Awtili

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Austria(奧地利共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Awtili Kapolongan Kitakit(奧地利共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray Sowal(概況)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Awtili Kapolongan Kitakit( Toic a sowal:Österreich) kalopitahidang o Awtili hananay,

Hata no Awtili (Flag of Austria)

i sifo’ no Yoropa a i kamoday no karapaw a kitakit,nikawrira, pakaynien i rikisi a minengeng nipasasiikedan o Sa’etipay a Citatapangay Salongoc Kitakit ato Sawaliay a Citatapangay Salongoc Kitakit. Adihayay ko kasafiyaw no Awtili kitakit,isakawali malafiyaw ato Syongyali(Syongyali a sowal:Magyarország) ato Selofako(Selofako a sowal:Slovenská republika), isakatimol o Itali ato Serowiniya(Serowiniya sowal:Republika Slovenija), isaka’etip malafiyaw ato Licitonston kitakit(Toic a sowal :Fürstentum Liechtenstein) ato Suwis Kapolongan Kitakit(Toic a sowal:Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft;Fransu a sowal:Confédération Suisse; o kalopitahidang a ngangan ono Latin a sowal:Confœderatio Helvetica), isaka’amis malafiyaw ato Toic ato Cieko(Cieko a sowal:Česká republika,kalopitahidan o Česko hananay).

O syoto i satata’angay a tokai Wiyiena(Toic a sowal:Wien; Holam a sowal:維也納), o tamdaw nona tokai i,860 ’ofad.[1] O dadahal no sekalay a pala 83.855㎢, patokeled han itiraay i Arpis lotok kona kitakit, sa mapangangan to lotolotokan kitakit, o ‘edeng mahaop ko 32% a pala nani riyaran lalen i la’enoay no 500m ko ka’akawang, sahetoay takaraway a pala, o satakaraway a katokoh i 3,798 m ko ka’akawang.[2]

O aniniay to a Awtili kitakit, o Pikaykian Faco , o kapolongan a kitakit, 9 ko kasapolong no sakowam.[3] O ceceay no sacipaysoay a kitakit i polong nitahepoan no kakarayan a kitakit, i 2012 miheca a pisahapinang i,o polong a ‘eten no kapolongan malawisay to ko 46,330 Amirika payso. O Cemahadan a Sa’osi no Tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Human Development Index,decdec a tilid:HDI; Holam a sowal:人類發展指數或人類發展水準) i polong no sekal a kitakit o saka21 a kasarayaray(o polong ira ko 199 a kitakit), patokeled sa nani 1995 miheca o kapot tono Yoropa Lekatep,[2] o cecay no sarakatay a mipatirengay to OECD(經濟合作暨發展組織(簡稱經合組織;Ikiris a sowal:Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;Holam a sowal:經濟合作暨發展組織,簡稱經合組織).[3] I 1995 miheca mipangangan i Sinken Kapolongan a Katatelekan(Toic a sowal:Schengener Abkommen;Fransu a sowal:Convention de Schengen;Olanta a sowal:Verdrag van Schengen;Holam a sowal:申根公約 )[4] sakalahoday no tamdaw a macacofecofel. I 1999 a mihecaan mihai to payso no Yoropa, 2002 miheca satapang a kalapaysoen ko payso no Yoropa.

Fayafay no Hapuspaw Hontian Laloma'an( Habsburg-Stroehl)

O Awtili a kitakit i, mikowanay to sifo’ay a Yoropa nani 650 miheca taha 1918 mihecaan, o citatodongay a mikowan i,o Hapuspaw Honti(Hapuspaw Laloma’an: Habsburg), o Syoto no Sinsie Roma Hontian Kitakit ato Awsyong Hontian Kitakit ko Wiyiena,o roma sato ’i,o kamaro’an no Awtili finacadan itiraay i kamaro’an no Lierman finacadan(Latin a sowal:Germani,Toic a sowal:Germanen; Holam a sowal:日耳曼人).

O sowal i, malecaday ato Toic, Suisu ato Losinpao o Toic a sowal ko kasasowal. Pakaynien i rikisi madadecdecay ko kalalitin ato sifo’ay Yoropa, sa’etipay Yoropa a Syongyali, Cieko ato Polan a kitakit.

O ngangan(名稱)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sano Toicen a sowal ko Awtili i o Österreich hananay,ona ngangan i nani

o samatelangay a tilid no Awtili nilikowt to kahengangay.(Ostarrîchi Document (name circled)

laheta a sowal no Toic o「Ostarrîchi」,ona tilid tonini i o matiliday i 996 miheca,[5] o「sawalian lilis no masapncahay」sanay ko imi nonini.Ona tilid i,latek itiyaayho sasifo’an sici o malecaday to Latin a tilid Marchia orientalis, oni felih nani niyaro’an sowal no Pafaliya Toic sowal. Oroma sato ’i, latek nani sowal no itiniay a tamdaw to pipangangan to cecay a tokos, o Slofaniya sowal「Ostravica」, papolo no tokos sanay ko imi, nawhani, masatono’ay ko ’apilis no tokos itini. Ono Holam a pangangan i toor hananay to kono

misata'engangan koya kahengangay a likowat(Ostarrîchi Document )(zoomed)

a sowal a mifelih.

