Columbia

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Columbia (哥倫比亞)

Takaray a sowal (概要)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit (哥倫比亞共和國; Sipanya a sowal: República de Colombia), kalopitahidang o Kolompiya hananay, o itiraay i ka’etipay no saka’amis mo Satimolan

Flag of Colombia

, o sakasepat ko tata’ang i Latin Amirika, o mikapotay to Satimolan Amirika Lekatep a kitakit (i 2018 miheca saka 8 folad miliyas). I ka’amis i, o KaropiRiyar, sakwali malala’ed ato Winoyrira, isakawal no sakatimol o Poracir, isakatimol o Miru ato Okuwato, isaka’etip o Panama ato Tasiyang Riyar. O congtong ko skakaay a tapang, ira ko 32 sakowan ato Pokota syoto misiikedan a sakowan. O ponka ningra i tadacinganganay I hekal, o kahiceraan no misanga’ay to dafong no Satimolan Amirika. I saka 19 sici ato saka 20 sici o Yoropa, o Arapiya ato Aciya a maforaway tamdaw, masongila’ ko kasasiromaroma aponka. I 1980 ato 1990 mihecahecaan, ira ko lalood ato mipaliwalay to sawarak a cefang, orasaka ‘aloman ko mipatayan ato cirarawa. Tahira to i sa’ayaw no saka 20 sici, satapang sa rahoday ko ‘orip no tamtamdaw, tahanini, o sawarak, paliwalay to sawarak, palomaay to sawarak ko adihayay a tayal no itiniay tamdaw, o tada katarawan a kitakit ko nini.

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I noto’ato’asan ho iraay to ko Cipoca a tamdaw (穆伊斯卡人; Sipanya a sowal: Muiscas anoca o Cipoca hananay ho mitahidang (chibchas 奇布查人). Naka iraan no mihahinamay a

COL orthographic (San Andrés and Providencia special)

a tamdaw latek i 1500 miheca, milood, palakolien, sapanocay ato adada no Yoropa ko sapicowat to itiniay a tamdaw. Orasaka, rahoday a patireng kamaro’an, i 1717 miheca mahaop ko polong a micowatan sera no Sipanya i Sayimolan Amirika tora Fa’elohay Kolanata (新格拉納達; Sipanya a sowal: Virreinato de la Nueva Granada).

O sapisiikedaw a lalood no Kolompiya i 1810 miheca misatapang, saka 7 folad saka 20 romi’ad milekal to piliyas to Sipanya, tahira to i 1819 miheca nga’ laheci sa misiiked, i 1821 miheca mikapot ato Wokuwato, Winayroyla, Panama misanga’ to Tata’angay Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit (大哥倫比亞共和國簡稱為大哥倫比亞; Sipanya a sowal:Gran Colombia). Oya han to Fa’elohay Kolanata falic han to amipangangan to Tata’angay Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit, ci Simon Poliwar ko contong itiya, tahira i 1830 miheca.

The earth and its inhabitants (1882) (14774275371)

Tona 1830 miheca miliyas a misiiked ko Wokuwato ato Winayroyla to Tata’angay Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit, onini ko sakaliposa no Tata’angay Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit, 1886 miheca falic han to to Kolompiya Kapolongan Kitakit, nikawrira, I laloma’ nona kitakit i, ira ho ko masamaamaanay a masakapotay no sieci, orasaka cilacila malalood, I 1903 miheca ira ko picoker no Amirika to Panama miliyas to Kolompiya a misiiked patireng to kitakit.[1] Tahanini cifangafang ho ko Kolompiya to Mihohokay Milood ato nikatenak no sawarak.

I 2006 miheca, pakaala to 63% a satopa no finawlan ci Arwaro-Wuliwi pararid malacongtong.[2] I 2010 miheca ona congtong ci Wuliwi mangalay sapifalicaw to kimpo to sapipararidaw, mataker no Sakakaay Pisawkitan kona misaharatengan ningra, do’edo sato to sowal no Pisawkitan a palaswad to nisaharatengan, toro’ han ningra ko i’ayaway a kakeridan no sofitay ci Foan-Manmuayr-Santos pasadak mikiwsin to vongtong.tona miheca i saka 6 folad saka 20 romi’ad malowid ningra ko milifetay ci Antonas-Mocikus maala malacongtong no Kolompiya.[3]

