Brazil

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Brazil (巴西)

Palaciro Nikapolongan Kitakit (巴西聯邦共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray sowal (概要)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Hata no Polaciro (Flag of Brazil)

Palaciro Nikapolongan Kitakit (Potawya a sowal: República Federativa do Brasil; Holam a sowal: 巴西聯邦共和國, kalopitahidan: 巴西; Brasil)[1], ono Latin-Amirika kitakit. O palo no kitakit a tamdaw i, cilafasay to 6 ok, o sakaenem ko kaadihay no tamdaw itini i hekal. Itiraay i saka’etip no Satimolan-Amirika ko kaitiraan nona kitakit, sahetoay i sasofo’an no Sifo’ay-Konis no Cikiw ato Kacifrangan-Konis no Cikiw ko kitiraan no Palaciro, misi’ayaway to Tata’akay-Saka’amisay Riyar (Atlantic Ocean; 大西洋), o kakahad no pala i, ira ko 8,515,767 km², mido’edo’edoay to Rosiya, Kanata, Congko, Amirika. O sera no Palaciro madado’edo’ay ato Wlakuy, Acuntin, Palakuy, Poliwiya, Piro, Kolonpiya, Winoyloya, Kaiyana, Solinan ato Sakowan no Fransu a Kaiyana.

O sakakaay ko kakahad no Fa’etay-Pala Kilikilangan no Palaciro, minganganay to Kahengangay-Kilang no Palaciro (brazilwood; 巴西紅木). O tatapangan a tokai a syoto i, o Pasiliya, mihaopay to Sie-Pawlo Tokai ato Liyielonoyro Tokai. Ikakaay ko misaradan a mamala marad a tadafokeloh, tadafangcal ko tireng nona kilang, o niletekan ato nipasadakan a paliwal o sakakaay i hekal.

Kaitiraan no Polaciro (Brazil orthographic projection)

O nipasakan a paliwal a dafong ira ko kafi, tefos, ato mami’ isakakaay kalokitakit, nawhani, patahtahay to kinairaira no pala ato ’aloman ko matayalay, orasaka o polong a mili’etanan o sakaceay ko rayray i Katimolay-Amirika, saka 6 i hekal, saka 3 i Sa’etipay-Pecih no Cikiw, sakacecay i Sakatimol-Pecih no Cikiw.

Itini i rikisi no Palaciro o nano mikowanan no Potawya, orasaka o sowal no Potawya ko sowal no sifoan, sahetoay o mitooray to Tinsukiw ato Fa’elohay-Misakristo.

Tatapangan no ngangan no kitakit (國名來源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tatapangan no ngangan no Polaciro (Potawya asowal: Brasil;Holam a sowal: 巴西), minganganay toya malengaway a

kilang i lilis no riyar no Polaciro, sano Potawya a sowal「pau-brasil」hananay, ora「brasil」sa i, o matiyaay sakahengan sanay lamal, o Latin a sowal kora「brasa」, o langto no lamal, pawikol hananay to -il mala brasil a tilid.[2][3][4]

Kahengangay Kilang (Caesalpinia-echinata)

O misanga’an nani Kahengangay-Kilang no Polaciro a tadakahengangay a sacengel, tada limelaen ko Yoropa a tamdaw. I saka16 sici a mihecahecaan adihay to komiletekan no Yiencumin no Polaciro, o micakayay a Yoropa tamdaw ko mipaliwalay tayra i Yoropa, ona paliwalay tamdaw ira ko nani Potawya ira ko nani Fransuay.[5] Ona cikilangay a palpalaan itini sowal no sifo no Potawya o「Terra de Santa Cruz」 (Fangcalay a Ciwcika) hananay a pangangan itiya ho, o roma ’i o「Terra do Brasil」hananay no Nipaliwalay a pangangan, oninian to a ngangan ko maalaay a maceror to koya katelang a panganganan no sifo. Itiya ho o mikalicay to tamina a tamdaw o 「pala no Ingko」 (Terra di Papagal) hananay

Ingko 'Ayam (Psitteuteles versicolor -Queensland-8-4c)

a pangangan. O roma sato ’i itira i Palakuy o cecay a sowal no sifo tora Kuarani a sowal, o「Pindorama」hananay ko Polaciro a mitahidang, o「pala no ’afinong」sanay ko imi nira.