O Awtili sanay a ngangan i,o Latin a ngangan mifelihan nani Toic a pangangan, sarakatay a ma’araw i tilid ’i, itiyaay ho i 12 sici,[6] itiya ho o pala no Awtili i,itiraay aca i fafa’eday(Toic a sowal:Oberösterreich; Holam a sowal:上奧地利邦) ato la’enoay a sakowan (Toic a sowal:Niederösterreich; Holam a sowal:下奧地利) no Awtili, ono sakawaliay no Pafaliya kitakit a pala.

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Katelangan ho a fakelohan mihecahecaan(舊石器時代)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ano do’edoen ko makeraay no mikakarkaray tono to’asa a dafong,itiya ho i katelangay a o fakeloh ko saktayal a mihecahecan iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini tona palapalaan. I ’ayaw ho Roma a mihecahecan, iraay to pinapina a niyaro’ no Korto Tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Celt; Holan a sowal:凱爾特人) itini a ma’orip. To ikor to i, macowat no Roma Hontian Kitakit, malacecay a sakowan no Roma.

Falanko Hontian Kitakit(法蘭克帝國時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Yo malikelon to ko ’icel no Roma, madado’edo ko Syong Tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Huns; Holam a sowal:匈人), Lonpati Tamdaw(Latin a sowal:Langobardi;Italiya a sowal:Longobardi;Holam a sowal:倫巴底人),Tonkoto Tamdaw(Ostrogoths; Holam a sowal:東哥德人), Pafaliya Tamdaw ato Falanko Tamdaw a micowat ton apala.

Lotawfu Fon Hapospaw Honti (Rudolf von Habsburg Speyer)

O cecay a Slafo niyaro’ maforaw a tayra i Arpis Tokos,’ecoen nangra a maro’ ko aniniay a sasifo’an ato sawalian no Awtili, patireng to Kalantaniya a Hontian Kitakit. I 788 miheca, macowat ni Cali Honti (o Honti no Falanko Kitakit) kona pala,tahidangen ningra ko finawlan a tayni maforaw, patirengen ningra ko Kriato Pitooran. Naikoran ni Cali Honti i,malacinowas ko Falanko Kitakit,o Awtili a palapalan i,siiked sa malasakowan no Sawliay Falanko Hontian Kitakit, itiya ho kona palapalan i,o「marchia Orientalis」hananay a pangangan, o 「Sawaliay a Saowacan Pala」sanay ko imi nira, o Pafaliya a kakita’an ko mikowanay. 976 miheca, matoro’ ci Liawpito mala Kakita’an no Babenberger kitakit,(巴奔堡王朝), malo misi’ayaway a mitoker to Nanslafo Tamdaw ato Syongyali Tamdaw.

O Hapospaw Laloma’an a mihecahecan(哈布斯堡家族統治時期)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Sarakatay a ma’araw i tilid ko Awtili a ngangan itiyaay ho i 996 mihecaan(nengnengen ko i fafa'eday a cisu), itiya ho 「Ostarrîchi」hananay a mitilid, o「Sawaliay a Saowacan Pala」sanay ko imi,o nani katelang a Toic sowal a mifelihan konini. 1156 miheca,mapaini no Fancalay Roma Hotian Kitakit (Toic asowal:Heiliges Römisches Reich;Latin a sowal:Sacrum Romanum Imperium) to「Mamangay tekedan Salongoc」(Latin a sowal:Privilegium Minus) ko Awtili ta macakat malasakowan no niyaro’an a tapang; tahira sato i 1192 miheca, o Babenberger Kitakit maala ho maloniyah ko Stayliya Hotian Kitakit(Toic a sowal:Herzogtum Steiermark; Holam a sowal:史泰利亞公國 )。

1246 miheca, mapatay ko honti no Awtili ci Fitili Sakatosa(Toic a sowal:FriedrichⅡ) i Layta ’Alo a lalood, lahedaw sato ko mamirocok a tamdaw, sanoyanan sato a mala mikowanan no Posimiya, ci Porimiser Awtoka Sakatosa( Přemysl Otakar II) ko honti itiya. Nilawrira,i 1278 miheca, Porimiser Awtoka Sakatosa malowid no honti no Toic ci Lotawfu Fon Hapospaw(Rudolf von Habsburg), sanoyanan sato makowan no Hapospaw Laloma’an tahira i sakacecay lalood no ’emin no nitahepoan no kakarayan(1278~1914).

