Ecuador

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Ecuador(厄瓜多)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Ecuador

Takaray sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Okuwato Kapolongan Kitakit(厄瓜多共和國通稱厄瓜多;Sipanya a sowal: República del Ecuador), itiraay i saka’etipan no Ka’amisan no Satimolan Amirika, isaka’amis malafiyaw ato Kolompiya, isakatimol madado’edo ato Piru. Isaka’etipan o Taypinyang Riyar, ira ho 1,000 km ko kato’edaw a Kalapakos-kanatanatal (加拉巴哥群島; Sipanya a sowal: Islas Galápagos).

O Okuwato kitakit misiiked nani Sipanya i 1809 miheca saka 8 folad saka 10 romi’ad, tangso sa a patireng tona kitakit. Mahifalat ko Sifo'ay-Konis no Cikiw tona kitakit, orasaka, pangangan han sanoSipanya a sowal to “Ecuador”, pacimil han to “Sifo'ay-Konis no Cikiw a kitakit”.[1] [2] patahtahay ho pawli kona kitakit, sa cingangan ho “Pawli Kitakit”. O syot tatapangan a tokay o Kito(基多; Sipanya a sowal: Quito), itiraay i ‘apilisan no cilamalay-tokos Picin, o takaraw nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 2,850 laya’, o sakatosa ko katakaraw i hekal(o sakakaay ko katakaraw o syoto no o Lapas tokay).[3] [4]

Ecuador (orthographic projection)

O Kalapakos-kanatanatal(Islas Galápagos) ira ko 7976 km², 1100 km nani kitakit no Okuwato, o imi no nini a sowal o “Kamaro’an no Rarokoh”, caay kao rarokoh aca ko irray itini adihay ho ko masasiromaromaay a kina’orip,masasiwatikay kona pala itini, orasaka, awaay ko nanicowacowaay a ‘a’adopen a tayni tona kanatal, o ma’orip itini oyanan to onani to’asan a kinaira, orasak, o pikakinkiwan ni Cars-Lawpo-Taerwon(查爾斯·勞勃·達爾文; Ikiris a sowal:Charles Robert Darwin) to “Lalengawan no Kina’orip”, maparina’ i 1859 miheca, o maamaan to a kina’orip, mafalicay a comahad ko tatirengan sanay, patinako han o tamdaw nani fao mafalic a comahad malatamdaw sanay. O mafafelihay to “o kawas ko misanga’ay to maamaan” sanay a sowal konini.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Do’edoen kono aniniay a nitilidan miso'edac to mihecaan i’ayaw no 3500 miheca. I salawacan no riyar iraay to ko rakrak sanay a niyaro’. 1463 miheca malocecay no Inka-Hontian Kitakit(印加帝國;Cicuwa a sowal: Tawantinsuyu).[5] Tayni to ko Sipanya a tamdaw i Amirika-Karopaw ‘ecoen nangra kona kitakit malopalal tono Sipanya, sanoyanan sato makowan no Sipanya to cisafaw ko cecay so’ot ko mihecaan.

I 1809 miheca saka 8 folad saka 10 romi’ad misiiked nani Sipanya patireng to Okuwato. I 1822 miheca laheci sato ko pisiiked. 1825 miheca mikapot to Tata’angay-Kolompiya Kapolongan kitakit, nikawrira, i 1830 miheca matekop a malahedaw kona Tata’angay-Kolompiya, itini to a malaheci ko kapisiiked no Okuwato kitakit.

Yo mapatireng ko kitakit, caay ka pahinaker, o sofitay ato kalotamdaw mala’afas a macacaliw a mikowan tona kitakit kina 19 liyad, itiya to i 1979 miheca o kalotamdaw ko mikowanay misanga’ to Tatapangan-Rikec no kitakit, tosa polo’ miheca ko pira’oyan tona Tatapangan-Rikec. I 2007 miheca saka 4 folad saka 15 romi’ad midemak to Finawlan-Pitopa.[6] Mipatireng to mamisanga’ to Tatapangan-Rikec a lomaocan, misanga’ to fa’elohay a atapangan-Rikec no kitakit.[7]

2019 miheca saka 10 folad, palasawaden no sifo ko pipatiyap to kasolin simal mapalowad ko tata’angay a pikangyi mitoker to sifo, pacarcar sato ko sifo malinah nani Kito tayra i sakakaay tokay(瓜亞基爾;Sipanya a sowal:Guayaquil).

