopo. 1998~2000 miheca ko lalood no Isopiya ato Oricoya i kalalaedan, i 2000 miheca to a matatilid to Sakarihaday-Kakaketonan Tilid. I 2001 miheca caka pina ko folad milekal ko sifo to “Rikec no Sinkiw” ato “Patireng to Kasafelaw no Sieci Rikec” a halalaka, cifaloco’ ko sifo to sapidemakaw I kaleponan nona mihecaan saysay sa midemak to Aduhayay-Centang no sieci. Nikawrira, caka halafing macacolicoli ko laloma’an no kasafelaw no sieci, manayar to ko sinkiw. I 2002 miheca mipasadak to “Rikec no Sinkiw”, pahapinangen to “o adihayay a kasafelaw no sieci cowa ka tatodong to aniniay a Oricoya”. Tona pinapina a mihecaan sarocod sa ko tayal ni Isayas congton to patanektek to sifo, mipa’ading to karihaday no kitakit, mipa’icel to sofitay ato misa’icel a mipecec to sapifelihaw a kasafelaw, o roma sato, misahalaka to sakarihaday no ‘orip no finawlan, patanektek to “Cecayay-Centang a Piteked Mikowan”.[6] Nanwahani micoker ko Oricoya to Muslim-Mirarawraway kasafelaw i laloma’ no Isopiya, i 2009 miheca ato 2017 miheca kinatosa a milalang ko Linheko to patoroday to kowang, tahira to i 2018 miheca saka 11 folad misawad ko pilalang to kowang patayra i Oricoya. O siyakay no Oricoya o kakatalawan, ira ko fangafang no kalalaedan ato Isopiya, Somaliya, Sotan ato Cipo a sepatay kitakit.[7]

O Kalomaocan no kitakit ira ko 150 ko kiing, ilaloma’ nonini o Sakakaay-Iingkay no Sakakaay-Finacadan ato Mo’ecel a Saopo ira ko 75 ko tamdaw, o cefang no misanga’ay to Tatapangan-Rikec no kitakit ira ko 60 ko tamdaw ato iromaay kitakit ko kamaroan a tamdaw ira ko 15 ko tamdaw, ilaloma’ no polong a kiing mahaop ko 22% a kiing o fafahiyan. O tanapang no kalomaocan o polong no kiing ko misinkiway, 5 miheca ko katayaylan, o aniniay congtong ko patokedlaeday tona kamaro’an. O tayal no Kalonaocan no kitakit o citodongay to tayal to misanga’ to rikec no kitakit, mihayi to yusang no kitakit ato pisinkiw to congtong. 1993 tahira i 2000 miheca, kina tolosafaw ko pikaykian no Kalomaocan, to ikor to i,sera’ sananay to. 1997 miheca saka 1 folad tahira i saka 3 folad ira ko pisinkiw no Oricoya to malokiing no Sakowan-Lomaocan. 2004 miheca saka 5 folad saka 19 romi’ad, misinkiwa to sakakinatolo a sinkiwa no Sakowan-Lomaocan. O polong to mitokiay a tamdaw ira ko 93 ‘ofad, o mitopaay mahaop ko 92.1%, ira ko 346 kiing ko misinkiwan, 30% o fafahiyan.

Ira ko miketonan a kalomaocan to pihalaka to ‘edef no kitakit a sinkiw, nikawrira, toya lafin mapalasawad, tahanini away ho ko malaheciay a sinkiw no polong no kitakit.[8] nawhani,away ko paifaloco’ay no kalotamdaw, cowa koninian aca, tona cisafaw to pinapina a mihecaan sahetoay o mipacician ko kalasofitay, o milaliway a tamdaw ano marepet ira ko malofo, mapades a katalawan.[9]

