Czechia

nani… a masadak Wikipedia
跳至導覽 跳至搜尋

Czechia(捷克)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Hata no Cieko (Flag of the Czech Republic)

Takaraay(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Cieko(捷克共和國; Cieko a sowal:Česká republika;[1],通稱捷克Česko)[2] o itiraay i Sifo’ay-Yoropa a karopaw a kitakit. I sakatimoan malafiyaw ato Awtili, isaka’etip malafiyaw ato Toic, ika’amis no sakawalian malafiyaw ato Polan, isakawali malafiyaw ato Slofaki. [3]

O tatapangan nona kitakit i,nani Posimiya-Hontian Kitakit,[4] [5] o tatapangan niyaro’ no Fangcalay-Roma Hontian kitakit ato lalengatan no Toloay-Mihecan a Pitooran Lalood, malakahiceraan no Misanga’ay-to-Dafong no Awtili-Hontian kitakit ato Awsiyong-Hontian kitakit. I satapangan no 20 sici, yo malepon ko Sakacecay-Lalood no Hekal misiiked nani Awsiyong-Hontian Kitakit, matateko ato Slofako mala Cieko-Slofako,[6] o sakatipo a misanga’ay to dafong a kitakit i hekal. I Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal ma’eco no Nacui-Toic malamikotoday a kitakit. I Li’etecay-Lalood a mihecahecaan masorot no Solin mapacomod i Sa’etipay-Lekatep, malomisimaway kitakit. 1989 miheca ira ko Taro’away-Pilolol no finawlan to sifo

kaitiraan no Cieko(EU-Czech Republic)

mala o Lomaocay-Finawlan Faco a kitakit. 1993 miheca rihaday ko kalacinowas ato Slofako alamisiikeday kitakit.

Ona Cieko hananay a kitkakit i,matiya o Toic ato Awtili tadafangcal ko nidemakan to kikay, misanga’ to piro’epah, ato pisalamaan no lafang a tayal, o sakakaay ko pitilidan ato mikifinawlan ko sieci i laloma’ no Slafu-Finacadan, o sapdahof no sifo to kalotamdaw o sakakaay itini i Sifo’ay-Yoropa.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itini a pala no Cieko iraay ko Katelangay-Fokelohan a ponka ato Fa’elohay-Fokelohan a ponka, nikawrira, ona ponka cowa ka kakafit ato aniniay a tamdaw no Cieko. ‘Aloman ko pasowalay no mikakinkiway to rikisi a singsi no tata’angay-pitilidan,o to’as no Cieko ( o cecay no Slafo-Finacadan) tayniay to itini ton apala a maro’ i saka 6 sici.i saka9 sici,o malacecayay a Posimiya-Hontian Kitakit(波希米亞王國; Cieko a sowal:České království; Toic a sowal:Königreich Böhmen; Latin a sowal:Regnum Bohemiae) o lalengawan no Cieko ko nini.

I saka 15sici, o tinsikyo a lalomaan no Hapuspaw-Hontian(哈布斯堡王朝;Toic a sowal:Haus Habsburg) malamikowanay no Posimiya,nikawrira, o

Tolo-Polo' Mihecaan Lalood(Schlacht am Weißen Berg C-K 063)

tamdaw no itiniay sahetoay mitooray ci Yan-Fusan(揚·胡斯;Cieko a sowal:Jan Hus)a kasaiked. I 1555 miheca mitilid ko Hapuspaw Honti to “Awkospaw-Kakaketonan”《奧格斯堡和約》,全稱《奧格斯堡國家及宗教和約》; Toic a sowal:Augsburger Reichs- und Religionsfrieden),mapaini ko Posimiya a tamdaw to paifaloco’ay a pitoor. 1618 miheca paci’ci a micoroh patalehekal to Tinsikyo ci Fitinan-Sakatosa, onini ko lalengatan no polong no Yoropa mitooray to Fa’elohay-Pitooran a kitakit no Yoropa ato mitooray to Tinsikyo kitakit a tolopolo’ ko mihecaan a lalood(三十年戰爭;Toic a sowal:Dreißigjähriger Krieg;1618年-1648年).