Kina’orip(生物多樣性)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kakarayan itini i,o fa’edetay to romi’ami’ad, macokacok tara tolos nga’ sa’emelay ko romi’ad.[8] O kina’orip itini tona kitakita o saka17 ko rayray ipolong no hwkal a kitakit ko kaadihay no masamaanay a kina’orip.[9] Ano o ‘ayam aca ko sa’osi ira ko 1,600 ko kasasiiked no ‘ayam, ipolong no hekal mahaop ko 15%. Ira ko 16,000 ko kasiiked a kilakilang, ira ho ko 106 kasiiked a milesapay a ‘a’adopen, 138 ko ipalaay ato iriyaray ko ‘orip a kinaira ato 6,000 kasiiked a ’adipangpang.[10]

Kondor 2

Saka'orip(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Isasifo’an ko rayray i “Mamala Cemahaday a Kitakit”(developing country) ko Okuwato,[11] o kinaira no palapalan ira ko kasolin simal, mifoting, kilakilangan ato Tingki no nanom; o sakakaay a losay ira ko pawli, kafi, kokoya ato hana, talacowa adihay ko kasolinsimal ato kaso no pala, nikawrira, can’o'ot to sapikarkar a dafong, o mangta’ay ho a kasolin simal ko nipasadakan a paliwal, o ‘eteng no kitakit nani panokayan no itiraay i roma a kitakit a matayal a salwinawina.[12] [13]

I 2000 miheca misanoAmirikaen ko payso, cowa ka pihayi ko finawlan tona demak sa paci’eci a mapalasawad ko malatangay no sifo, nikawrira, mapaci’eci to mafalic ko payso tono Amirka Payso.

O tatodang a hana no kitakit o “Kohecalay Syuni Lan a hana”, o lidep no Antis ko tahapinangan ’ayam no kitakit.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O dadahal no sera no Okuwato kitakit ira ko 283,560 km², o tamdaw i 2019miheca a sa’osi ira ko 17,240,980 ko tamdaw. Nano mikowanan no Sipanya, orasaka, cilamlam to masamaanay ko ’ilang, o cilamlamay to Yoropa a Yincumin o Mitiso(麥士蒂索人,Mestizos)hananay mahaop ko 41%, Indian ira ko 34%, kohecalay tamdaw ira ko 15%, o roma sato ira ho ko nani Afrika a kohetingay tamdaw cilamlam to kohecalay a tamdaw. Matiya to o Latin-Amirika a kitakit, Okuwato kitakit o cilamlamay tono to’asan a pitooran a Tinsikiw ko pitooran. O no sifo a sowal i, ono Sipanya a sowal, o kalosowal no Indian Yincumin i, o Kiciwa-Sowal (克丘亞語; Qhichwa shimi / Runa Shimi; Sioanya a sowal: Quechua). Ona Runa Shimi sanay i, Runa sa i, o “ tamdaw”, simi sa i, o “ sowal”, o sowal no tamdaw sanay ko imi ona sowal, o nao sowal no Inka-Hontian kitakit, orasaka, o “Inka Sowal” hananay ho a pangangan.

Pacefaday Tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tortuga gigante de San Cristóbal (Chelonoidis chathamensis), isla Santa Cruz, islas Galápagos, Ecuador, 2015-07-26, DD 15

[1] Chicham atiakur metek atin turakur, pénke takakainiachu tuke enentaimtusartiniaitji (PDF). (in Shuar). Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo. 2014 [2021-08-05]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2019-12-20).

[2] Pellizzaro, Siro M.; Nàwech, Fàusto Oswaldo. Chicham: Dictionario Enciclopédico Shuar-Castellano. Wea Nekaptai. 2003.

[3] Proyecciones Poblacionales. (西班牙語). National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC). [April 25, 2020]. (原始內容存檔於2013-10-18).

[4] Quito se convirtió en la ciudad más poblada del Ecuador con más de 2,7 millones de habitantes en el 2018. [January 11, 2019]. (原始內容存檔於2019-01-10).

[5] McEwan, Gordon F. After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies. University of Arizona Press. 2010: 98 [2013-08-15]. ISBN 978-0816529360. (原始內容存檔於2020-06-01).

[6] 趙暉,厄瓜多就成立制憲大會舉行全民公決,新華網

[7] 趙暉,初步結果顯示多數選民支持厄瓜多成立制憲大會,新華網

[8] Climate of Ecuador. [2021-08-05]. (原始內容存檔於2012-03-05).

[9] Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir[失效連結], Objective 4, Diagnostic, Section "La Biodiversidad y Patrimonio Natural", 2008 (西班牙語)

[10] Unesco World Heritage. UNESCO. [June 26, 2010]. (原始內容存檔於2010-09-01).

[11] Yahoo! Noticias España – Los titulares de hoy. Yahoo Noticias España. [September 13, 2014]. (原始內容存檔於2014-09-08).

[12] 厄瓜多政經概況. 貿易俱樂部. [2021-08-05]. (原始內容存檔於2021-08-05).

[13] Downloads - Statistics – Production-Related Documents. [September 13, 2014]. (原始內容存檔於2014-09-20).

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