Arpaniya

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Albania(阿爾巴尼亞共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Arpaniya Nikapolongan Kitakit (阿爾巴尼亞共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Takaray sowal (概要)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Arpaniya Nikapolongan Kitakit (Arpaniya sowal: Republika e

o hata no Arpaniya (Flag of Albania)

Shqipëria)i, o Arpaniya hananay a mitahidang(Arpaniya sowal :Shqipëria), itiraay i katimol no saka’etip no Yoropa, i katimol no Parkan Kanatal (Balkans Peninsula), malala,ed ato Itali to Yatoriya Riyar Ta’eman (Itali sowal: Mar Adriatico) ato Otoranto Riyar Ta’eman (Arpaniya sowal: Kanali i Otrantos;Itali sowal: Canale d’Otranto). malafiyaw ato Kirisiya i katimol, ika’amis no saka’etip malangiid ato Kosofo (Arpaniya sowal: Republika e Kosovës), ika’amis malaingid ato Momtonikoro (Momtonikoro sowal:Црна Гора/Crna Gora, o kohetingay tokos sanay ko imi nira: 黑色的山, Ikiris sowal: Montenegro). O Momtinikoro sanay kono Taywan a pangangan.

Itiya ho itini i laloma’ no Yoropa o cecay no tada caayay ka cemahad a kitakit, o saawaay ko ’eten no kalotamdaw, nikawrira tona pinapina a miheca manengnengay to ko kacakat no ’orip no tamtamdaw.[1]

I 2009 miheca mikapot ko Arpaniya to Peitasiyang Konyie (北大西洋公約組織, Ikiris sowal: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, sakamoto’ a tilid: NATO),i 2014 miheca saka6 folad mihai to ko Lekatep no Yoropa (歐盟) to mamalakapot nangra, i 2018 miheca saka 6 folad malaheci to ko pihai tahira to i 2019 miheca saka 6 folad manga’ay to ko Arpaniya masasowal ato Lekatep no Yoropa to sapikapotaw no Arpaniya.[2]

O hata (fayafay) no Arpaniya ira matilid ko tosaay ko fongoh a talangawan ’alilis, onini ’i, nani tiyaay ho i 15sici o satopa no kakeridan no Arpaniya tamdaw ci Cioci Kastorioti Sikantopi (Arpaniya sowal: Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu;Kirisiya sowal: Γεώργιος Καστριώτης "Σκερντέμπεης"), mikomod amitoker to picowat no Otoman Hontian kitakit, o tadamaanay a tamdaw no Arpaniya cingra, o salongan no Arpaniya tamdaw,onini ko pangangan han to「Kitakit no ’Alilis」.

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O to’as no Arpaniya o Iliriya a finscadan, (to’asan sowal no Kirisiya: Ἰλλυριοί, Roma tilid: Illyrioi, Latin sowal: Illyrii anoca Illyri), o cecay a finacadan no to’as no Yoropa. I’ayaw no 2000 miheca, anoca i’ayaw ho nona miheca iraay to a maro’ itini tona pala.

Itiya ho namakowanay no Kirisiya ko Arpaniya, i’ayaw no 2146 miheca malocecay ’isal no Roma Kapolongan kitakit. I ikor no 4 sici cacorocorok sa ko Sa’etipay Roma Hontian kitakit ato Slafo Finacadan (Ikiris sowal: Slavic peoples) a mikowan, 1415 miheca satapang a makowan no Otoman Hontian Kitakit (Otoman sowal: دولت علیه عثمانیه‎, Torki sowal: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) to 500 a miheca ko kahalafin.

Ya siiked saho a niyahpikowan no Arpaniya (獨立初期的阿爾巴尼亞)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Arpaniya i sakatosa lalood no hekal (阿爾巴尼亚亞二战戰形勢图)

O Parkan Pecih a Kanatal (Balkans Peninsula) i,masasifoday to ko kaadihay no kasasiromaroma no finacadan, orasaka cilacila malood sa pangangan han to 「Ariri no afet」(火藥庫). Yo malaheci ko sakakinacecay a lalood no Parkan i 1912 miheca, ira ko pipadama no Aosyong Hontian Kitakit[3] (Toic sowal:Österreich-Ungarn; Syongyali sowal: Ausztria-Magyarország) onini ko saka pilekael to Siiked a Niyahpikowan i saka 11 folad saka28 romi’ad,o patosokan nona pilekal ’i,o sapitakeraw to kasadakan tayra i Yatoriya Riyar (亞德里亞海的出海口) no Sayerwiya tamdaw

I kalaloodan i sakcecay a lalood no hekal, ma’eco no Aosyong, Itali, ato Fransu, 1920 miheca saka 8 folad liyas sanay to ko Itali nani Arpaniya.

I 1924 miheca saka 12 folad, keriden ni Aihamayte Muhetar Pici Cofali(Ahmet Muhtar Bej Zogolli)ko sofitay amifelih ko sifo, ikor to sepat a niheca tiring sa a malahonti,sanoyanan sato mitier to sofitay a miteked mikowan to 14 miheca ko kahalafin.[4] Tahira to satapangan no sakatosa a lalood no hekal ma’eco no Honti no Itali, 1943 miheca(Itali sowal:Regno d'Italia)mikosang to ko Itali, o Toic to ko maro’ay tona kitakit. Harateng sato ko Arpaniya tamdaw to sapitokeraw to Toic, o kakeridan no Kyosanto no Arpaniya ci Enfor Hoca(Aroaniya sowla:Enver Hoxha)malasasifoan no mitokeray tamdaw, 1944 miheca malowaid to ko Toic rahiday sato ko Arpaniya.

