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Pinan Nikapolongan Kitakit(貝南共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray a sowal (概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pinan Nikapolongan Kitakit(Fransu a sowal:La République du Bénin; Kuwaping a sowal:貝南共和國或貝寧共和國). I’ayaw no 1975 miheca,Tahomi hananay a pangangan, toikor to i,o Pinan hananay to a palaheci a pangangan.

Hata no Pinan (Flag of Benin)

Itiraay i saka’etip no Afrika a kitakit, o katelang ho a ngangan i, Dahomy(Dahomey) hananay a pangangan. Misi’ayaway to Ciniyawan(Ikiris a sowal:Gulf of Guinea;Fransu a sowal:Golfe de Guinée; Kuwaping a sowal:幾內亞灣)i saktimol, isakawali i,malafiyaway ato Niciliya, isaka’amis i,mada’edo’edoay ko pala ato Cilu, isa’amis no saka’etip i,mada’edo’edoay ato Pukinafaso, isaka’etip malafiyaw ato Toko Nikapolongan a Kitakit(Fransu a sowal:République Togolaise ,Togo ;Kuwaping a sowal : 多哥共和國:通稱多哥).

O dadahal no pala no Pinan i,114762㎢, o tamdaw i,1185 ko ofad(2020 miheca a sa’osi), o Syoto Singko(Fransu a sowal:Porto-Novo; Kuwaping a sowal:新港或波

Kotonu kaitiraan no sifo (Cotonouskyline)

多諾伏)o kaitiraan no Pikaian no Kitakit, o kaitiraan no sifo i,itiraay i Kotonu(Fransu a sowal:Cotonou; Kuwaping a sowal:柯多努).

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I sasifo’an no 17sici tahira i aikor tono 18 sici, o sakaay a kitakit itini i saka’etipay Afrika o Awyie Hontian Kitakit, caay ka o aniniay aca a Nayciliya, Pinan ato Toko ko mikowanan, halo roma a kitakit no Afrika ko makowanay, mahaop ko nipatirengan no Fong a finacadan a Tahomi Hontian Kitakit.[1] I saka 15 sici micowat a micomod ko Potawya i lilis no riyar a paliwal to koli; i 17 sici oya nani Apomi Dahetal (Frensu a sowal:Abomey; Kuwaping a sowal:阿波美)a Tahomi Hontian Kitakit, nornor sa micowat tayra i satimolan a lilis no riyar.[2] Nikawria,1851 miheca ma’eco no Fransu malanikowanan a pala, 1904 miheca patateko han to malamicongacongay a Sa’etipay Afrika no Fransu.

Tahomi Hontian Kitakit (Royal banner of Béhanzin of Dahomey)

I 1958 miheca misiiked a niyahpikowan a kitakit no Kapolongan no Fransu, 1960 miheca saka 8 folad saka 1 romi’ad malaheci ko pisiiked no Tahomi Kapolongan Kitakit, o sa’ayaway a congtong ci Maka ocoren ningra ko sofitay a mineker ko mitokeray cingranan a finawlan, nikawria, mafelih a malaplap no finawlan. O sofitay sato ko mikowanay to kitakit, tahira i ikor no 1972 miheca kinalima a misaliyaliyaw ko sofitay a mifelih to sifo, kinalima a mafalic ko mikowanay. 1970 miheca masang’ ko rikec oya toloay a kapapecihpecih to pala a Mikomoday i, tosa miheca macacaliw a malacongtong, oni kasasowalsowal to a mihadidi a ira ko hatiniay a faco no sici, orasaka, awaay ko ‘epoc nona sici a faco. Tahira to i 1972 miheca saka 10 folad saka 26 romi’ad o kakeridan no sofitay ci Matio-Koriko (Fransu a sowal:Mathieu Kérékou) keriden ningra ko sofitay a mifelih ko sifo, o sofitay to ko Nisatekedan a Mikowan, tona miheca saka 12 folad saka 1 romi’ad mafalic ko ngangan no kitakit, o Pinan Finawlan a Kapolongan Kitakit (Fransu a sowal:République populaire du Bénin; Kuwaping a sowal:貝南人民共和國). Tahira i 1990 miheca saka 3 folad saka 1 romi’ad, mafalic heca ko ngangan no kitakit o Pinan Kapolongan Kitakit ( Fransu a sowal:La République du Bénin; Kuwaping a sowal:貝南共和國).

