Bolivia

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Bolivia(玻利維亞)

Polipiya Adihayay Kasasiromaroma ko Finacadan a Kitakit(玻利維亞多民族國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Polipiya a kitakit i,tada adihayay ko kasasiromaroma ko Finacadan a malamlam maro’ itini.

Hata no Polipiya (Flag of Bolivia)

O Polipiya hananay(Sipanya a sowal:Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia; Kiciwa a sowal:Wuliwiya Mamallaqta; Aymara a sowal:Wuliwya Suyu; Kuwalani a sowal:Tetã Volívia; Kuwaping a sowal:玻利維亞)Polipiya a kitakit itiraay i laloma’ no karopaw a kitakit i Katimolay Amirika Kanatal, o kapot no Katimolay Amirika Kanatal a Lekatep. Malafiyaway ato Pasi, Piru, Cili, Arkuntin ato Palakui tona lima a kitakit, o Syuto i,Sokeloy, nikawria, o kaitiraan no sifo i,itiraay i Lapas, ona Lapas a tokai nani tongroh no riyar matafesiway ko 3,600 m ko ka’akawang, o sa’akawangay itini i hekal a kitakit.

I’ayaw no picowat a mikowan ko Yoropa a tamdaw,o Antis Etal no Polipiya o nano Inka Hontian Kitakit, o sakakaay a kitakit itini. 16 sici, mapecoh no Sipanya

Kaitiraan no Polipiya (Bolivia, orthographic projection)

Kitakit kona pala. Itiya i Picoeatan Mikowan, ona pala i,o「Fafa’eday a Piru」hananay a pangangan, o Piru Congtu Kasadefak ko citodongay a mikowanay.1890 miheca milekal to Pisiiked Niyahpikowan, nikawrira , 16 ko mihecaan a malalood ato Sipanya i 1825 miheca saka 8 folad saka 6 romi’ad patireng to Nikapolongan Kitakit, mingangan ci Simon Poliwa a pangangan tona kitakit, tano kapatireng tono niyah a kitakit, sanoyanan sa o Nisatekedan a Mikowan, cowa ka hinaker ko sieci cowa ka nga’ay ko katayalan ato ‘orip.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

To’asan ho a mihecaheca(早期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I kahelekan no saka 15 sici mapecoh no Sipanya ko Polipiya, malamicongacongay no Lapulata Congto Sakowan(Sipanya a sowal:Virreinato del Río de la Plata; Kuwaping a sowal:拉布拉他總督轄區) no Sipanya.

I saka 19 sici a mihecahecaan malalifelifet ko Latin Amirika Karopaw to Sapisiikedaw, itiya ho o「Fafa’eday a Piru」hananay a pangangan, ona ngangan tonini i,o minganganay to tadaki’emelay a tadaw no Winoyloyla Lakalasu ci Simon Poliwa, o mitedalay to kasefet no Polipiya nani Sipangya i 1809 miheca ta Misaiiked nani pikowan no Sipanya, o sapikinin tona tamdaw ko pangangan to Polipiya kitakit.

O patirengay to kitakit ci Simon Poliwa (Portrait of Simón Bolívar by Arturo Michelena)

I 1825 miheca malaheci ko kapisiiked nani pikowan no Sipanya, nikawrira, cilacila a malalood ato kasafiyaw a kitakit, orasaka malowan ko fatad a sera no kitakit, ilaloma’ ira ko isaka’amisay no Cili a Antis Lotolotolan a pala, lilis no riyar a etal, isaktimolay no Pasi ato isaka’amisay no Palakui. Mangaled itiya i nani 1879 tahira i 1883 miheca a Syawsi Lalood(Sipanya a sowal:Guerra del Salitre;Kuwaping a sowal:硝石戰爭; oroma ho apangangan:Sipanya a sowal:Guerra del Pacífico; Kuwaping a sowal:太平洋戰爭), mapalahedaw ko o’edengan a milislisay to riyar a sakowan ato ikakaay a minato Antofaciyasita(Sipanya a sowal:Antofagasta; Kuwaping a sowal:安托法加斯塔),sanoyanan sato a mala ilaloma’ay no karopaw a kitakit ko Polipiya.[1]