Cieko-Slofako a mihecahecaan (捷克斯洛伐克時代)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Yo maherek ko Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal, matekop ko Awsyon-Hontian Kitakit, oya mitekoay a Cieko molekal to pisiiked. Oya malawidangay a Cieko ato Slofako matateko mala Cieko-Slofako Kapolongan kitakit i 1920 miheca saka 10 folad saka28 romi’ad.

I 1920 miheca saka 11 folad ato saka12 folad, o sofitay ko mikowanay to sifo no Ciko, to sapinekeraw to misafidangay to Solin a kasafelaw. Toikor to i,o Lomaocay-Faco ko talahekalay a mikowan, orasaka, ma’enec ko Kawiliay-Kasafelaw, riharay ko kalotamdaw, mapalalen ko sakarihaday no

Minihe kakaketonan(Munich conference(1938))

ka cidafong a matayalay, maomahay, onini ko sakapicoker no matayalay a tamdaw to Lomaocay-Faco, ca ka pihayi to kyosanto.

I 1939 miheca saka 3 folad saka 15 romi’ad ma’eco no Naci-Toic ko Cieko, mapatireng ko Posimiya-Molawiya Mipa’adingan Kitakit,o Cieko sato i,malamamanisay a sifo no Toic.[7] Yo malaheci to ko Sakatosa-Lalood i 1945 miheca ma’emin a ma’eco no Solin ko Cieko ato Slofako,mapatireng ko Kyosanto a Kapolongan Kitakit.

I 1968 miheca ira ko pilongoc no finawlan to sapifalic to foco no sieci tora Kacanglahan-Polako(布拉格之春; Cieko a sowal:Pražské jaro;Slofako a sowal:Pražská jar; Rosiya a sowal:пражская весна) hananay a demak. Nikawrira, makilomot no sofitay no Solin, Polan Kapolongan-Finawlan kitakit, Syongyali Finawlan a Kapolongan kitakit ato Toic Finawlan kapolongan kitakit a mipesi’ koya sapifelihaw to sifo a demak. Tahira to i 1989 miheca saka 11 folad mapalowad ko Nikafinawlan a Sieci no Sifo’ay-Yoropa,o Cieko-Slofako sato i,ira ko Opih no Taro’away sanay a nipifalic a demak(天鵝絨革命;Cieko a sowal:Sametová revoluce;Slofako a sowal:nežná revolúcia) nikifinawlan to ko sieci o Cikapiay-Felaw Sieci.

Sinken-Kaketonan (Schengen Agreement (1985) signatures)

Malacinowas ato Slofako(與斯洛伐克分立)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya sato i 1993 miheca saka1 folad saka1 romi’ad, malaliyas ko Cieko ato Slofako a kitakit alamisiikeday a kitakit, misiiked to i,oyananay to piharatengan ko pipatireng to kitakit a romi’ad i saka 10 folad saka 28 romi’ad . I 1993 miheca saka 1 folad saka 9 romi’ad mikapot to Sinheko. I 1999 miheca mikapot to Saka’amisay-Riyaran a Kakaketonan-Lekatep( North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO), i 2004 miheca saka 5 folad saka1 romi’ad mikapot i Yoropa-Lekatep(European Union, EU), i 2007 miheca saka 12 folad saka 21 romi’ad Sinken-Kakaketonan( malacefang no nini a kakaketonan.(《申根公約》;Toic a sowal:Schengener Abkommen; Fransu a sowal:Convention de Schengen; Olanta a sowal:Verdrag van Schengen).o pisawad a mikinsa to mifensyo anoca paspoto ano mipalafang i roma a kitakit.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2021 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw no Cieko polong i,ira ko 1,070 ‘ofad. I 2011 miheca a pihapinang to tamdaw, ira ko Cieko a tamdaw (mahaop ko 63.7%), do’edo sa i Molawiya tamdaw(4.9%), Slofako tamdaw (1.4%), Polan a tamdaw (0.4%), Toic a tamdaw (0.2%) ato Sisiliya tamdaw(0.1%). O kika no kitakit manga’ay a pili’en a mi’ala, orasaka, cowa ka tiliden ko kika no kitakit,[8] ano no’edoen ko nikirokan i laloma’ no Cieko latek ira ko 25 ‘ofad ko Romu(羅姆人; Romu a sowal:Roma;也稱為吉普賽人吉卜賽人) tamdaw.[9] [10]