Itiya sato i 14~15 sici pa’icel sa ko Hapospaw Laloma’an a pasipapotal a micowat to pala. 1526 miheca ma’eco to ko Posimiya ato Syongyali(ca a caay ho ka ’eco no Awtoman Hontian Kitakit), saadihay sato ko fangafang ato roma a kitakit. Oya lalood i Wiyiena i 1683 miheca saka 9 folad saka 12 folad, mikadep ato nani Polan a mamidama a sofitay, o nini ko saka lowid no Awtoman Hontian Kitakit, tona lalood mataker ko sapicowataw no Awtoman Hontian Kitakit pasitira i sasifo’an no saka’etip no Yoropa, materek ho ko Hapospaw Laloma’an a ’icel i sasifo’an Yoropa. Toikor cakapitolas ko picacowat to pala no roma a kitakit, orasaka i 1699 miheca matatilid atoAwtoman Hontian Kitakit to Kalowici Kakaketonan(Treaty of Karlowitz;卡洛維茨條約),maha’emin to no Awtili a mi’eco ko Syongyali, onian ko samatiya sato ko Hapospaw Laloma’an o Fancalay Roma Hotian Kitakit, ona pikowan no Hapospaw tahira i 1806 miheca i katekopan no Fancalay Roma Hotian Kitakit.

Yo macakat to ko Polosi, malengat ko Awtili ato Polosi mala’afas to pala no Toic, matokeled sa ko Awtili mapolong ato Polosi ato Rosiya kinatosa mapapecih to Polan(saka kinacecay ato sakakinatolo)

Awtili Hontian a Pikowan(奧地利帝國皇帝)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1806 miheca,matekop ko Fancalay Roma Hotian Kitakit,i’ayaw nonini to tosa a mihecaan, milekal ko saikoray a honti no Fancalay Roma Hotian Kitakit ci Francilanci II(Totic a sowal:Franz II; Holam a sowal:法蘭茲二世) o Honti no Awtili Hontian Kitakit kako saan, o mikowatan a sakowanan i, o Awtili ko sasifo’an a pasapaotal mahaop ko mikowanan pala no Hapospaw Laloma’an. Tahira sato i 1867 miheca,o sapipalasawadaw to fangafangan toya PoAw kalaloodan(Deutscher Krieg;Toic a laloma’an a lalood hananay ho a pangangan), mapaci’eci ko Hapospaw Laloma’an a misodod to Tada Kakeridan no Syongyali, mafalic ko ngangan no Awtili Hontian Kitakit to Awsyong Hontian Kitakit, yo itiraay i mikowanan no Syongyali a pala mapacakat malakitakit no Syongyali, mapatireng kono niyah a Honti,Lipoin no kitakit (soraratan no kitakit) ato milisataay to mipacomodan a dafong; o matiniay a demak i,tangasa i kalahecian no Sakacecay a Kalalood no Nitahepoan no Kakarayan a Kitakit. Malowid ko Awsyong Hontian Kitakit tona lalood, macacinowanowas masamamangay a kitakit, ilaloma’ nona adihaay a mamangay a kitakit i,oya pecih no Nailaytaniya(Cisleithania,Toic a sowal:Cisleithanien,Syongyali a sowal:Ciszlajtánia; Holam a sowal:內萊塔尼亞) mapatireng mala Sarakatay a Kapolongan Kitakit, malalang to sakatatekoaw ato Toic(oya Wima Kapolongan Kitakit,Toic a sowal:Weimarer Republik; Holam a sowal:威瑪共和國). 1938 miheca, NaciToic(Toic a sowal:Nationalsozialistische Deutschland,o sifo no Toic a pitahidang i,sano Toic a sowal: Deutsches Reich; Holan a sowal:納粹德國), malaheci no Toic a mipolng ko Toic ato Awtili, tahita i kaherekan no sakatosa a lalood no polng no kitakit.

Cowa ka Pisakakinih a Kitakit a Tahada’oc(永久中立國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Yo malowid to ko NaciToic i sakatosa a lalood no polong a kitakit, o Malekatepay Kitakit (Toic a sowal:Besetztes Nachkriegsösterreich) ko mikowanay to Awtili, i 1945 miheca, yo matatilid to kaketonan ko Malekatepay Kitakit to Awtili Kitakit a Katatelekan(Austrian State Treaty; oroma a pangangan i o Austrian Independence Treaty)[7], milekal ko Awtili akitakit caay ka pisakakinih pasicowa a kitakit a taha da’oc, oya mi’ecoay to Awtili a sofitay no Malekatepay Kitakit tatootoor sato a miliyas to Awtili, sano yanan sato a Misaiked to Niyahpikowan ko Awtili taha nini. Itiya sato i 1989 miheca matekop ko Kyosanto a Sifo no Sa’etipay Yoropa, sarahoday sato ko pikapot no Awtili i Yoropa a malacecay, tokeled sa i 1995 miheca mikapot to Yoropa a Malekatepay, i 1999 miheca mikapot to kalacecay no payso no Yoropa(Eurozone;歐元區).[8]

