Cuba

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Cuba(古巴)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Cuba
Flag of Cuba
Location of  Cuba  (green)

Takaray sowal[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kupa Kapolongan Kitakit(Sipanya a sowal:República de Cuba; Kuwaping s sowal:古巴共和國,通稱古巴Cuba). Itiraay i ka’amis no Karopi Riyar a kanatanatalan a kitakit, isaicomod no Misiko a Kihaw, isaka’etip malala’ed ato Misiko to Yukatan Pecihan Kanatal, ikatimol malafiyaw ato Yamayka ato Kayman Kanatal isawalian malala’ed ato Hayti Kapolongan Kitakit ato Tominika Kapolongan Kitakit to Mikifaliay Ta’eman no Riyar(Paso de los Vientos;向風海峽), ika’amisan no sakawali ira ko Pahama Kanatanatal, masasi’yaw ato Amirika to Folorita Ta’eman no Riyar.

Ano pakaynien i kaitiraan a minengneng i, o mikolametay to Panama Picoro’an ’Alo o lalan no Amirika nani riyar, sa ira ko sowal o Sata’eta no Misiko Kihaw sanay a patinako.

Ora Kupa hananay a sowal i, o nani sowal no Tayno tora「coabana」sanay ko sowal, o「cihanekay

ano ca o「karihadayan pala」sanay ko imi nira.[1] O tamdaw no Kupa i,o kohecalay a tamdaw ko ikakaay, o ciramramay to ’irang ko sakatosa ko ka’aloman.

O Kupa a kitakit o dengan misasakaysyukiay i Sifo’an Amirika, orasa halafin maco’ot no Amirika to saka’orip a dafong,nikawrira, lalen no ti’edaw no ’orip no Kupa a tamdaw i ira ko 78.3 ko mihecaan, hahaop ko 99.9% ko mafana’ay to tilid no tamdaw, o lalen a saka’orip pala mahaop ko tosa kofo, o Cemahadan a Sa’osi no Tamdaw (Human Development Index;人類發展指數) isakakaay i hekal,itini i Latin Amirika a kaitakit dengan o Kupa ko malaheciay ko palasawad to cahiw no kalotamdaw.itini i Latin Amirika a kaitakit dengan o Kupa ko malaheciay ko palasawad to cahiw no kalotamdaw.[2] [3]

I 2011miheca, rocoden ni Lawl Kasuzu(Sipnya a sowal:Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz;Kuwaping a sowal:勞爾·莫德斯托·卡斯楚·魯斯) ko kaka ningra ci Fitayr Kasuzu (Sipaya a sowal:Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz; Kuwaping a sowal:斐代爾·亞歷杭德羅·卡斯楚·魯斯) a malasakacecay(o sakakaay) syoki no Sakakaay Iinkay no Kiosanto no Kupa, satapang a micoroh to nipifalic to demak, orasaka i 2014 miheca masasonga’ay ato Amirika, ira

Opama congtong no Amirika aci Kasuzu kakeridan no Kupa(President Obama Meets with President Castro)

ko Cowa to ka Picara (Ikiris a sowal: Cuban Thaw; Sipanya a sowal:deshielo Cubano; Kuwaping a sowal:古巴解凍),itira to ko kapifalic to Tatapangan Rikec(Kimpo) to ko pisanga’ to katayalan miheca no malatapangay ato mihay to kacidafong no kalotamdaw. Ta onini ko pido’edoan i 2021miheca saka 4 folad saka 19 romi’ad milepon ko sakafalo a KapolonganKayki no Kyosanto no Kupa ci Mikuir Malio Pimutos (Sipanya a sowal:Miguel Mario Díaz-Canel Bermúdez; Kuwaping a sowal:米圭爾·馬利歐·狄亞士-卡奈·貝穆德斯) ko a malasakacecay (o sakakaay) syoki no kiyosanto no Kupa, mapalepon to ko kalakakeridan na Kasuzu malikaka to 62 a mihecaan.[4]

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sarakatay a payrayrang (早期文明)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I’ayaw no picowat no Sipanya a micomod tona kitakit, iraay to ko Tayno tamdaw (泰諾;Taíno,Siponoi tamdaw (Siponey;西波內人) ato Kuwahapii a tamdaw (瓜納哈塔貝伊人)[5] maro’ itini.