2015 mihecaan a kapolongan sa’osi no sofoc cecay fafahiya ira ko 1.44 ko wawa, ila’enay ho sasafaay a sa’osi tora 2.1, o cecay a kitakit to saawaay ko sofoc a kitakit.[11]

I 2015 mihecaan a nisofocan a wawa mahaop ko 47.8% ono focod a wawa.[12]

2013 miheca o lalen a mihecaan no ‘orip ira ko 77.56 miheca( 74.29 ko fainayan, 81.01 ko fafahiyan).[13]

O maforaway a tayni a tamdaw i 2007 miheca citongalay to 1%, latek ira ko 77,000 ko tamdaw to kalomihecaan.[14] O mitahidangan a matayalay a waylaw nani roma a kitakit,[15] o Yienan ko sa’alomanay ira ko 7 ‘ofad ko tamdaw.[16]

I satapangan no saka 20 sici, o Ciciyako a tokay o sakatolo ko ka’aloman to Cieko atamdaw, mido’edoay to Polako ato Wiyiena.[17] [18] itini i Amirika o cilamlamay to remes no Cieko a tamdaw no Amirika ira ko 1,533,826 ko Amirika a tamdaw.[19]

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O saawaay ko mitooray tono Kawasan a kitakit ko Cieko, mahaop ko 75-79% a tamdaw cowa ka pakaso’elin to kawas,[20] [21] o Awaay-Pa’oripay Kawas sanay a tamdaw mido’edoay to Congko ato Dipon.[22] I 2001 miheca a pisolap ira ko 59%a tamdaw away ko pitooran, 26.8% o mitooray to Roma-Tinsikyo, 2.5% Fa’elohay-Pitooran.i 2005 miheca to pihapinang to polong no Yoropa, ira ko 30% a tamdaw no Cieko cowa ka pakaso’elin to Pa’oripa-Kawas ato ’Adingo’ 50% pakaso’elin iraay ko masamaanay a cowa ko kafana’an no tamdaw a ‘icel tona hekal, dengan 19% pakaso’elinay to Wama a Kawas.

Itira sato i 2011miheca a pihapinang ira ko 34% awaay ko pitooran, 10.3% o Tinsikyo, 0.8% o Fa’elohay-Pitooran, 9% o roma a pitooran.

Ponka(文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kaitiraan no Cieko itiraay i sasifo’an no Yoropa, o finacadan ira ko Cieko tamdaw, Rosiya tamdaw, Yienan tamdaw, Toic tamdaw,marecep no ponka no Rosiya, Sasifo’an no Saka’etipay Yoropa ato ikoray to no kyosanto a ponka, orasaka, ‘adihay ko kasasiromaroma no ponka itini. I Sakatosan-Lalood caay ka pitoker a milood, orasaka ma’osaw ko ‘adihayay a nalacolan no to’as., imatini ira ko 14 nalacolan no ponka mitokian i mipa’adingay to tadamaanay a dafong no to’as a sa’op no Linheko UNESCO,[23] o tatapangan a tokay no Cieko Polako o cecay no tadamaanay a kaitiraan no ponka no Yoropa, itini i rikisi no tamdaw ira ko tadamaanay citanengay a romadiway, Nitiliday, tahanini ma’osaw ho ko nikafangsis no ponka.