Sici (政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tosaay ko Pikaykian no Kitakit(國會兩院制)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Adihay ko kasasiromaroma a kasafelaw(centang政黨) no Awtili, o masa’osiay i,ira ko Syakaiminsyu Kasafelaw(SPÖ), ira ko Awtili Finawlan a Rekad(ÖVP),ira ho ko Awtili Naifaloco’ay Rekad(FPÖ),ato Langdaway Kasafelaw.

O sakakaay a tapang no Awtili kitakit i, o congtong, ‘enem miheca miliyaw a mitopa a misinkiw to ongtong ko finawlan. O congtong ko mitoro’ay to mamalasoli(todongay o sincenyiencang no Taywan) a tamdaw, to hatiniay to a lafin i,o kakeridan no saalomanay ko king i Kararemay Pikaikian ko matoro’ay a malasoli. O misang’ay to rikec no kitakit a pikaikian no Awtili i tosaay, o miocoran no kahacecacecay a sakowan 46 ko tamdaw itira i Fafa'eday Pikaikian(Bundesrat:o kapolongan sakowan a pikaikian), ato o misinkiwan ko kalaking no 183 ko tamdaw i Kararemay Pikaikian(Nationalrat:fainawlan a pikaikian hananay). Ona tosaay a pikaikian i, o Kararemay Pikaikian ko ikakaay ko ’icel, nawhani, o misanga’ay to rikec no kitakit, citatodong a midemak to pisatapangan no fa’elohay a sifo a matayal, pasetek a milaheci to kasanawsawan to tayal no sifo ato matayalay a palasawad to kamaro’an. O Fafa'eday Pikaikian i,o mipasadakay to salongoc no kahacecacecay no sakowan i Kararemay Pikaikian, ano ca kapihai i,malalang ko misanga’an a sarikec,nikawrira , ano paci’eci sa ko Kararemay Pikaikian toya rikec i, tatiihay to miliyaw a milalang toya malaheciay to a sarikec.

Na kalahecian no Sakatosa Nitahepoan no Kakarayan a Lalood, o pasiwiliwiliay no sasifo’an a Syakaiminsyuto(Toic a sowal:Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs,decdecan a tilid:SPÖ), ato pasakawakawanan no sasifo’an a Awtili Finawlan a Rekad(Toic a sowal:Österreichische Volkspartei,decdecan a tilid:ÖVP) malacafay a patireng to Kapapolong a Sifo, caay ka hakowa ko matiniay a sifo i Yoropa.

O SPÖ i,o saalomanay ko kiing, o sakakaay a Sician Rekad, orasak 30 ko kahalafin malakakeridan no sifo ko niocoran nona kasarekad. 2002 miheca saka 9 folad,ona mapolongay a rekad a sifo, ca kalacecay ko miharatengan ato mitayalan, orasaka, macacoliay to romo’ami’ad, oya sa to malatapangay no sifo a kakeridan no Awtili Finawlan a Rekad(ÖVP) ci Orfukang Sisayl( Wolfgang Schüssel) lekal sato to pipalasawad to Pikaikian. Toya miheca(2000) saka 11 a folad a sinkiw pakaala to 79 ko tamdaw malakiin, mahaop ko 42.3% a satopa no finawlan, miliyaw o saalomanay ko kiing i pikaikian, orasaka satanektek sato ko paranaan no SPÖ. Oya sato ya saka’aised FPÖ Rekad(Toic a sowal:Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs),caay to kahakowa ko maalaay, ‘edeng to 18 ko kiing, mahop sa 10.1% ko satopa no finawlan.

「Tata’angay a Mapolongay Sifo」(大聯合政府)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ittiya sato i 2006 miheca saka 10 folad saka cecay romi’ad a sinkiw o SPÖ Rekad i, samisimisi sa ko kaadihay a citiwtiw ko satopa, malowid ko roma a rekad, miliyaw heca a ci’icel to demak no kitakit, onini ko sapiliyaw a mipatireng to「Tata’angay a Mapolongay Sifo」ato FPÖ Rekad.