O sarakatay a misanga’ to kapowa ato liomah ko Tayno a tamdaw. O romasa ’i, o Siponoi tamdaw ato Kuwahapii a tamdaw o ikoray to pahicera itini, o ’orip nangra ’i,o mikilimo’otay a mi’adop ato mifotingay, iikor to nga’ mipaloma’ay to to tamako ato losay.

Nicowatan sakowan(殖民)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1492 miheca saka10 folad matama ni Kolonpo kona kanatal, 1511 miheca malanicowatan sakowan, oya cowa ka pitoor to Kristo a pitooran a yuincumin malakoli no Sipanya misa’ekim. 1529 miheca

Ci Fitayr Kasuzu (CheyFidel) aci Ciekipara

no nani Yoropaay a tamdaw to kefing, o away a adada itini orasaka ca ka pakaso’ot ko mihecaan mahadefek mapatay ko itiniay a yincumin. Ora to ko sakapiala to kohetingay tamdaw nani Afrika mamamatayalay.

O nipasadakan a dafong ira ko tefos, kofi ato tamako. Tahira to i 1889 miheca nga’ mapalahedaw ko koli. Nikawrira, manikaw to mamatayal a tamdaw, orasaka cowa ka lahedaw ko koli.

19sici satapang ko tamdaw no Kupa a milingoc to sapisiikedaw nani pikowan no Sipanya. I 1868miheca saka10 folad, o tawki no kakahaday ko omah a tamdaw ci Kaslo Sayspitos(Sipanya a sowal:Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo; Kuwaping a sowal:卡洛斯·曼努埃爾·德·塞斯佩德斯) hepolen ningra kono niyah a koli, i 1869 miheca tokeren ningra ko Sipanya Nicowatay a mikowan, patireng sa to Kapolongan Kitakit, malacongtong. Mitongal to sofitay ko Sipanya,mo’etep miheca ko kalaloodan, alomanaloman ko mikapotay a tamdaw mitoker to Sipanya,1895 miheca saka 9 folad malowid ko Sipanya, patireng sato to niyah a sifo ko Kupa.

Siyakaisyuki Mihecahecaan(社會主義時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ci Lawl Kasuzu(Sipnya a sowal:Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz;Kuwaping a sowal:勞爾·莫德斯托·卡斯楚·魯斯) i 2011miheca miceror to kaka ningra ci Fitayr Kasuzu (Sipaya a sowal:Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz; Kuwaping a sowal:斐代爾·亞歷杭德羅·卡斯楚·魯斯) a malasakacecay(o sakakaay) syoki no Sakakaay Iinkay no Kiosanto no Kupa, satapang a micoroh to nipifalic to demak, orasaka i 2014 miheca masasonga’ay ato Amirika, ira ko Cowa to ka Picara (Ikiris a sowal: Cuban Thaw; Sipanya a sowal:deshielo Cubano; Kuwaping a sowal:古巴解凍),itira to ko kapifalic to Tatapangan Rikec(Kimpo) to ko pisanga’ to katayalan miheca no malatapangay ato mihay to kacidafong no kalotamdaw.

Ta onini ko pido’edoan i 2021miheca saka 4 folad saka 19 romi’ad milepon ko sakafalo a KapolonganKayki no Kyosanto no Kupa ci Mikuir Malio Pimutos (Sipanya a sowal:Miguel Mario Díaz-Canel Bermúdez; Kuwaping a sowal:米圭爾·馬利歐·狄亞士-卡奈·貝穆德斯) ko a malasakacecay (o sakakaay) syoki no kiyosanto no Kupa, mapalepon to ko kalakakeridan na

Hafana Tata'angay Pitilidan (Università de La Habana)

malikaka to 62 a mihecaan.[6]

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2012 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw ira 11,167,325 ko tamdaw no polong no Kupa Kitakit, itiya ho o lalen no mihecaan ’i, 35.1miheca,[7] mahaop ko 16,3% tamdaw 60 miheca ko lalen no mihecaan,[8] mahaop ko 75% a tamdaw itiraay i tokay a paloma’, cisfaw ko 846.5 ofad ko tamdaw, i niyaro’ay ’i,ira ko 277.5 ofad cisafaw, o fafahiyan mahaop ko 50.1%, ikaka no fainayan to mamang.

