Chad

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Takaray sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Flag of Chad

Cate(查德共和國,通稱查德; Arabia a swoal: تشاد‎ ; Fransu a sowal:Tchad ). Itiraay I sasifo’an no Afrika a karopaw kitakit, isaka’amis moda’edo ato Lipiya, katimol mada’edo ato Sifo’ay-Afrika Kapolongan Kitakit, isaka’etip malafiyaw ato Kemayrong, Nayciriya, isaka’etip malala’ed ato Niru kitakit. O ngangan nona kitakit nani  mikinganganay to Cate-Fanaw, o satakaraway a lotok i,o itiraay i Sahara-Tafotafokan a Kusi lotok, o Enciyangna ko syoto, o sakakaay kona tokay. Itini i Cate cisafaw ko 200 finacadan , o Fransu ato Arabiya kono sifo’an a sowal, o Islam a Pitooran ko sa’alomanay ko salikaka.

I’ayaw niyiesoan to 7000 miheca iraay to ko masaniyaro’ay a tamdaw maro’ itini, tahira to saka9 sici, adihay ko masaromromaay a kitakit mapatireng matekop itini ton apala, mikowanay to paliwalay to saka’orip dafong to ‘edef no Sahara-Tafotafokan. I 1920 miheca maaro’ no Fransu malacecay a pecih no mikotoday a kitakit no Fransu Sifo’ay-Konis no cikiw a Afrika. 1960 miheca keriden ni Folangsowa-Tomupapayie(弗朗索瓦·托姆巴巴耶; Faransu a sowal:François Tombalbaye) misiiked nani pikowan no Fransu, na malacongtong ci Folangsowa-Tomupapayie i,mifelih ko

Location Chad AU Africa

Muslin a tamdaw to tayal ningra, orasaka, i 1965 miheca malengat ko Laloma’an-Lalood no Cate. 1979 miheca Mifelihay to sifo a sofitay ma’eco nangra ko syoto, mapalasawad ko ikatimolay a sifo a pikowan. Nikawrira, macacolicoli ko kakeridean no Mifelihay-Sofitay, saikoray to i,ci Hasan-Haporoy ko pakalowiday tona lalood a malacongtong, caka halafin mafelih noTtapang-Sofitay ci Yitolis-Topi-Yiteno(伊德里斯·德比·伊特諾; Fransu a sowal:Idriss Déby Itno;Arapiya a sowal: إدريس ديبي‎). Nani 2003 mihecaan malingato ko fodfod no Sa’etipay Sotan, sano yanan sato ca ka ca kaira ko rarawraw no Cate. Ora ko saka mala sanikaway ato kalipaysoay ko malatapangay a kitakit itini i hekal. I 2003 miheca maceror tono simal kasoling ko takomod o sapili’etan no Cate kitakit. i 15 00 N, 19 00 E, noAfilika(非洲) ko Chad. Polong no sekalay i 1.284 million sq km “saka 21 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 1,259,200 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 24,800 sq km ” Polong i 11,852,462 ko tamdaw.

O tatapangan no sowal(語源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O minganganay to Cate-Fanaw, ona sowal tonini i,o Sade sanay a sowal no Kanuli(卡努里語; Ikiris a sowal:Kanuri), o imi i,o fanaw, kakahaday a nanonanoman sanay.[1] Ona sowal to nini i,o kalosowal no Nayciliya, Niru,Cate ato Komaylon, ira ko 400 ofald ko tamdaw sowalay tonini sowal, o itiraay i Lipiya a mamangay finacadan ato malaklakay a maro’ i Sotan a tamdaw a sowal konini.

Likisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I’ayaw niyiesoan to 7000 miheca iraay to ko masaniyaro’ay a tamdaw maro’ itini,o ci’afoay a pala itini, orasaka, mahenay a matenak ko tamdaw. O tadamaanay a Nikarkaran-Pala o

Chadian delegation

Etal, o I’ayaway ni Yieso to 2000 miheca.[2] [3] O masadangahay a pala no Cate a maomahay tamdaw mata’elifay ko ’ayaw ni Yieso to 2000 miheca. O kalengatan no masasiromaromaay a rayray no ‘orip itini. I saka 9 sici tahira i saka 10 sici patireng ko Saaw tamdaw to sarakatay a hotian kitakit o Kanaymu-Pornu Hontian Kitakit(加奈姆-博爾努帝國;Kanem–Bornu Empire),[4] [5] [6]

Tahira sato i saka 16 sici mapatireng ko Pacimir-Hontian Kirakit ato Watayi-Hontian Kitakit (瓦達伊蘇丹國,或稱為瓦達伊帝國; Arapiya a sowal:سلطنةوداي; Fransu a sowal:royaume du Ouaddaï), ona tolo a kitakit cila malalood cila malalood.[7] Tahira to i 1883 miheca tahira 1893 miheca matekop no Lapihe-Cupayr kona toloay Hontian kitakit.