Na pisiikedan to no Polipiya,o teloc no nani Yoropaay a kohecalay tamdaw ato cilamlamay to ’irang no Yoropa a Mitiso tamdaw mapolong a mipatireng to sifo, halafin o Sofitay a Nisatekedan Pikowan(Sipanya asowal:Caudillo) ato Nisatekeday a Cefan ko Sieci. O roma sato 'i, miwanikan ko ’alomanay a Intian Yuiencumin, sanga’ sa to rikec to sapi’enecaw to niyaro’ no Intian a tamdaw, ta lahoday to ko pi’afas to sera no Intian. 1900 miheca,o polong a tamdaw no Polopiya ira ko 1600 ofak ko ka’aloman, nikawria, ’edeng 3~4 ofad ko iraay ko ’icel no sinkiw.

1898 miheca,malaheci ko Lapas malasyuto tatapangan taokai no kitakit, o ci’icelay to sakowan i,mafalic to a tayra i citanengay ato cipaysoay a tamdaw.

Aniniay Miheca (當代)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1953 miheca masanga’ ko rikec to sapipalahedaw to Faco no Milikotan a Liomah, mifalic to sakiomah a fa’elohay faco. 1984 miheca, malepon ko Sofitay a Nisatekedan Pikowan, o sinkiw to ko pi’aeawan to kaira no fa’elohay sifo. 2003 miheca cifangafang to no Palaan Kaso, mifaker ko polong tamdaw no kitakit, orasaka, tatootoor sa a misawad ko congton ci Sangcisu ato mitayliay malacongtong ci Misa, laliw sato tara i roma a kitakit.

o Sa'ayaway a Yiencumin a congton ci Molalis(Presidentes del Perú y Bolivia inauguran Encuentro Presidencial y III Gabinete Binacional Perú-Bolivia )

2005 miheca saka 12 folad saka 18 romi’ad misinkiw to congtong,o Aimala Finacadan ci Molalis paka’ala to 53.75% a satopa, to cila a miheca i 2006 saka 1 folad saka 22 romi’ad satapang a matayal tono congtong a demak, cingra i,o sa’ayaway o yiencumin no Amirika Karopaw malacongtongay, o Syakaisyuki ko kahinakeran a halateng to sapipalowadaw to Polipiya.

2009 miheca saka 1 folad saka 15 romi’ad patalahekal to saka 16 a Kinpo Rikec no Kitakit, oninian i,o polong no fainawlan ko mitopaay to pihai, mahaop ko 61.8 % ko mihaiay ta malaheci. Tona miheca saka 3 folad saka 26 romi’ad mitilid to ngangan to sakakaay a rikec to sapifalicaw to ngangan no kitakit nani「República de Bolivia;玻利維亞共和國 falicen to 改為「El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia;玻利維亞多民族國」, miliyaw sato misinkiw i,ira ko 64.2% ko mitopaay ta palalid a malacongton.

2019 miheca a sinkiw i,ci Molalis congtong mapakokot misamangahay to sinkiw saan, mapaci’eci a malaplap a milaliw tara i roma a kitakit.[2]  

Palapalan(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Isa’amisay apala no Polipiya o dafdaf, sasifo’an o sakawaliay a apilis no Antis Lotok; isaka’etipay a pala o Antis Lotok ato Polipiya taporo. 4000 m ko kaitongroh no riyar, o matiyayay awaay ko tolas a takaraway dahetal. O sa’etipay no Antis Lotok nani ka’amis pasi timol ko kasado’edo, kalacinamalay kona tokos. O sakakaay ko takaraw a poco’ no lotok o IimaniPoco’(Sipanya a sowal:Montaña de Illimani; Kuwaping a sowal:伊宜馬尼峰)6.438 m nani tongroh no riyar.