Kaitiraan (地理位置)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i saka’etip no Afrika ko kitiraan no Pinan kitakit, misi’ayaway to Atolantis Riyar (Ikiris a sowal:Atlantic Ocean; Kuwaoing a sowal:亞特蘭蒂斯洋;大西洋). i saktimol, isakawali i,malafiyaway ato Niciliya, isaka’amis i,mada’edo’edoay ko pala ato Cilu, isa’amis no saka’etip i,mada’edo’edoay ato Pukinafaso, isaka’etip malafiyaw ato Toko Nikapolongan a Kitakit(Fransu a sowal:République Togolaise ,Togo ;Kuwaping a sowal :多哥共和國:通稱多哥). O dadahal no pala no Pinan i,114762㎢.[3]

Palapalaan Etal(自然區域)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kakarayanan i,masasiikeday ko katimol ato ka’amis a etal. O ka’amis i,tosaay ko kakarayan o kakedalan ato kafodo’an, o kafodo’an i,itiraay i saka 4~9 folad; katimol i,o Sifo'ay Konis no Cikiw a Faco a kakarayan, ira ko tosa a ka’oradan ato tosa a kakedalan a kakarayan, o kaoradan itiraay i saka 3~7 foald. Nani Wita tahira i Kotonu o Akola-Toko a lilisay no riyar amakedalay kakarayan, cecay a miheca ‘edeng 823 mm aca ko ‘orad. Nani Kotonu t ahira to Singko saadihay sanay to ko ‘orad a matongal, itira i Singko lalen no mihecaan a ’orad 1286 mm. I laloma’ay no karopaw i, o sakatosa a Sifo'ay Konis no Cikiw a Faco a kakarayan, cowa ka adihay ko ’orad. Ika’amis no Sawalo ono Katimolay fa’edetay a rengorengosan a kakarayan, tangsol saan a malowan ko ’orad, cowa ka hinaker ko kakarayan.

Apomi (Abomey)

Polong no Pinan kitakit limaay ko kasasilsil no palapalaan etal:

1.o polong a lilis no riyar sahetoay o sano ngoyosay a tafotafokan ato nitaliyokan no tafokan a fanaw(Marine terrace),sahetoay o malihocay masa’aporaway a pota’ ato malihocay no tereng ho a ’alo. Tosaay ko ’alo no Pinan, o cecay i,Posi-Ciw-Lowa ’alo, o cecay i, ingataay no Kotonu malalitingay ato Nokuay-Fanaw a tara riyar ko rakat no nanom.

2.O dita’dita’an a etal i, itiraay isaka’amis no riyaran etal, o cihanekay a sera itini, o ‘akawang nani tongroh no riyar 400 m. O talitok i,nani Apomi micodkap tahira i Lama-Sena’sena’an(Lama March) no Alata(Allada).

3.O ‘akawang no Tahomi Dahetal i, latek ira ko 300~759 m, itini iraay ko sepat ala’emiay a ’oncoy, o nano dita’ a mala’ongcoay.

4.O Atala tokos itiraay i ka’amis no saka’etip a kalala’edan ato roma a kitakit. Ona tokos nani ka’amis no sakawali pasitira i katimol no saka’etip ko pasitiraan, o sakaay ko ’akawang a taporo i,2146 m ko ’akawang.

5. O dafdaf no Nilu ’alo itiraay i ka’amis no sakawali no Pinan.  

Kaitiraan no Pinan Kitakit (Location Benin AU Africa)

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sepatay ko kasasilsil no sakowan no Pinan: Sen, siyen(si), cen ato cun, onini i,o nano ‘enemay a kitakit a sakowan, 1999 miheca sakilac han mala 12 a sakaay sakowan(Fransu a sowal:départements), 77 ko siyen(si)( 67 ko siyen 10 ko si).