O nidamaan no Frasu a congtong ci Haysan-Hapoloy(海珊·哈布雷; Arapiya a sowal: حسين حبري‎; Fransu a sowal: Hissène Habré), felihen no tapang no sofitay ci Yitolis-Topi.[8] Na malacongtong to ci Topi, sapitokitokaw malacongton i 2005 miheca midemak to Fainawlan-Pitopa to sapiflicaw to kimpo ta malarid mamalacongtong kako yo sanay a pisafaloco’ ningra, malalang no Mifelihay-Kasafelaw, mafodfod to ko kitakit,[9] 2006 miheca, cowa ka pihayi ko Mifelihay-Kasafelaw to sinkiw maala heca ci Topi. Tongal sato ko kafodfod no kitakit i laloma’, milekal ko Linhoko ano pakomira han i, a matiya to Tafo(達佛戰爭 ; Arapiya a sowal : الحرب في دارفور‎)sapipalahedawaw sa to finacadan a misawsaw(種族滅絕 ; Ikiris a sowal :genocide)[10]

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sa’osi i 2005 mihea ira ko 10,146,000 ko polong a tamdaw no Cate, o itokayay mahaop ko 25%, o iniyaro’ay ira ko 74%.[11] Ilaloma’ no nini i, mahaop ko 47.3% a tamdaw caho

Danse fille mboum Tchad

i 15 mihecaan, o nisofocan 1000 ko tamdaw mahop ko 42.35%, o mapatayay mahop ko 16.69%, o lalen no ‘orip 47.2 ko mihecaan.[12]

O faco raramod no Cate a tamdaw i, cecay ko fainayan ‘aloman ko fafahi,[13] ira ko 39% a fafahiyan o matiniay ko ‘orip, mihayiay ko riked no Cate to matiniay a kararamod. Talacowa milalangay ko rikec aka pipalo to fafahiyan sanay, nikawrira, mararid ira ko mapaloay a fafahiyan. Ano mirocok to dafong i, talacowa awaay ko pisakakinih no rikec i, nikawrira, o kakeridan no niyaro’ misawkit sa i, pasitiniay i fainayan.

I Cate cisafaw ko 200 ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan,[14] o faco no niyaro’ ira ko masamaanay, itiya ho yo mikowan ho Fransu tona kitakit, sapipatirengaw to sakalacecay no kitakit, nikawrira, o kakereidan no kasaetal ato wayway no pitooran ko ikakaay haratengen no Cate a tamdaw.o niyah a finacadan o niyah a kamaro’an.

O sakakaay a finacadan i katimol o Sala tamdaw, o sakatosa o maro’ay i Saher etal a Arapiya tamdaw, i ka’amis o pakaenay to ‘a’adopen a Tupu tamdaw.[15] [16]

O sowal i, no sifo a sowal ono Faransu ato Arapiya a sowal, orama sa i, ira ho ko cisafaw to 100 ko sowal. Tata’ang ko pirecep no punka no Arapiya itini, orasaka, o kalosowal ko sowal no Arapiya.[17]

Pitooran(宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

patiyamay i lawac no lalan(Tailor in Chad)

Osao’si i 2014-15 miheca, ilaloma’ no polong a tamdaw ira ko 52.1% o Muslin, 44.1% o Misakristoay ( Fa’elohay Kristo 23.9%, Tinsukiw 20%, 0.2% oroma a misakristoay), To’asan a pitooran(泛靈論; Ikiris a sowal :Animism) 0.3%, o cowa ka pitoor 2.8%, o caay ka pa’ifana' to pitooran 0.7%.

O to’asan a pitooran hananay i, o paso’elinay to maamaan,o Islam Pitooran ato Misafristaay mapalamlam tono to’asan ho pitooran ato lisin.[1] O Muslin masaopoay i ka’amis ato kawali no Cate, o To’asan Pitooran ato Kristo itiraay i katimol ato KaylaEtal.[2] Ano do’edoen ko Tatapangan Rikec no kitakit, cowa pasicecay sanay i liongkay misikoray to ihekalay a ‘orip, mipa’adingay to paifaloco’an a pitoor, o masasiromaromaay a pitooran i Cate manga’ay ko kalawidang.[3]

Pacefafay tilid(註解)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Room, Adrian (1994). African Placenames. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0-89950-943-3.

[2] S. Decalo, Historical Dictionary of Chad, 44–45

[3] S. Collelo, Chad

[4] D. Lange, "The Chad region as a crossroad"

[5] S. Decalo, 6

[6] 国家概况:乍得. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2007年8月24日 [2007-09-20]. (原始內容存檔於2007年9月29日).

[7] 国家概况:乍得. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2007年8月24日 [2007-09-20]. (原始內容存檔於2007年9月29日).

[8] S. Nolutshungu, 234–237

[9] IPS, "Le pétrole au cœur des nouveaux soubresauts au Tchad"

[10] BBC News, "Chad may face genocide, UN warns"

[11] World Population Prospects.

[12] "Chad",《世界概況》

[13] "Chad". Women of the World.

[14] "Background Notes: Chad

[15] "Chad",《大英百科全書》

[16] S. Collelo, Chad

[17] S. Collelo, Chad

[18] S. Collelo, Chad

[19] "Chad",《大英百科全書》

[20] "Chad", International Religious Freedom Report 2006.

Kakafitan i papotal(外部連接).[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]