Wierna Faiman (Werner Faymann )2014 (cropped)

Caka halafin kona「Tata’angay a Mapolongay Sifo」, 2008 miheca macacoli kona tosaay a sician rekad macacoli to pakayniay i Yosang(o sakatatayalen a payso no kitakit), sawad sato ko ÖVP Rekad a mikapot to tayal no sifo, tona miheca i saka 9 folad saka 28 romi’ad pasaharakat sato a miliyaw a misinkiw ko Awtili to kiing no Pikaykian no Kitakit, o SPÖ Rekad ato ÖVP Rekad to toktok sa ko ‘icel a misinkiw, nikawrira, to hatiniay to a lafin o saawaay ko satopa no finawlan tona sinkiw,o SPÖ Rekad adihay ko kalowan no satopa ’edeng sato 30%, malowan to 11 tamdaw ko kiing, nikawrira, samisimisi sa ikaka to 3.3% pakalowid to ÖVP Rekad, sa halafin sato ko kasasowal nona tosa a Rekad, masasolosolol to niyah a misaharatengan a miliyaw a patireng to「Tata’angay a Mapolongay Sifo」, o kakeridan no SPÖ ci Wierna Faiman(Werner Faymann) ko malatapangay no sifo.

Pakaka ko kalowan no satopa no citatodongay to tayal no sifo(執政黨選票創新低)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya to i 2013 miheca saka 9 folad saka 29 romi’ad a pisinkiwan i, o maalaay a satopa no ÖVP ato SPÖ, nani 200 miheca a sikiw oyanan to a malowan, malalikec i mahaopay ’edeng 24.0% ato 26.8% ko satopa, papolong han ko nini caka hakowa ko matifacay a satopa, dadengdeng sa a matafesiw ko fatad no polong a kiing no pikaykian a pakapatireng to「Mapolongay Sifo」, nani katomirengan no Sakatosa a Kapolongan Sifo o sasafaay ko ’icel nona aniniay a sifo. Oya caay ho ka laheci a mikaykic a terangan a montay,o kasanawsawan to kalacecay no Yoropa cowa ka pakafilo amisanga’ay to saka’orip no tamdawdaw, o katata’ang a kafalic no Sa’etipay a Yoropa, o maforaway atamdaw mi’eco to itiratiraay aca a maro’ a tamdaw makadkad ko samaamaany a fangafang,micowat pasiwali ko Yoropa, adihay ko matiniay a montay o lalowadan no rawraw konini, orasaka milekop a miliyas ko finawlan to ÖVP ato SPÖ a pasitira i pakakaay ko pasikawananay a  kasafelaw(rekad), onini ko macakat ko pidama no finawlan to pasikawananay a  kasafelaw no Awtili Naifaloco’ay Kasafelaw(Toic a sowal:Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs,decdecan a tilid:FPÖ)) i 2013 miheca a sinkiw pakaala to 21% a satopa, ngata han to ko mipatireng to sifo a kasafelaw(rekad). Caay ko nini aca ko kalacemceman no mitayalay to sici, ira ko maro’ay i Kanata a tada cipaysoay a Awtili a tamdaw ci Frank Stronach mipatireng tono niyah a kasafelaw, caho ka samiheca mikapot tona sikiwa pakaala to 5.7% a satopa, 10 ko tamdaw to malakiingay, sa itini to a mahapinang ko miharatengan no tamdaw no Awtili, ma’esamen to aniniay a sici ato kicai pasitira sanay to i milekopay ko faloco’.

2017 miheca saka 10 folad saka 15 folad a sinkiw, ÖVP a kasfelaw maala ko 62 tamdaw a kiing no 183 a kiing, oya icilaay a sinkiw a sakakay ko mialaan a kiing o SPÖ, tona aniniay a sinkiw 52 aca ko maalaay a kiing, matefad mala sakatosa ko rayray, o FPÖ a kasafelaw 51 ko maalaay a kiing, o sakakaay to ko ÖVP a kasafelaw i pikaykian no kitakit. Malaheci to kona sinkiw, o kakeridan no ÖVP ci Kuerci tangsoosol sa a patireng to「Mapolongay Sifo」ato FPÖ,ta malatapang no sifo ci Kuerci ,itini rikisi no Awtili o saka’emangay ko mihecaan ni Kuerci. Nikawrira, tosa mihwca cifangafang ko FPÖ ato Rosiya, mapalasawad ko 「Mapolongay Sifo」, mapalasawad ko kalatapng ni Kuerci. Tona miheca a sinkiw mala o sakakaay ko ÖVP, tangsol sa patireng to「Mapolongay Sifo」ato Langdaway Kasafelaw.