kaitiraan (地理位置)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong a pala no Polaciro sahetoay o Fa’etay-Kakarayan (Ikiris a sowal: Tropical climate; Holam a sowal: 熱帶氣候).[1] Isaka’amis o sakakaay ko kakahad a dafdaf –Yamasun-Dafdaf (Potawya a sowal: Bacia do rio Amazonas; Holam a sowal: 亞馬遜平原), itini sahetoay o Sifo’ay-Kunis no Cikiw a kala’oraday kakarayan, patahtahay to ’orad, ika’amis no sakawali makedalay to mamang. Katimol o saktosa ko rayray i hekal a Takaraway-Dahetal (Potawya a sowal: Planalto Brasileiro;Holam a sowal: 巴西高原), matafesiw ko 500’ofad㎢ ko kakahad, ikakaay a Fa’edetay-Rengorengosan Kakarayan, o syoto nona kitakit

Yikuwasu-Cascas (Iguacu)

itiniay tona dahetal. Isakatimol nona dahetal ’akawangay to mamang, adihay ko tapolo ato dafdaf sahetoay o Lafa’efaay-Kakarayan, mado’etay, latek ira ko so’eda, o polong no tamdaw itiniay a maro’, o liomah ko ’orip.

O lilis no Tasiyang- Riyar adihay ko lotolotokan, o sakakaay ko ’akawang nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 2,900m. Ika’amisay a Kaiyana Takaraway-Dahetal o pocok i, ira ko 3,014 m, o sa’akawangay itini.

O itiniay a Yamasun-’Alo o sakakaay ko rakat no nanom. O sakatosa ’alo i Katimolay-Amirika Karopaw o Palana-’Alo, oya cinganganay i hekal a Yikuwasu-Cascas (Potawya asowal: Cataratas do Iguaçu; Holam a sowal: 伊瓜蘇瀑布) itiraay i capa’ nona ’alo.

Itini i 10 00 S, 55 00 W, no Notimolan- Amilika Karopaw ko Brazil Polong no sekalay i 8,515,770 sq km saka 5 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 8,358,140 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i,157,630 sq km Polong i 205,823,665 ko tamdaw.

sera: Masakilac ko sera o malo liomah (農業) a sera 32.90%, Malo no kilakilangan (林業) a sera 61.90%, malo no roma to a sera 5.20%.

siyoto (首都) O Brasilia (巴西利亞) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad, Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakasiwa 7 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Michel Temer (米歇爾·泰梅爾), patirengan a romi’ad i 2016 a miheca saka 8 folad saka 31 a romi’ad.

Sieci (政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1988 miheca a misang’ to Tatapangan-Rikec no Polaciro Kitakit tora Kinpo hananay, mahapinang ko pipasetek o

Congtong no Polaxiro (Lula - foto oficial - 05 jan 2007)

mitatoy to masamaamaan a ’icel no sakowan, o congtong ato sadama a congtong o finawlan ko mamitopa a misinkiw, sepat miheca ko katayalan, manga’ay a patokitok malacontong to kinacecay. O congtong ko mamitoro’ to mamalatapang no citodongay a kakeridan no sifo, o congtong o mikomoday no sifo ato sawara’an no kitakit.

O misanga’ay to rikec no kitakit i, o Finawlan-Pikaikian no Polaciro, tosaay ko ksafaco no Finawlan-Pikaikian, o Fafa'eday-Pikaikian i, ira ko 81 ko kiing, alatatolo ko Tata’angay-Sakowan ato Teked-Etal no Nikapolongan-Sifo,8 a mihecaan ko katayalan, kalosepat miheca sinkiwen a mifalic ko cecay no kalitolo, to ikor a 4 miheca oya osaw to tosa no kalitolo ko fafalicen a misinkiw. O Kararemay-Pikaikian i, ira ko 513 ko kiing, o tamdaw no kalosakowan ko pisilsil a misinkiw to mamalakiing, o katayalan 4 miheca.