I 2012 miheca, o Kupa ato Norwi a kitakit ko mamidopo a kitakit, o Winoyloyla ato Cili a kitakit ko mihinam to kasasowal no Kolompiya sifo ato Saopo no mifelihay to sifo a sofitay itira i syoto no Kupa. 2016 miheca saka 6 folad saka 23 romi’ad o congtong no Kolompiya ci Foan-Manuayr-Santos (胡安·曼努埃爾·桑托斯·卡爾德隆; Juan Manuel Santos Calderón)ato Saopo no mifelihay to sifo a sofitay matatilid to sakarihaday i Hafana o syoto no Kupa. O laloma’ay nona katatilidan ira ko misawad a malalood, misongila’ to niyaro’ no maomahay, mipekpek to paliwalay to sawarak, mihayi papikapot to siesi to sofitay no mifelihay to sifo, patireng to pacarcaray a pisawkitan, nikawrira, onini a mapolong i,o finawlan ko mamitopa a mihayi ta malaheci.oya sato pitopa no finawlan i saka 10 folad saka 2 romi’ad, o mihayiay 49.77%, o minaayay ira ko 50.22%, mafelih koya sakarihaday a katatilidan. Tahira to i saka 11 folad saka 24 romi’ad miliyaw haca ci Foan-Manuayr-Santos ato kakeridan no Saopo no mifelihay sofitay (哥倫比亞革命武裝力量-人民軍; Sipanya a sowal: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo; decdecay a tilid: FARC或FARC-EP) ci Rotoliko-Lontoniaw matatilid to nisalifan a sakarihaday a kakaketonan, oninian i, o mihayian no Pikaykian no Kitakit, caay to ka papitoen ko finawlan laheci sanay to.

Malaheci kona kakaketonan to cila a miheca, 2017 miheca saka 6 folad saka 27 romi’ad, oya Saopo no mifelihay to sifo a sofitay caay to ko cikowangay a saopo, tona miheca saka 9 folad saka 1 romi’ad, laheci sato a mafalic to “Kapolongan a misafe’lohay ‘Icel’’ , to cila a romi’ad mipatoki i sifo o mido’edoay to rikec a saopo no sieci. Nikawrira, o sakatosa a saopo to Mifelihay to sifo” Parihadayay to Finawlan Saopo’’ cowa ka pihayi tonini, samatiya ho a kali’ang to tamdaw.

Juan Manuel Santos and Lula (cropped)

2018 miheca saka 8 folad, o sapipalahedawaw to mananginangay a paliwalay to sawarak ato mitakaway paliwal to dafong, misa’icel a mipekpek to Mihohokay Sofitay. Caay konini aca ko kafodfodan no Kolompiya kitakit, aloman ko milaliway a tayni nani Winoyloyla mala’inorong sato to Sakalatamdaw a Demak, ona maforaway a tayni a tamdaw ira ko 180 ofad ko ka’aloman. Ira ho ko roma a fangafang pakayni to mangalefay a kasatiwtiw no cipaysoay ato awaay ko maamaan a tamdaw, orasak, cilacila mikihatiya ko mitiliday ato matyalay a paci’eci pasela’ matayal.

I 2012 miheca saka 4 folad saka 28 romi’ad, sapifelihaw to misalofan a sapilisata no sifo, o Saopo no Matayalay ato Mitiliday ko milengatay to ‘edef no kitakit a paci’eci pasela’ matayay, o rarawraw tahira i saka 6 folad, ‘aloman ko cidoka’ay a tayhin ato kakotamdaw, o loma’ mapeleng, pakipaysoen ira 16 fois ko sipon tona karawraw, safolafolad sa misalof ta manga’ay ko syakay, o kaaway no katayalan ato kanikaw ko caay ko rarahoday a masalof no Kolompiya a kitakit.

Kaitiraan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mihifalat ko Antis-Lotolotokan I saka’etip nona kitakit, adihay ko tata’eman itini, I lawac no riyar o masa’ipocay a dafdaf, I ka’etip no saka’amis o Makotalayna-’Alo I sacepo’an nona ‘alo ira ko masadafdafay a pala; I kawali o Yamasin-’Alo ato Awlinoko-’Alo, i cecpo’ ira ko masadafdafay a pala, mahaop ko tosa no kalitolo no polong no kitakit.