Kaa’isal no sakowan(行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Siwaay ko tata’angay sakowan(Bundesland), ikararem nona sakowan micikcikan ho to 84 a kalosakowan(Bezirk), ikararem ho nonini o tata’angay niyaro’(Stadt) ato kaloniyaro’(Gemeinde):

The States of Austria Numbered
rayray Tata’angay sakowan Tatapang niyaro’ tamdaw dadahal ’isal no niyaro’
1 Pokenlan

(Burgenland)

Aisinstato(Eisenstadt) 278,655 3,965 ㎢ 184
2 Kalisiya

(Kärnten)

Kolakenfo(Klagenfurt am Wörthersee) 560,089 9,536 ㎢ 249
3 La’enoay Awtili(Niederösterreich) Sie Portan(Sankt Pölten) 1,575,291 19,178㎢ 647
4 Fafa’eday Awtili(Oberösterreich) Lincu(Linz) 1,399,226 11.982㎢ 473
5 Sarspaw(Salzburg) Sarspaw(Salzburg) 526,875 7,154㎢ 129
6 Staymako(Steiermark) Koraci(Graz) 1,199,489 16,392㎢ 577
7 Tilol(Tirol) Insporoko(Innsbruck) 693,651 12,648㎢ 290
8 Forapiko(Bundesland von Vorarlberg) Puloykenci(Bregenz) 362,258 2,601㎢ 101
9 Wina(Wien) Wina(Wien) 1,637,77 415㎢ 2

2005 mihecan a so’osi, nani Awtili pisa’osiay.

Palapalaan(地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Awtili i, ikemoday no paraopaw a kitakit,nani sa’etipan pasawali a masa’apilis, o Alpis a lotolotokan pasado’edo ko sakwali ato sa’etip nona kitakit,onini ko kacingangan no Awtili to kakahemekan no misalamaay i kasi’enawan. O dadahal no lotok i, mahaopay ko 70%

Tonaw 'Alo (Neue Donau)

no polong no sera no kitakit, o satakaraway a ’apocok nona lotok i, o Tata’angay Korokona Lotok(Großglockner), o takaraw i, nani tongroh no riyar 3798m ko akawang. I ka’amis no sawalian i, o masadangahay a pala a Wiena, katimol no sawalian ato ka’amis i, o tapohopohokan a pala. Tonaw ’Alo pasika’amis no sawalian ko rakat no nanom,ilaloma’ no Awtili 350 km ko kato’edaw nona ’alo. Isakatimol nona kitakit ira ko Mula ’Alo(Mura) ato Tolawa ’Alo(Delaware River),

Alpis Lotok (2008 Jungfrau)

isak’etip ira ko In ’Alo(Inn) ato Salcahe ’Alo(Salzach). O polong no Awtili i, o kafafalican no sa’emelay a riyariyaran a kakarayan (Temperate marine climate) ato o masengeray a karapawan a kakarayan, orasaka, kasi’enawan ki’etecay kaciferangan sa’emaelay.

O Kilakilangan no Awtili mahaop ko 46.7% ko katahepoh no polong no kitakit.[9] O syoto tatapangan a tokai Wiena itiraay i lawac no Tonaw ’Alo. O roma a tokai i ira ko Salspaw(Salzburg), ira ko Insporoko(Innsbruck), Kolaci tokai(Graz) ato Lici tokai(Linz).

O polong a kakahad no pala no Awtili i 83879㎢.

Kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

   O mafafalicay to dafong a kicai(market economy) no Awtili i,tada cemahaday,o ’orip no kalotamdaw tadarihadayay.Patokeled han cemahaday ko misanga’ay to dafong, ira ko

nipaka'enan kolong(Cow (Fleckvieh breed) Oeschinensee Slaunger 2009-07-07

, ira ko misanga’ay to kikai,kasoling a simal, ira ko dagong no simal,ira ko dingki, tinooy, misakilangay, ira ho ko nanom a dingki. O nipahafayan i, o kolong ato diyong. O liomah i, o potato, dateng, kalo’emi ato ’alilay.

O kicai no Awtili i, tada kodemet ko kalalitiliting ato Yoropa Lekatep,mangalef ko kanga’ay ato Toic. Na pikapotan no Awtili i Yoropa Lekatep tangsol sa a malacecay ko kakafalic to dafong ato Yoropa a kitakit,orasaka matongal ko kaadihay no micomoday a payso to sapitayal to maamaan a demak. I 2006 mihecaan a kapolongan ’etan(GDP)macakat to 3.3%.  

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mahaop ko 92% o Awtili a Finacadan kako sanay ko Awtili a tamdaw. Tahira to i 1990 mihecaan, aloman ko maforaway nani Naslafo a tamdaw, sa cilamlam sato to roma a finacadan.[10] Ona finacadan no Awtili i, ano pasasi’ike’ikeden a misaheto o Kaciaso a Finacadan(Caucasian race, Caucasoid), o Yoropa Finacadan hananay ho a mitahidan

o Maci no Wiyiena (Mariahilferstrasse1)

(Europid),[11] ono Alpis a siiked, ’edeng sato mahaop ko 10% cowa ko nano Awtili a Finacadan, oninian a tamdaw i o maforaway nani taliyokay a kitakit, patosiay ko nani Kasa’etipay a Yoropa a maforaway tayni a tamdaw.