Kacacofelan a Demak (外交)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Mikiharay ato Roma Kitakit (Potawya a sowal: Palácio do Itamaraty; Holaam a sowal: 伊塔馬拉蒂宮)

Pikaikian no Kitakit (Brasilia Congresso Nacional 05 2007 221)

ko citodongay tona demak no Polaciro, o Polaciro a kitakit i, itini i Latin-Amirika Karopaw o sieci to, o kicai to mitongasoc ko kaitiraan no Polaciro, itini i hekalay a pili’etan to kicai mahecaday mitongasoc. Orasak, o Kacacofelan Demak no Polaciro mipahapinangay to katata’ang no niyah a kitakit itini tona etal, misa’icel a mipaading to Sakanga’ay no kitakit, Sakarihaday no kitakit, Nisaharatengan ato micoroh to sakacemahad no kitakit. I kaleponan no Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal tahira i kalahecian no 20 sici, ono Finawlan-Sifo to, ono Sofitayan-Sifo to, mahecaday misa’icel a mocoroh to no Kikaiyan-Demak a mipacakat to sapisiwar a ’icel tona hekal, ta cilacila a mipa’edeng to sapisiwaraw no Amirika to sieci ato kicai itini i Latin-Amirika.

O Tatapangan a Rikec ko pido’edoan no Kacacofelan a Demak no Polaciro, o cowa ka pilalang to demak no roma a kitakit, o Finacadan-kopasetek ato Nikapolongan no Hekal a Ca’enot sanay a lekakawa ko sapidademak.

Do’edoen ko Tatapangan-Rikec no Polaciro, o congtong ko saikoray to a mamisetek to tayal no Kacacofelan-Demak. O tayal no Citodongay Mikihar to Papotalay Demak mahaop ko sieci, mali’aca, kicai, kinkoan ato punka a kacacofel, nikawrira, o congton ko miparakatay to emin a pasitiraan no tayal.

Kasasilsil no sakowan (行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong a kasasilsil no sakowan 26 ko Tata’angay Sakowan ato cecay ko Tekeday Sakowan ( Potawya a sowal: Brasília;Holam a sowal: 巴西利亞), i laloma’ no Tata’angay Sakowan ira ko Niyaro’, tosaay ko pidemakan a faco.

# ’Amis (Niyaro’) Kuwaping (Sakowan) Polaciro Dahad/km² Tamdaw
1 Sie Pawlo 聖保羅州 São Paulo 248,209 41,901,219

(2012)

2 Liyeleniro 里約熱內盧州 Rio de Janeiro 43,696. 15,561,720

(2006)

3 Sarwato 薩爾瓦多州 Salvador 565,733 2,714,119

(2015)

4 Fotolaysa 福塔萊薩州 Fortaleza 146,348 8,217,085

(2006)

5 Minascilas 米納斯吉拉斯 Minas Gerais 588,528 21,168,791

(2019)

6 PasiliyaK 聯邦區 Distrito Federal 5,801.937 2,383,784

(2006)

7 Kulitipa 巴拉那州 Paraná 199,282 10,387,378

(2006)

8 Manaws 亞馬遜州 Amazonas 1,570,947 4,001,667

(2016)

9 Losifi 伯南布科州 Pernambuco 98,311.616 8,502,603

(2006)

10 Alekolikang 南里約格蘭州 Rio Grande do Sul 281,748.538 10,963,216

(2006)

11 Pilong 帕拉州 Pará 1,247,689.5 7,792,561

(2012)

12 Kuwaloliws 聖保羅州 São Paulo 248,209.4 41,901,219

(2012K)

13 Koyaniya 戈亞斯州 Goiás 340,086 7,018,354

(2019)

14 Kanpinas 聖保羅州 São Paulo 248,209.4 41,901,219

(2012)

15 Sie Luys 馬拉尼昂州 Maranhão 331.983,293 6.184.538

(2006)

16 Sie Konsaro 里約熱內盧州 Rio de Janeiro 43,696.1 15,561,720

(2006)

17 Masayie 阿拉戈斯州 Alagoas 27,767.661 3,050,652

(2006)

18 Kasiyas Koncie 里約熱內盧州 Rio de Janeiro 43,696.1 15,561,720

(2006)

19 Sinyikuwas 里約熱內盧州 Rio de Janeiro 43,696.1 15,561,720

(2006)

20 Toloysina 皮奧伊州 Piauí, 251.529,186 3.036.290

(2006)

Kicai (經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sakakaay a tayal no Polaciro i, o liomah, mikarkar, miasanga’a to dafong ato mihamham to lafang, nikawrira, cowa ka ‘edeng to matayalay temadaw.

Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit (Gross Domestic Product; GDP) o skakaay itini i Latin-Amirika, sata’angay sanay to pisiwar to kala’aca i hekal, o kacemahad no GDP to mihecahecaan marawisay to ko 5.4%, i 2014 miheca a GDP no kakotandaw tangasaay to i 12,00 Amirika payso, o nipasadakan a dafong i, ira ko kafi, kalitang, tadafokeloh, ami’ marad, tefos ato sikoki.

I 1998 miheca o Hekalay a Kiking no Payso a Lekatep (International Monetary Fund, IMF) ko mikomoday to tayal sa ira ko 415 ’ok ko pipadama no hekalay kitakit to payso, o pisa’eli no IMF i, odengan to pisongila’ to no paysoan faco ato no Kicai a faco. 1999 miheca saka 1 folad, milekal ko Tatapangan Kinko no Polaciro, palasawaden to kakafit no Polaciro a payso「real brasileiro; 巴西雷亞爾」ato no Amirika-Payso, ona demak tonini i, mirowan to ’epoc no payso no Polaciro to saka caay ka serer ko kacemahad no katayal.

I 2001 miheca masener ko ikakaay a kalali’aca, tangsolsol han no Tatapangan Kinko no Polaciro a mipacakat ko wawa no picaliw to payso ta maneker ko kacakat no ‘aca no kalodafong (Ikiris a sowal: inflation; Holam a sowal: 通貨膨脹).

O ka’aisa’isal to ni’etanan taha nini caay sananay ka lalen, o sakakaay a ’inolong no Polaciro Sifo anini kona demak.

Tamdaw ato Pitooran (人口宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O ililisay no Tasiyang-Riyar ’alomanay ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, i

laloma’ no kitakit i korapaw matakaray to ko tamdaw. Masasiromaroma ko finacadan ato punka. O polong a tamdaw o kkohecalay a tamdaw mahaop ko 47.3%, cilamlam co roma a ’ilang a tamdaw mahaop ko 43.1%, o nani Afirikaay a tamdaw ira ko 7.6%, Aciya tamdaw ira ko 2.1%, o Yuencumin no Amirika-Karopaw 0.2%, o sa’osi no cilamlamay ato kohetingay tamdaw sakali’eki sanay ko ko ka’aloman to tamdaw.[7] [8] [9]

Pacikan Sie-Pitolo Tata'angay-Kiwkai ( Petersdom von Engelsburg gesehen)

O isakatimolay no kitakit i, o teloc no Yoropa ko ’alomanay a maro’, ona tamtamdaw i, miso’edac to 19 sici a Itali, Toic, Tpolan, Sipanya ato Potawya a maforaway a tayni ton apala. Iska’amis ato i ka’amis no saka’etip no kitakit sahetoay o Yuencumin ko maro’ay, ira a malamlam a maro’ ko teloc no Yoropa ato Afrika.

O polong a tamdaw no Polaciro ira ko cecay ko ‘ok ira ko cecay so’sot ko sa’osi i 2013 miheca, katimol no sakawali a pala o sakodefetay ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, o pisa’sosi i 2004 miheca o maro’ay itini a tamdaw matafesiw ko 7,800 ko ’ofad, malecad to 42% no polong a tamdaw no Polaciro. Itini i Polaciro toloay ko ikakaay ko ka’aloman no tamdaw a takai (tata’alay a niyaro’), onini i, o Sie-Pawlo (Potawya a sowal: São Paulo; Holam a sowal: 聖保羅) 4,200 ‘ofad ko tamdaw, o Minascilas (Potawya a sowal: Minas Gerais; Holam a sowal: 米納斯吉拉斯), 1,900 ’ofad ko tamdaw, o Liyielenili (Potawya a sowal: Rio de Janeiro; Holam a sowal: 里約熱內盧), i katatekoan no Sie-Pawlo ato Liyielenili masapimali’acaan a etal, ira ko 23% a tamdaw no Polaciro maro’ itini, masa o sakakaay ko kadefet no tamdaw itini.