Tamdaw (人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

kakeridan no WHOci Tantosay

O polong a tamdaw no Oricoya ira ko 609 ‘ofad (2012 a sa’osi).o katongal no tamdaw tomihecaan ira ko 2%. Ira ko 9 a finacadan:Tikoroyniya finacadan(latek mahaop ko 50 %), Tikoroy finacadan (31.4%), Afar finacadan(5%), Saho(5%), Sitalaypo finacadan(2%), Pilon(2.1%), Kunama finadacan(2%), Nala finacadan(1.5%) ato Lasayita finacadan(0.5%). O kahacecacecay a finacadan ira kono niyah a sowal, o sakakaay a kalosowalan o Tikoroyniya sowal, nikawrira, makalasowalan ko Ikiris sowal,Arapiya sowal. O Saka'etipay-So’elinay Pitooran(Orisoya Tatapangan-Tawasito Kyokay) ato Islam-Pitooran ko sa’alomanay ko mitooray, ira ko 40%. Cowa ka hakowa ko mitooray to Tinsikiw anoca o Cilisinay a pakayraa(mita’ongay to dafong).

o Tikoroyniya a tamdaw o itiraay maro' i Hapisa a finacadan, 'aloman ko maro'ay i Isopiya. o cinganganay a tamdaw anini o kakeridan no Sakanga’ay-Sakitatirengan a Lekatep (世界衛生組織; World Health Organization, WHO) ci Tantosay(譚德塞;Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus)[10] [11]

Sowal(語言)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I Oricoya a kitakit adihayay ko kasasiromaroma no sowal, sahetoay o nani Sanmito-Finacadan ato Kusito-Finacadan. Itini i Oricoya a masowalay a sowal no Sanmito-Finacadan ira ko Arapiya sowal(阿拉伯語اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ‎ al-ʻarabiyyah), Tikoroy sowal(吉茲語;ትግረ tigre 或 ትግሬ tigrēXasa),Tikoliniya sowal(提格利尼亞語;ትግርኛ, tigriññā) ato inacilaay ho masahapinang a Tariko-sowal(Dahlik), itini tona kitakit ira ko 80% a tamdaw oninian ko kalasowal to romi’ami’ad(o sakakaay o Tikoroy sowal ato Tikoliniya sowal) ko hasowal. O Ikiris a sowal ato Italiya a sowal kalasowalan no kalotamdaw.

Itini i no sifoan a tayal o Tikoliniya sowal ato Arapiya sowal, o Tikoliniya sowal manga’ayay o kinis-atilid no Cice ko sapitilid.( 吉茲字母; Ikiris a sowal:Geʽez).[12] [13]onini i, o katelang a kunis no tilid no Isopiya hananay ho a pangangan.

Pacdfaday a tilid(註腳)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. Africa :: Eritrea — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. web.archive.org. 2020-05-15 [2022-05-19]. (原始內容存檔於2020-05-15).
  2. 厄立特里亚:一无所有的人无可失去. 瑞士資訊SWI swissinfo.ch. 隸屬於瑞士廣播電視集團. [2014]. (原始內容存檔於2020-11-02)
  3. 埃塞俄比亚与厄立特里亚签署历史性和平协议 非洲之角吹来“希望之风”. 聯合國新聞. 2018-09-16 [2019-07-08]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-21) (中文(簡體)).
  4. 衣索比亞北部戰事 聯合國籲厄利垂亞部隊確實撤軍 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),中央通訊社,2021-7-13
  5. Country profile: Eritrea. BBC News. 2008-06-17 [2008-07-01]. (原始內容存檔於2008-07-19).
  6. 厄立特里亚 国家概况. 領事服務網. [2022-05-12]. (原始內容存檔於2022-03-08) (中文(中國大陸)).
  7. 中華民國外交部全球資訊網-非洲地區-厄利垂亞State of Eritrea. [2022-05-14]. (原始內容存檔於2022-05-18).
  8. Government – overview. World Factbook. CIA. 2008-07-24 [2008-08-06]. (原始內容存檔於2019-08-24).
  9. 冒死闖歐洲︰細看厄立特里亞人尋求安全的絶望旅程. 無國界醫生 MSF. [2017-03-15]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-08) (中文(繁體)).
  10. (簡體中文)
  11. 中文名「譚德塞」是由世界衛生組織官方翻譯定稿而成,於其上任幹事長後啟用。此前,中國媒體對其姓名的譯名為「特沃德羅斯·阿達諾姆」
  12. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  13. Geez. 牛津英語詞典 (第三版). 牛津大學出版社. 2005-09 (英語).

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