O tato’asan no aniniay a tamdaw o nani Sipayaay a kohecalay tamdaw, o kohetingay a tamdaw o nani Afrika a mapa’acaay ta koli, micoroh ko sifo to kalalemlem no tamdaw orasaka, aloman ko ciramramay to masasiromaromaay ko ’ilang a tamdaw.

Aloman ko maforaway tayra i Amirika a tamdaw no Kupa, cecay no kalitolo a lalomaan ira ko salawinawina i Amirika,[9] adihay ko nipanokayan nona maforaway i Amirika a payso to saka’orip no ma’osaway a salawinawina.

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kyokai no Tinsikyo(Cat San Cristobal)

O Kupa a kitakit ’i, caay ka paso’elin to Wama, o Pa’oripay.I 1962 miheca ma’idef ni Kasuzu Sifo ko 400 a kyokai no Tinsikyo,nawhan o nipatenakay to sapifolkokaw to karihaday no paso’elin sanay. I 1991 miheca mapalasawad ko piso’ot to pitooran, to cila a miheca mafalic ko kimpo masafa’eloh, malakalokitakita to ko Kupa,oranan haw ’i, cowa ka pilalang ko sifo to pitoor no tamtamdaw to paifalocay a pitooran, orasaka, manga’ay to mitoor ko Kyosanto a tamdaw, o Tinsikyo malaliyaw a haien no sifo. 1996 miheca saka11 folad , o Sikyo notinsikyo ci Rowang Pawlo sakatosa matahidang ni Kasuzu a palafang tayra i Kupa.

O matenakay a pitooran i Kupa o nihawikidan no Sipanya a tayni o tinsikyo, irako 11 a kasaetal no kyokai, 650 ko kyokai.[10] O polong no mitooray a tamdaw no Kupa latak mahaop ko 35% o tinsikyo, sahetoay pasinliay, o roma sato ira ko fatad no polong a tamdaw no Kupa o paso’elinay to tinsikyo sanay ko sowal no Pacikang.[11] [13] I 1916 miheca lekalen ni Pento Sikyo Saka15 ko Wina Mariya o Midipotay Fangcalay Tamdaw.

Ira ko 21ofad ko Fa’elohay Kristo a ngasaw matenak i 54 a kyokai, o Sencawhuwy ira ko 10 ofad, o Yiehofa ira ko madeng 9 ofad, ira ho ko roma a pitooran o Indo Pitooran, Yotaya Pitooran ato Muslin.


Sapacefad a tilid(註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1].Alfred Carrada, The Dictionary of the Taino Language (plate 8) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)[來源可靠?]

[2] 兩岸犇報. ben.chinatide.net. [2017-01-13]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-20).

[3] 古巴成为拉美地区唯一完全消除饥饿的国家. 人民網. 2013年12月17日 [2016-06-20]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-18)

[4] 古巴国家主席接任共产党第一书记 卡斯特罗兄弟60年执政写下句点. 路透社. 2021-04-20 [2021-04-20]. (原始內容存檔於2021-04-20) ato papotal (外部連接)

[5] Ramón Dacal Moure, Manuel Rivero de la Calle. Art and archaeology of pre-Columbian Cuba. University of Pittsburgh Press. 1996: 22. ISBN 0-8229-3955-X.

[6] 古巴國家主席接任共產黨第一書記卡斯楚兄弟60年執政寫下句點. 路透社. 2021-04-20 [2021-04-20]. (原始內容存檔於2021-04-20)

[7] Guia Oficial de Cuba. Cuba-Hotels. 2010-05-05 [2012-07-06]. (原始內容存檔於2010-04-07).

[8] Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas de la República de Cuba. Cuadro 3.3 - Población media según grupos de edades, sexos y zonas, año 2007 (Archivo excel). [2012-07-06]. (原始內容存檔於2012-02-22)

[9] 存档副本. [2012-05-11]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-17).

[10] 古巴将兴建56年来首座天主教新圣堂. [2015-03-12]. (原始內容存檔於2017-11-16).

[11] Benedikt XVI. in Havanna: Der Papst und die legitimen Hoffnungen der Kubaner – Ausland – FAZ (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Website der FAZ. Abgerufen am 26. März 2012.

[13] 古巴将兴建56年来首座天主教新圣堂. [2015-03-12]. (原始內容存檔於2017-11-16).

外部連結[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kakafitan i Papotal (外部連接)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

CIA