Kasasilsil no sakowan no Pinan:

# ’Amis Fransu Kuwaping Dadahal㎢ Tamdaw(2006)
1 Alipoli Sen Alibori 阿黎博里省 25,683 595,196。
2 Atakola Sen Atakora 阿塔科拉省 20,459 601,537
3 Tasiyang Sen Atlantique 大西洋省 3,233 929,314
4 Polko Sen Borgou 博爾古省 25,310 831,842
5 Posong Sen Collines 丘陵省 13,561 625,933。
6 Ta’eman Sen Donga 峽谷省 10,691 395,416
7 Kofo Sen Kouffo 庫福省 2,404 572,924
8 Sa’owac Sen Littoral 濱海省 79 670,000(2013)
9 MonoSen Mono 莫諾省 1,396 387,346
10 Wimi Sen Ouémé 韋梅省 1,865 788,508。
11 Dahetal Sen Plateau 高原省 2,835 445,497
12 Cu Sen Zou 祖省 5,106 639,296

Sici (政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pakitinien i rikisi no Pinan i,pitoay ko Tatapangan a Rikec(Kinpo), o aniniay a Kinpo i, o Nikapolongan Pitopa ko sakalaheci i 1990 miheca saka 12 folad saka 2 romi’ad, pakainien tona Kinpo i,「patireng to no finawlan a kasasiromaroma a punka ato sarikec a kitakit」sanay ko piketon no tilid, mitayal to masasiikeday ko ’icel no Citodongay to Tayal no Sifo, Misanga’ay to rikec ato misawkitay, o congton ko faco no kitakit. O sinkiw no congtong ato kiing no pikaikian palacinowasen to cakasasifot ko tayal no kitakit, o congtong to, o kiing to malecad 5 ko mihecaan ko katayalan, o misanga’ay to rikec a kiing i, ira ko 83 ko kiing, o congtong i,o kakridan no sifo ato sawara’an no kitakit.

Kacacofelan a Demak(外交)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada kodefetay ko kacacofel ato Fransu. Mikapotay i Linhoko, Lekatep no Afrika(Fransu a sowal:Union Africaine; Ikiris a sowal:African Union; Kuwaping a sowal:非洲聯盟), Mapapadangay Lekatep no Islam,o Fransu ko sowal a kitakit kanatal.[5]

Kicai (經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itini polong a kitakit, o Pinan i,o cecay no sacaay ka cemahad a kitakit. 2016 miheca o Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit(Gross Domestic Product; GDP) opihinen i,83 oku kono Amirika a payso,o Lalen a 'Etan no

o Maci i Singko (Marche ouando porto-novo)

(per capita disposable income ,GNI) ’edeng 749 aca no Amirika a payso.[6] O saka’orip a maamaan i,palawina sanay to liomah.[7] I sakatimolay a Niyaro’an Kitakit nano to’as malawidangay to ato Yoropa a tamdaw, orasaka, harakat ta to a misarocod to kasacecaceay a nipaloma’ to losay, onini ko sakanikaw to kaka’enen。Isakatimolay a etal ato Tahomi Dahetal o nipaloma’an i, o ’afinong, o ikemoday a heci ato simal no ‘afinong o sakakaay a nipasadakan a paliwl a dafong. O kaka’enen a losay i,ira ko konga, kyasafa, no lotok a konga, ‘ariray, naniwac ato kodasing.

I’ayaw no katomirengan no kitakit no Pinan, i ’afinofinongan ira ko tata’angay a misanga’ay to simal a kofa. Ipolong no kitakit no Pinan ira ko sepat ko hatiniay a kofa, 2 ofad ko ton to cecay a miheca. Yo misiiked to niyahpikowan ko Pinan i, o liomah no ’afinong ato misanga’ay to simal no ’afinong a kofa o sifo to ko mitatoyay, sa malowan ko tayal, ira to ko pidama no Congko ato Rosiya nga’ saidahi sanay to ko tayal no kofa, sa adihay sato ko masanga’ay a simal. Ira ho tosa a kofa o simal no ’afinong ko sapisanga’ to safon, ira ho ko pinapina a misanga’ay to ’akik no ’ongali no heci no ’afinong.

O pipaloma to takomod ikakaay ko ka fangcal itini i Afrika,o fatad no mi’alaan a takomod ato heci mipasakan a paliwal.

I Pirma ’alo i,iraay ko ci’ekimay a tafok, i Kowuanto etal ira ko tadafakeloh, o kasolin a simal ira ko 1000 ofad ton sako pihinen.