Antis Lotok (Aerial photo of the Andes)

Ha’eminen a minengneng takaraway ko ka’etip masala’eno sanay i tarawali. Ora takaraway i ka’etip itiraay i Antis Lotok, o masala’enoay i kawali itiraay Amasin Kilakilangan. O itiraay i hefong koao’ o OroSakowan(Oruro;奧魯羅省) . O satakaraway ko kaitiraan a Titikaka-Fanaw(Sipanya a sowal:Titicaca Lago,Aymara a sowal:Titiqaqa; Holam a sowal:的的卡卡湖)itiraay i kalala’edan no Piru ato Polipiya,o dadahal 8290 ㎢, o lalen a tangongol 140~180m, Uyuni-Cinahay-Fanaw(Kiciwa a sowal:Uyuni kachi qucha; Sipanya a sowal:salar de Uyuni; Holam a sowal:烏尤尼鹽沼)o dadahal i,10.58㎢,o kakaya’ nani ka’etip pasiwali 250km.

O sato’edaway ’alo no Polipiya o cipas no Amasin ’Alo o Mamoloy ’Alo(Sipanya asowal:Río Mamoré; Holam a sowal:馬莫雷河), pasarayray han pakayni i dadahal:

1.    Amacon ’Alo (Amazon;亞馬遜河), o niraratan ona ’alo a pala ira ko 70.67㎢, mahaop ko 64% a pala no Polipiya.

2.    Parana ’Alo (Paraná; 巴拉那河, o cipas no Lapulata ’Alo拉普拉塔河支流), o niraratan ona ’alo a pala ira ko 24.51㎢.

3.    Titikaka-Tesakuwalo ’Alo (Titicaca-Desaguadero;的的喀喀湖-德薩瓜德羅河), o niraratan ona ’alo a pala ira ko 6.17㎢.

4.    Kankoso ’Alo (Cancoso;堪克索河), o niraratan ona ’alo a pala ira ko 2.02㎢ ko pala.

Titikaka Fanaw (Lake Titicaca on the Andes from Bolivia)

Itini i 17 00 S, 65 00 W, noNotimolan Amilika ko Bolivia.Polong no sekalay i 1,098,581 sq km “saka 28 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 1,083,301 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 15,280 sq km, Polong i 10,969,649 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地)Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen a sera 34.30%, Malo no kilakilangan a sera 52.50%, malo no roma to a sera 13.20%.siyoto(首都),O Sokoloy(蘇克雷) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad.Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakafalo 6 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Foan Aywo Molalis(Evo Morales;Juan Evo Morales Ayma胡安·埃沃·莫拉萊斯·艾瑪), patirengan a romi’ad i 2006 a miheca saka 1 folad saka 22 a romi’ad.

Kakarayan(氣候)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tosa no kalitolo a pala no Polipiya itiraay i Fa’edetay kakaraya ato Fala'efaay kakarayan[3], sahetoay o ma’icangay a sa’emel ko romi’ad; o ’orad nani sawalian no ka’amis tara sa’etip 2000mm lowan sa tahira i 100mm.

Sieci(政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O congtong no Polipiya o kapolongan no fainawlan a mitopa to sinkiw, 5 miheca kinacecay a misinkiw to congtong. O misanga’ay to rikec a Pikaikian no Kitakit o 「Kapolongan no Kasasiromaroma Finacadan Tata’angay Pikaikian」(Sipanya a sowal:Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional; Holam a sowal:多民族立法大會), tosaay ko kasasilsil:o Fafa'eday Pikaikian ato Kararemay Pikaikian, Fafa'eday Pikaikian 36 ko kiing,o Kararemay Pikaikian 130 ko kiing, malecad ato congtong 5 miheca kinacecay a sinkiwen.