O Sifo'ay Konis no Cikiw mihafalatay i katimol nona kitakit,i sakatimol o dafdaf, i saka’etip o lilis no riyar, sahetoay o Fa'etay Kilakilangan Pala, tara’amis sa i, o Fa’etay Rengorengosan Kakarayan ato Ma’icangay Rengorengosan Kakarayan.

O kakahad no sera ira ko 1,138,910 km², mihaopan no nanom ira ko 8.8%, o saka 25 ko ngangan i rayray i polong a kitaki.

Sieci (政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O congtong ko tapang no kitakit ko faco no sieci no Klompiya, mihayiay to kasasiromaroma a lekatep no sieci. O sifo ko matayalay to demak no polong no kitakit. Tosaay ko Pikaikian Faco no kitakit, o Kararemay Pikaikian ato Fafa'eday Pikaikian,ona tosa i, sahetoay ira ko ‘icel a misanga’ to rikec no kitakit. O Skakaay Pisawkitan Sakowan misiiked a matayal.

I 2006 miheca saka 5 folad saka 28 romi’ad, pakaala to 63% a satopa no finawlan ci Arwaro-Wuliwi pararid malacongtong.[4] I 2010 miheca ona congtong ci Wuliwi mangalay sapifalicaw to kimpo to sapipararidaw, mataker no Sakakaay Pisawkitan kona misaharatengan ningra,do’edo sato to sowal no Pisawkitan a palaswad to nisaharatengan, toro’ han ningra ko i’ayaway a kakeridan no sofitay ci Foan-Manmuayr-Santos pasadak mikiwsin to vongtong.tona miheca i saka 6 folad saka 20 romi’ad malowid ningra ko milifetay ci Antonas-Mocikus maala malacongtong no Kolompiya.

I 2016 miheca saka 6 folad saka 23 romi’ad o congtong no Kolompiya ci Foan-Manuayr-Santos (胡安·曼努埃爾·桑托斯·卡爾德隆; Juan Manuel Santos Calderón)ato Saopo no mifelihay to sifo a sofitay matatilid to sakarihaday i Hafana o syoto no Kupa. O laloma’ay nona katatilidan ira ko misawad a malalood, misongila’ to niyaro’ no maomahay,mipekpek to paliwalay to sawarak, mihayi papikapot to siesi to sofitay no mifelihay to sifo, patireng to pacarcaray a pisawkitan, nikawrira, onini a mapolong i,o finawlan ko mamitopa a mihayi ta malaheci.oya sato pitopa no finawlan i saka 10 folad saka 2 romi’ad, o mihayiay 49.77%, o minaayay ira ko 50.22%, mafelih koya sakarihaday a katatilidan. Tahira to i saka 11 folad saka 24 romi’ad miliyaw haca ci Foan-Manuayr-Santos ato kakeridan no Saopo no mifelihay sofitay (哥倫比亞革命武裝力量-人民軍; Sipanya a sowal: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia–Ejército del Pueblo; decdecay a tilid: FARC或FARC-EP) ci Rotoliko-Lontoniaw matatilid to nisalifan a sakarihaday a kakaketonan, oninian i,o mihayian no Pikaykian no Kitakit, caay to ka papitoen ko finawlan laheci sanay to. wa rihaday to ko ‘orip no tamtamdaw no Kolompiya nasaan ko harateng no ‘alomanay.

Nikawrira, o malatapangay no sifo sahetoay o maco’osay to payso, matongal ko kalapakoyoc no finawlan, orasaka o finawlan to ko sapifelihaw to sifo.