Tamdaw (人口與宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2002 miheca i,660 ofad ko tamdaw, i 2013 miheca malafas to ko 1000 ofad,[8] i 2015 miheca ira ko 1088 ofad ko

Sakakaay Kyokai i Singko(Grande mosquee porto-novo)

,[9] ona tamdaw i, sahetoay macaco’eco i katimol no kitakit,[10] tahira to i 2000 miheca o katongal no tamdaw i,mahaop ko 2.8%.

O polong no Pinan kitakit ira ko 60 ko kasasiromaroma a finacadan, o sakaay i,o Fon Finacadan(itiya ho o Tahomi hananay a pangangan), i 2001 miheca a pisa’osi ira ko 170 ofad o sowal no Fon Finacadan ko hasowal to romi’ami’ad; o roma sa i,Olupa ko Pinangan(120 ofad ko tamdaw), Akan Finacadn(Akan people) 60 ofad ko tamdaw,Palipa Finacadan 46 ofad ko tamdaw, Ailu Finacadan 33 ofad ko tamdaw, Fula Finacadan 31 ofad ko tamdaw,ato Kang Finacadan 24 ofad ko tamdaw. I ngata no Isakatimolay a minatoan etal ira ko mamang a teloc no Polacilu Koli, ira ho ko cowa ka papina a Fransu ato Aciya a tamdaw ato Indo tamdaw.

O pitooran no Pinan a kitakit i,o Futo-Ciyaw(Vodun vodṹ;巫毒教,又譯伏都教)[11] ira ko 450 ofad (mahaop 60%) ko pakaso’elinay a tamdaw. 20% o masakristoay, 15%o Islam ko pitooran.

Futo-Ciyaw (Voodo-fetischmarkt-Lomé, 巫毒教

Ono sifo a sowal i,o Fransu a sowal, nikawrira, o sowal to romi’ami’ad i,o sowal no Fon-Finacadan.Yielupa sowal ato Palipa sowal. Adihay ho ko cowa ka fana’ to tilid a tamdaw, i 2000 miheca a pisa’osi i,o fainayan a mapohaway to tilid mahaop ko 43.1%, o fafahiyan tahiraay to i 75.3% ko kaadihay. 2001 miheca a piciwsiya o mitiliday a ka’emangay ira ko 89%, ilaloma’ i, o fafahiyan ‘edeng 73% ko mitiliday. Pinan ira ko tosa a Tata’angay a Pitilidan, orira i,no Kitakita Niptirengan a Taykaku(National University of Benin) ato Polaku Taykaku, oroma sato i,ira ko Kicic ato Sarocoday a 112 pitilidan, o kalopitilidan 246 ko pitilidan, no Ka’emangay 3558 ko pitlidan.[12]  

Tahapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Bay, Edna. Wives of the Leopard: Gender, Politics, and Culture in the Kingdom of Dahomey. University of Virigina Press. 1998.

[2] Akinjogbin, I.A. Dahomey and Its Neighbors: 1708–1818. Cambridge University Press. 1967. OCLC 469476592.

[3] Annuaire statistique 2010 (PDF). INSAE: 49. 2012 [17 December 2015]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-03-04) (法語).

[5] "Benin–International Cooperation" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Nation Encyclopedia (29 June 2010)

[6] Benin. International Monetary Fund. [17 April 2013]. (原始內容存檔於2016-04-07).

[7] "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). United Nations, 29 June 2010.

[8] BENIN en Chiffres [BENIN in Figures]. INSAE. [17 December 2015]. (原始內容存檔於2015-12-17) (法語).

[9] File POP/1-1: Total population (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, annually for 1950–2100 (thousands). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division). July 2015 [17 December 2015]. (原始內容存檔於2015-12-22).

[10] Hughes, R. H.; Hughes, J. S. A Directory of African Wetlands. IUCN. 1992: 301 [2016-10-04]. ISBN 978-2-88032-949-5. (原始內容存檔於2016-05-08).

[11] Wuto anoca Futu sanaay a sowal no Fon-Finacadan i ,o ‘Adingo , Kawas sanay ko imi.

[12] 贝宁国家概况. 中華人民共和國駐貝南共和國大使館. 2005-10-17 [2016-10-04]. (原始內容存檔於2016-05-15).