Kasasiromaroma Finacadan Tata’angay Pikaikian (Palacio de Congresos Bolivia)

2005 miheca saka 12 folad saka 18 romi’ad misinkiw to congtong,o Aimala Finacadan ci Molalis paka’ala to 53.75% a satopa, to cila a miheca i 2006 saka 1 folad saka 22 romi’ad satapang a matayal tono congtong a demak, cingra i,o sa’ayaway o yiencumin no Amirika Karopaw malacongtongay, o Syakaisyuki ko kahinakeran a halateng to sapipalowadaw to Polipiya.

2009 miheca saka 1 folad saka 15 romi’ad patalahekal to saka 16 a Kinpo Rikec no Kitakit, oninian i,o polong no fainawlan ko mitopaay to pihai, mahaop ko 61.8 % ko mihaiay ta malaheci. Tona miheca saka 3 folad saka 26 romi’ad mitilid to ngangan to sakakaay a rikec to sapifalicaw to ngangan no kitakit nani「República de Bolivia;玻利維亞共和國 falicen to 改為「El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia;玻利維亞多民族國」, miliyaw sato misinkiw i,ira ko 64.2% ko mitopaay ta palalid a malacongton.

2019 miheca a sinkiw i,ci Molalis congtong mapakokot misamangahay to sinkiw saan, mapaci’eci a malaplap a milaliw tara i roma a kitakit.

Kasasilsil Sakowan(行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pisilsil to katayalan a kasasa'er : 9 ko Sakakaay Sa’er(Sipanya a sowal:departamento), o mikowanan nonini ira ko 112 ko Sakatosa Sa’er Sakowan(Sipanya a sowal:provincial), o kahacecacecay no Sakatosa Sa’er Sakowan silsilen ho pinapina a Siyang ato Cen(Sipanya a sowal:municipio) , i la’eno nonini i, silsilen ho to pinapina aniyaro’(localidad).

9 Sakakaay Sa’er Sakowan(九個省及其首府):

’Amis Sipanya Holam Dadahal/ Tamdaw/2005
Ciwkisaka Sen Chuquisaca) 丘基薩卡省 51,524 572,165
Kociyapan Sen Cochabamba 科恰班巴省 55,631 1,649,044
Pini Sen El Beni 貝尼省 213,564 411,399
Lapas Sen La Paz 拉巴斯省 133,985 2,812,000
Oruro Sen Oruro 奧魯羅省 53,588 384,494
Panto Sen Pand 潘多省 63,827 60,995
Potosi Sen Potosí 波托西省 118,218 738,771
Sie Korucu Sen Santa Cruz 聖克魯斯省 370,621 2,433,602
Tariha Sen Tarija 塔里哈省 37,623 391,226

Tamdaw ato Finacadan (人口與民族)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Katenakan(分布)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nano to’asan iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ i ’edef no Polipiya, i kapolongan a faco no sera o takaraway a dahetal ato kasala’ed no tokos cowa ka ’aloman ko tamdaw a maro’, ano o cihenehenekay ko sera itini i,’edengan sa o mi’aopay a finacadan ko maro’ay itini, nawhani, cowa ka hakowa ko mama’ala to hakakaenen, o roma sa i,o mingata’ay to riyar ato isasifo’an a takaraway a dahetal no Piru a masopsop ko tamdaw a maro’, itini mahecaday to cowa ko cihenekay a sera caay ka tatodong sakaomahen, nikawrira, kakahad ko pipakaenan to ’a’aopen,ira heca ko adihayay a ma’osaw a tatafokeloh, orira to ko saka haneknek no aro’ no tamdaw itini.[4]

Finacadan (民族)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Aymara F inacadan(Mujeres aymara con siku y caja - flickr-photos-micahmacallen)

Itiya i 2010 miheca a pisa’osi ira ko 1012.5 ofad ko polong a tamdaw, adihay ko kasasiromaroma a finacadan, Indian-Yuiencumin mahaop ko 60% ko tamdaw, o cilamlamay to ’irang no Yoropa o Mitiso hananay i,mahaop ko 26%, o Yoropa a kohecalay tamdaw ato roma a finacadan mahaop ko 14%. O Indian-Yuiencumin i,ira ho ko 36 ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan, ilaloma’ no nini i,o satata’angay a finacadan o Kiciwa Finacadan ato Aymara Finacadan(艾馬拉族), ona tosa a fainacadan mahaop ko 85% no Indian-Yuiencumin no Polipiya.