Oroma sato ira ko cecay ofad cisafaw to falo a patek a maforaway a tayni a Slofaniya Kitakit a Tamdaw(Republika Slovenija), saopo sanay amaro’ i Kalinsiya ato Stiliya Sakowan.

O Awtili i o kacacefelifelisan no tata’angay a finacadan no Yoropa(Lerman Finacadan, Slafo Finacadan ato Latin Finacadan) itini, o kapolongan no Lerman a Aleman Tamdaw, Pafaliya Tamdaw ato Frangko Tamdaw ko Awtli a tamdaw, mialaay ho to saiteked no Macaer Tamdaw, Syongnu Tamdaw, Slafo Tamdaw ato mala Romaay Tamdaw a yuencumin. Ona tamtamdaw i ano milecalecaday to Toic ko To’as ato sowal, iraay kono niyah a saiteked a mala no niyahan a finacadan.

Matafesiw ko fatad a tamdaw no Awtili mitooray to Kristo a Pitooran,[12] ilaloma’ no nini i, mahaop ko 59.9% a tamdaw o RomaTinsikyo, 6% o Mo’ecelay Kyokai, 3.5% o Loto Kyokai, 4% o roma a misafa’elohay a pitooran. Oroma a pitooran ira ho ko Islam Pitooran(65), Pukyo(Mipaypayay) ato Indo Pitooran.

Itiyaho ’alomanay ko Yotaya a tamdaw maro’ itini, 1930 mihecaan i, cisafaway to mo’etep ofad ko ka’aloman no Yotaya a tmadaw,nikawrira, masiwar no Sakatosa a Lalood no Kanatal a Ma’emin, safahal a marowan ko tamdaw no Yotaya.1900 a pisa’osi i, o polong ira ko 6,003,845 ko tamdaw, tahira sato i 2017miheca saka 3 folad saka 14 romi’ad a pisa’osi i, o polong ira ko 8,598,375 ko tamdaw no Awtili.

Sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono sifoan a sowal i,o Toic a Sowal,o kalocaciyaw to romo’ami’ad i, o Ifafa’eday Toic Sowal: La’enoay Alomani sowal, Sasifoa’an Pafaliya Sowal, La’enonay Pafaliya Sowal, tata’angat ko kasasiroma ato mitilidan. Ono Awtili a lalekoan no Toic sowal ato lalekoan no Toic a sowal no itiraay i Toic a tamdaw caay ka lalen.

Kyoiku(教育)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya ho i 1774 a mihecaan,o pecih ho a sakowan no Sinsie Hontian Roma Kitakit ko Awtili, milingato to ko Kakita’an ci Maliya Tolisiya a misanga’ to Sapipasifana’ a Faco, o kapolongan sifo ko mikowanay to kyoiku no Awtili,6~15 ko mihecaan a ka’emangay i, 9 ko mihecaan ko nipaci’ecian a kyoiku, o polong a faco no kyoiku 4 ko kasalowis: no wawa a pihatatanam, o sarakatay a pihatatanam, sasifo’ay pihatatanam ato sakakaay a pihatatanam.

Punka (文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada ’aloman ko itiniay ko sofoc a misanga’ay to rariw: Hayton(Franz Joseph Haydn), Mocalto(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart),Supoto(Franz Seraphicus Peter Schubert),ira ho ko romaroma atamdaw; o tadatata’angay ko ngangan a tadamaanay tamdaw:mikakinkiway to wli ci Pociman(Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann) ato ci Sietingko(Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger); Tapang no Naci Toic ci Hitora(Adolf Hitler),o mikakinkiway to kakarayan ci Payerpahe(Georg von Peuerbach), o mikakinkiway to niharatengan no tamdaw ci Wikenstan(Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein), o mikakinkiway to pisa’osi ci Kotoer(Kurt Friedrich Gödel), o mifafohatay to ifaloco’ay ci Foroito(Sigmund Freud), o mi’alolicay ci Rosaykoer(Peter Rosegger) ato micokaay ci Kolinmo(Gustav Klimt)。