O pitooran no tamtamdaw i, Tinsikiw (latek mahahop ko 65%), Fa’elohay-Misakristoay (mahaop ko 25%), tona pinapina a miheca pasilalemay ko mitooray to Tinsikiw, roma sa i, kali’eli a matongal ko mitooray to Fa’elohay-Misakristoay.

Punka (文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kacacamolan no kasasiromaroma a finacadan ko Polaciro, orasak, masasiromaroma ko kasiiked no pidemak to punka, ona kasasiromaroma i, ira ko nani Yoropaay, ira ko nani Afrikaay, ira ko nani Aciyaay a maforaway a tayni. Orasaka, o sakero ato radiw masasiroma ko kasiikedan.

Brasil 森巴舞娘 Samba female dancers Nov-2010 01

Itiya ho i saka 29 sici, oya sakakaay ko ngangan to misanga’ay to radiw i hekal ci Antoniyo Karolos Komis (Antônio Carlos Gomes), o Polaciro a tamdaw, tahira to i saka 20 sici oya ikakaay ko ngangan i hekal ci Haytor Wila Lopos (Potawya a sowal: Heitor Villa-Lobos; Holam a sowal: 海托爾·維拉-羅伯斯), o sakaromadiw a dafong ato no iniyahay a radiw ko sakacakat no ngangan ningra. O nidemakan ningra i, mipatapi’elaay to faloco’ no fanacadan a macgaw ko faloco’ tono niyah a dafong no punka,

O mitayhyoway to radiw no Polacior i, Sepa-Radiw (Samba; 森巴) ato Senpa-Sakero, sahetoay o nani niyaro’ay, tada tangongol ko pirecep to punka i hekal, ona romadiway to masakeroay to cowa ko nipadetengan a pahatatanam, o nani falo’ay saanay ko kafana’ to radiw ato sakero. Kalomihecaan to sakatosa folad ira ko Tadamaanay-Lawla (Ikiris a sowal: carnival; Holoma a sowal: 嘉年華) adihay a mapasadak ko masamaamaanay a radiw ato sakero, mapedped ko nani cowacowaay a kitakit a lafang tayni a malacecay a malapahak, onini ko sakcakat no Pipalafangan-Demak no Polaciro.

Tahapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Demographics. Brazilian Government. 2011 [2011-10-08]. (原始內容存檔於2011-11-17). (英文)

[2] CNRTL- Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales (法文).

[3] Michaelis–Moderno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa (葡萄牙文).

[4] iDicionário Aulete 網際網路檔案館的存檔,存檔日期2012-02-29. (葡萄牙文).

[5] (葡萄牙文) Eduardo Bueno, Brasil: uma História(São Paulo: Ática, 2003; ISBN 85-08-08213-4),p.36.

[6] 周淑貞主編,1997年:《氣象學與氣候學》,第204頁,中國:高等教育出版社。

[7] Tendências Demográficas: Uma análise da população com base nos resultados dos Censos Demográficos 1940 e 2000. [2012-02-12]. (原始內容存檔於2016-01-13).

[8] Censo demográfico revela que o Brasil ficou mais velho e menos branco. [2012-02-12]. (原始內容存檔於2011-06-07).

[9] População que se declara branca diminui, diz IBGE. [2012-02-12]. (原始內容存檔於2013-01-16).

Pikafitan i Papotal (外部連接)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  • The Sino-Brazilian Principles in a Latin American and BRICS Context: The Case for Comparative Public Budgeting Legal Research (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Wisconsin International Law Journal, 13 May 2015
  • 巴西政府官方網站(葡萄牙語)
  • 巴西行政區劃網頁 中文
  • 中華人民共和國駐巴西大使館
  • 中華民國駐巴西台北經濟文化辦事處 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • Universidade de Sao Paulo (聖保羅大學)
  • 巴西亞洲中國文化語言中心Asia brasil Centro Cultural de Língua Chinesa
  • Brazil Real Estate
  • 《世界概況》上有關巴西的條目 (英文)
  • 開放式目錄計劃中和巴西相關的內容 (英文)
  • 維基媒體的巴西地圖集  (英文)
  • OpenStreetMap上有關巴西的地理資訊
  • 谷歌地圖
  • Casas Terravista Trancoso