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O malacinowasay ko sieci ato pitooran a kitakit ko Polipiya, o rikec no Kinpo:「mingodo mipa’ading ko kitakit to paiteked a mitoor ato naifaloco’ay a pakaso’elin, matiya o nikalacecay tono dohaw nisaharatengan, misiiked ko kitakit nani pitooran.」

Nengnengen ko sa’osi no mitokiay a mikinkiwaay no citodongay tona demak no Polipiya kitakit i 2001 miheca, o polong tamdaw no Polipiya mahaop ko 78% mitooray to Tisikiw, o roam mahaop ko19%, o cowa ka pakaso’elin to kawas i,’engan 3%. O roma a pisa’osi no Katelang Sa’osi no Pitooran Iinkay a kirok, 2010 miheca o misakristoay i,92% ko mahaopay, ono to’asan a pitooran i,3.1%, Pahai Pitooran 2.2%, o cowa ka pitooran to kawas i,ilalem ho no 0.1%.

Kicai (經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O matayalay no sifo no Polipiya sahetoay o malawacoay, ira heca ko pikowan no Sipanya, orasaka, o tadamanikaway itini i Satimolan Amirika Karopaw. O manikaway a tamdaw i,mahaop ko 66.4% no polong tamdaw no Polipiya, o tada o horac to ko kaawa a tamdaw i,45% ko mahaopay. o roma sa ’i, o ciseraay a tamdaw ira ko 90%, o caay ka papina a kohecalay tamdaw ato cilamlamay ko ’irang a tamdaw.

Kowal (Chenopodium quinoa)

Adihay ko kinairaira no gasolin simal ato kaso no pala,itini i Satimolan Amirika Karopaw o mido’edo’ay to Winoylyla ko kaadihay no kaso no pala, ira ho Tadafokeloh, sa pangangan ha to「oya maro’ay i ’ekim a ’adengan a miki’a’amay」.

Ira ho nalacolan no Inka-Hotinan Kitakit, o tadamaanay a rocokan no punka.

O misanga’ay to dafong a kofa ira ko misanga’ay to kakaenen, ira ko mililecay a tayal,misanga’ay to sikal no[5] katol,o ‘epah, o tamako a kahirahira. Cowa ko nini aca, ira ho ko misamaladnay, cinganganay itini i kalokitakit.

Oni pasadakan a paliwal a dafong i,ira ko nanisimalay dagong, tadafokeloh,misanga’an dafong ato dafong no saliomah. O sakakaay a ci’epocay a losay ira ko Limay a kowal(quinoa;藜麥), ariray, moki, konga ato kalitang.

O Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit( GDP)nani 2005 miheca a 95.25 ok Amirika payso tahira to i 2009 miheca 172.17 ok Amirika Payso; Lalen a 'Etan no kalotamdaw( per capita disposable income ,GNI ) nani 1010 Amirika Payso matongal tahira i 1683 Amirika Payso.

Tahapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] How Bolivia Lost Its Hat (2012). [2015-07-26]. (原始內容存檔於2018-02-11)

[2] 存档副本. [2019-11-11]. (原始內容存檔於2019-11-11).

[3] Herbert S. Klein. 玻利維亞史. 上海: 東方出版中心. 2016年6月: 1. ISBN 978-7-5473-0814-1 (中文).

[4] Herbert S. Klein. 玻利維亞史. 上海: 東方出版中心. 2016年6月: 1–2. ISBN 978-7-5473-0814-1 (中文)

[5] 玻利维亚国家概况. [2013-03-11]. (原始內容存檔於2013-03-07).

Kakafitan i Papotal(外部連接)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]