To’as a Ilisinan (傳統節日)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Romi’ad No ’Amis a sowal Toic a sowal Patongal to sowal
1/1 Pafilongan Neujahr
1/6 Pipa’arwan romi’ad Heilige Drei Könige
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad kalowadan na i patay a pilipayan Ostersonntag
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad kalowadan na i patay a sakacecay no pilipayan Ostermontag
5/1 Staatsfeiertag Romi’ad no matayalay
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad Kacakatan na i patay ni Yiso Christi Himmelfahrt Iikor no pi’awasan a lisin a sakasepat no pilipayan
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad Ka’epodan no Sieli a Lisin a pilipayan Pfingstsonntag
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad Ka’epodan no Sieli a Lisin a sakacecay no pilipayan Pfingstmontag
Caay ka keton ko romi’ad O Sietay ato Remes ni Yiso a Lisin Fronleichnam Ikor no Ka’epodan no Sieli a Lisin a 11 romi’ad a sakasepat no pilipayan
8/15 Kacakatan no Wina ci Maliya Mariae Himmelfahrt
10/26 O pikiningan a lisin to pipatirengan to Kitaki Nationalfeiertag 1955 miheca malaheci a misanga’ ko Caay ka Pisakakinih a Tahada’oc a Rikec
11/1 Romi’ad no kalo Fangcalay Tamdaw Allerheiligen
12/8 O pita’ongan ci Maliyan to nika caay ka ciraraw tono tatapangan raraw Mariae Empfängnis
12/25 Kasofocan ni Yiso a lisin Christtag, Weihnachten
12/26 O cila a romi’ad no Krisamas Stephanitag
12/31 Pa’awasan to mihecaan Silvester

Pisalalaan no lafang(觀光)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O tadamaanay a sakacidafongan ko Pisalamaan no Lafang a tayal no Awtili, o kaci’etan no dafong i, mahaop ko 9% no GDP no Awtili.[13] O mipalafangay a tamdaw i,

O Niyaro' (1119 - Hallstatt)

masawkeday i kacifwrangan ato kasi’enawan, o kasaopoan no lafanga i, itiraay i sakatosa afolad ato nani sakapito a folad tahira i sakafalo a folad.[14] I 2007 miheca o Lacal no Kanatal a Ma’emin a ’etan o sakafalo a rayray ko Awtili,o polong a ’etan i, 189 ’ok ko payso no Amirika.[15]

O palacalay a miholol no kanatal a ma’emin o saka12 ko rayray ko Awtili, ira ko 2080 ofad ko palafangay a tayni.[16] O pipalafangan a tokai caay ka o ’edeng o Sarspaw ato Wiyiena, o pitaparan no Alpis tokos o kakahemakan no mihololay.o ni safulo a mitilidan konini.

Tahapinangan Tilid[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Austria. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009 [31 May 2009]. (原始內容存檔於10 June 2009); Lonnie Johnson 17; Probezählung 2006 – Bevölkerungszahl (PDF). Statistik Austria. 31 October 2006 [27 May 2009]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2009-06-20) (德語).

[2] Austria. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009 [31 May 2009]. (原始內容存檔於10 June 2009); Jelavich 267.

[3] Austria About. OECD. [20 May 2009]. (原始內容存檔於6 May 2009).

[4] Austria joins Schengen. Migration News. May 1995 [30 May 2009]. (原始內容存檔於2009-07-07).

[5] University of Klagenfurt. [2 October 2009].(原始內容存檔於13 May 2011); Bischof, Günter; Pelinka, Anton (編). Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. 1997: 20–21 [14 June 2018]. ISBN 978-1-56000-902-3. (原始內容存檔於14 June 2018).

[6] Brauneder, Wilhelm. Österreichische Verfassungsgeschichte 11th. Vienna: Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung. 2009: 17. ISBN 978-3-214-14876-8.

[7] 廖福特.國際法對於戰時中立及永久中立國之規範.台灣國際研究學會.2015-11-29.

[8] Countries, languages, currencies. Interinstitutional style guide. the EU Publications Office. [2 February 2009]. (原始內容存檔於2015-10-17).

[9] (簡體中文)糧食組織森林面積及其變化[1][永久失效連結]

[10] Tony Judt(東尼賈德). Ill Fares the Land(厄運之地-給崩世代的建言). 臺灣新北市: 遠足文化事業有限公司. 2014年1月: 64. ISBN 978-986-5727-00-0 (中文).

[11] Sankar, Pamela. MEDLINE definitions of race and ethnicity and their application to genetic research. Nature Genetics. June 2003, 34 (2): 119. ISSN 1546-1718. PMID 12776106. S2CID 8927634. doi:10.1038/ng0603-119 (英語).

[12] Tony Judt(東尼賈德). Ill Fares the Land(厄運之地-給崩世代的建言). 臺灣新北市: 遠足文化事業有限公司. 2014年1月: 64. ISBN 978-986-5727-00-0 (中文).

[13] TOURISMUS IN ÖSTERREICH 2007 (PDF). BMWA, WKO, Statistik Austria. May 2008 [2008-11-18]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2008-12-18) (德語).

[14] TOURISMUS IN ÖSTERREICH 2007 (PDF). BMWA, WKO, Statistik Austria. May 2008 [2008-11-18]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2008-12-18) (德語).

[15] UNTWO World Tourism Barometer, Vol.6 No.2 (PDF). UNTWO. June 2008 [2008-11-18]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2008-08-19).

[16] UNTWO World Tourism Barometer, Vol.6 No.2 (PDF). UNTWO. June 2008 [2008-11-18]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2008-08-19).