I 2022 miheca saka 6 folad saka 19 romi’ad a sinkiw to congtong, o sarakatay ho a pakalowid ko Kawiliay-Kasafelaw (左派又稱左翼; Ikiris a sowal:Left-Right political spectrum)[5] [6] [7] ci Kustafo-Pitoro (Gustavo Petro), ato Sadama a congtong o teloc no Afrika ci Folansiya-Markos (fafahiyan), itini i rikisi no Kolompiya o sarakatay ho mafelih ko kalikotoday to Amirika a sifo o Kawnanay-Kasafelaw (右派)[8] [9] [10] o edeng pihayi to sowal no Amirika.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sa'osi i 2019 miheca o polong a tamdaw ira ko 50,539,000 ko tamdaw, o saka 29 rayray i polong no kitakit. O tamdaw no Kompiya i, cilamlamay to ‘ilang no Sipanya, Yincumin no Amirika Karopaw ato Teloc no Afrika, nikawrira, i saka 18 sici ato saka 19 sici tayniay to a maforaw ko Yoropa, Arapiya, Yotaya ato Aciya a tamdaw. Oninian ko kasasiromaroma no 'orip itini. Mitiso (cilamlamay to ’ilang no Yoropa a Yincumi) ira ko 45%, kahecalay tamdaw ira ko 42%, cmalamlamay to kohetingay ato kohecalay a tamdaw ira ko 5%, kohetingay tamdaw ira ko 2%, Yincumin no Amirika Karopaw 4% ato roma atamdaw 2%.

O sakatolo ko ka’aloman no tamdaw no Kompiya i Amirika Karopaw, mito’oray to Poraciro ato Misiko. ’aloman ko maforaway tayra i takay a maomahay tamdaw, onini ko katongal no masatakayay tamdaw, i 1951 miheca ira ko 57% matongal i 1994 miheca to 74% ko tamdaw.o cisafaway to mo’etep ofad ko tamdaw a tata’angay niyaro’ ira ko 30 niyaro. Isakawaliay a masadasdasay pala mangata mafatad ko ni’aroan a pala mahop ko 54%, nikawrira, caka pakatahira i 3% ko tamdaw itini.

Ponka o Wayway no tamdaw (文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ira ko masacecayay to mihecaan a ilisin no Kolompiya, o cinganganay i hekal a “ caay kono nakamayan dafong no tamdaw o rarocokan ponka”no UNESCO o “Palaciya Lisin” (巴蘭基亞狂歡節; Sipanya a sowal: Carnaval de Barranquilla). adihay ho ko masamaanay a sakero no Kolompiya, patinako han ira ko Lonpa, Sasasakero,[11] o kafana’an no tamtamdaw o pakaalaay to Nopir-Hofi i 1982 miheca to Nitilidan ci Kapoli-Ciyasiya-Makuis (加布列·賈西亞·馬奎斯; Sipanya a sowal: Gabriel García Márquez), Nisongila’ay tamdaw (藝術家) ci Firnanto-Potoro-Ankoro (費爾南多·博特羅·安古洛; Sipanya a sowal: Fernando Botero Angulo) ato pakaalaay to Hofi no Kolaymi (葛萊美獎; Ikiris a sowal:Grammy Award), o kakaolahan no tamtamdaw i hekal o romadiway ci Siyacila (夏奇拉; Sipanya a sowal: Shakira)


a Tilid (註解)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] 中華民國外交部—哥倫比亞國情概況. [2013-11-17]. (原始內容存檔於2014-03-10).

[2] 乌里韦再次当选哥伦比亚总统. [2006-06-02]. (原始內容存檔於2015-06-10).

[3] 國際觀察:哥倫比亞新總統 繼往開來領路人 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),新華網,2010年6月23日。

[4] 乌里韦再次当选哥伦比亚总统. [2006-06-02]. (原始內容存檔於2015-06-10).

[5] Smith, T. Alexander; Tatalovich, Raymond. Cultures at War: Moral Conflicts in Western Democracies. Toronto, Canada: Broadview Press. 2003: 30.

[6] Bobbio, Norberto; Cameron, Allan. Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction. University of Chicago Press. 1997: 37.

[7] Thompson, Willie. The Left In History: Revolution and Reform in Twentieth-Century Politic. London: Pluto Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0745308913.

[8] Johnson, Paul. Right-wing, rightist. A Politics Glossary. Auburn University website. 2005 [2014-10-23]. (原始內容存檔於2014-08-19).

[9] Bobbio, Norberto; Cameron, Allan. Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1996: 51, 62. ISBN 978-0-226-06246-4.

[10] Goldthorpe, J.E. An Introduction to Sociology Third. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985: 156. ISBN 978-0-521-24545-6.

[11] 克里斯·華萊士. 這是世界上最幸福快樂的國家嗎?. BBC 主頁. 2017-05-03 [2017-10-04]. (原始內容存檔於2020-11-04).

Kakafitan i papotal (外部連接)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]