(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Oxford English Dictionary. [13 September 2014]. (原始內容存檔於11 January 2008).

[2] Publications Office — Interinstitutional style guide — 7.1. Countries — 7.1.1. Designations and abbreviations to use. Publications Office. [31 January 2019]. (原始內容存檔於20 October 2007).

[3] Information about the Czech Republic. Czech Foreign Ministry. [25 March 2016]. (原始內容存檔於3 April 2016).

[4] Mlsna, Petr; Šlehofer, F.; Urban, D. The Path of Czech Constitutionality (PDF). 1st edition. Praha: Úřad Vlády České Republiky (The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic): 10–11. 2010 [31 October 2012]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於16 January 2013) (捷克語及英語).

[5] Čumlivski, Denko. 800 let Zlaté buly sicilské. National Archives of the Czech Republic (Národní Archiv České Republiky). 2012 [31 October 2012]. (原始內容存檔於28 November 2012) (捷克語).

[6] Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang. Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. 2013: 76 [13 December 2017]. ISBN 978-1135923112. (原始內容存檔於22 November 2018)

[7] Ian Kershew著、林華譯. 地獄之行:1914-1949. 中信出版集團. 2018年12月: 138、359、360. ISBN 978-7-5086-8300-3.

[8] První předběžné výsledky Sčítání lidu, domů a bytů 2011: Obyvatelstvo podle národnosti podle krajů 網際網路檔案館的存檔,存檔日期2013-01-16.. (PDF) . Retrieved on 12 August 2012.

[9] The History and Origin of the Roma. Romove.radio.cz. [2010-04-25]. (原始內容存檔於2010-04-25).

[10] Green, Peter S. British Immigration Aides Accused of Bias by Gypsies. New York Times. 2001-08-05 [2010-04-25].

[11] The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency. Cia.gov. [2016-12-10]. (原始內容存檔於2018-12-26).

[12] Population change – year 2015 | CZSO. Czso.cz. [2016-12-10]. (原始內容存檔於2021-03-09).

[13] The World Factbook. Cia.gov. [2014-05-14]. (原始內容存檔於2018-12-26).

[14] Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo. [2014-09-13]. (原始內容存檔於2021-03-11).

[15] O'Connor, Coilin. Is the Czech Republic's Vietnamese community finally starting to feel at home?. Czech Radio. 2007-05-29 [2008-02-01]. (原始內容存檔於2008-01-13).

[16] Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo. [2014-09-13]. (原始內容存檔於2021-03-11).

[17] Czechs and Bohemians 網際網路檔案館的存檔,存檔日期2016-03-04.. Encyclopedia of Chicago.

[18] Czech and Slovak roots in Vienna. wieninternational.at. [2014-09-13]. (原始內容存檔於2014年5月12日).

[19 Total ancestry reported. U.S. Census Bureau. [2014-07-13]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-06).

[20] Archived copy (PDF). [2018-01-05]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2017-03-09).

[21] NÁBOŽENSKÁ VÍRA OBYVATEL PODLE VÝSLEDKŮ SČÍTÁNÍ LIDU (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. 2014-02-27 [2017-12-27]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2018-05-13). Chapter 1. "Změny struktury obyvatel podle náboženské víry v letech 1991, 2001 a 2011"; table "Struktura obyvatel podle náboženské víry (náboženského vyznání) v letech 1991 - 2011": believers 20,8%; non-believers 34,5%; no declared religion 44,7%

[22] Global Index of Religion and Atheism (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Press Release 網際網路檔案館的存檔,存檔日期2013-10-21.. 2012. secularpolicyinstitute.net

[23] World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. [4 February 2021]. (原始內容存檔於2022-02-05) (英語).

papotal(外部連結) CIA[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]