I Syakaisyuki a mihecahecan no Arpaniya(社會主義時期的阿爾巴尼亞)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1944miheca saka 10folad saka20 romi’ad patireng to Arpaniya Finawlan Sifo, 1946 miheca saka 1 folad saka 10 romi’ad, palasawaden ko Tapangan Faco falicen a patireng to Arpaniya no Finawlan a

Enfor Hoca(HODŽA druhá míza)

Kitakit.1976 miheca saka12 folad saka 28 romi’ad falicen ko ngangan no kitakit to Arpaniya Syakaisyuki no Finawlan a Kapolongan Kitakit(Arpaniya sowal:Republika Popullare Socialiste e Shqipërisë,kamoto’en tilid:RPSSh), ci Enfor Hoca(Arpaniya sowla:Enver Hoxha)ko malasakaay kakeridan no kitakit,itiya to pikowanan ningra a mihecahecaan tatootora sa amisawidang to roma a Syakaisyuki a Kitakit[5](o Sawaliay a Saopo hananay ho a pangangan). Syakaisyuki Kitakit o Rosya, Paokaliya,Romaniya,Toic Kapolongan Kitakit, Syonyali,Polan CiekoSlofako,Arpanoya, oninian a kitakit i,polongen a pangangan o Sawaliay Saopo hananay, matatoker ato nikeridan no Amirika a Sa’etipay Saopo, ona tosa a Saop malali’ang to romi’ami’ad nani kaherekan no sakatosa a lalood no hekal, o 「Li’etecay Lalood」(Ikiris sowal:Cold War) hananay ko pipangangan.

Wataay ko pipadahof nona Sawalian Kitakit to Arpaniya, nikawrira, o Nanslaf, Rosya ato Conkolimin Kitakit masiwaray to ko lalan a pasityra i「Hontian Kitakit no Syakaisyuki」(社會帝國主義, Ikiris sowal:Social imperialism)han ni Enfor Hoca o kakeridan no Arpaniya a mikokot, to ikor to i nani 1960 miheca tayra i 1980 miheca tatootoor sa a mapisot ko kalawidang ato na tolo a kitakit. Tona a mihecahecan ma’erec no Arpaniya ko polong no sala’edan no kalokitakit, salacecay sato a masasiiked tona hekal.

1990 miheca, naka herekan no Arpaniya Matayalay Tang to saka 10 liyad a kaiki, o kakeridan nona Matayalay Tang ci Lamicu Aliya(Arpaniya sowal:Ramiz Alia)satapang a milekakawa to sapisongila’ to sici ato kicai, fawahen to ko sala’edan no kalokitakit,hoka’en to ko pikedec to naifaloco’an a pili’etan, o mifelihay, pitooran ato palosyangay, malaliyaw a masongila’ ko kalawidang ato Rosya ato Amirika, i 1990 miheca saka 7 folad malaliyaw kono sifoan a tayal ato Rosya, i 1991 miheca saka 3 folad saka 15 romi’ad malaliyaw kono sifoan a tayal ato Amirika.

Midemak to Adihayay Tang a Lekakawa(實行多黨制)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1991 miheca milekal ko Matayalay Tang no Arpaniya misawad to cecay aca ko Tang a mikowan to kitakit, midemak to Adihayay Tang a Lekakawa. Tona miheca i saka 4 folad saka 26 romi’ad, mifalic to ngangan no kitakit o Arpaniya Kapolongan Kitakit hananay to, o saikoray itini i Sa’etipay Yoropa a Syakaisyuki Kitakit to misawaday to cecayay aca a Tang ko teked sanay a mikowan to kitakit, o maan ko imi nonini hokiya, mifalahay to 46 miheca ko maparariday a misateked pikowan ni Hoca. 1992 miheca sipasip hananay to koya salongan no Kyosansyuki a mataliyokay no ’ekim a limaay fo’is i hata no kitakit.

Nikawrira,namisatapang ho a midemak to tayal nofinawlan, tadancaay ko kicay to sapili’etan no kitakit,ira ho ko mali’angay a kasarekad, tatihih ho ko kalafiyaw ato Sayrwuiya ato Kosofo, cifangafang ho mikiti’ecay a Milimekay Tamdaw(難民),o tada karetengay ’inorong konini.

1997 miheca, matalahekal ko kaco’os no malatapangay no sifo, sakalafodfod han to no laloma’ no kitakit, iikor to ’i,o Fransu, Sipanya, Kirisiya, Torki, Romaniya , Aotili ato Tanmay kona 8 a kitakit misanga’ to sakarahiday a sofitay a mipahineker tona fodfod no Arpaniya.[6]

Aniniay a Arpaniya (現今的阿爾巴尼亞)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

2009 miheca saka 4 folad,mikapot to ko Arpaniya to NATO, masahapinang to patalahekal to masongila’ay to ko pikopot to Sa’etipay Kasarekarekad. I 2014 miheca Yoropa Lekapet mihai to mamalakopt nangra ko Arpaniya.

Kasasilsil no sakowan (行政區劃)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O dadahal no pala no Arpaniya ira ko 28,748㎢, papecihpecihen mala 12

AlbaniaNumberedPrefectures

ko sakowan(Arpaniya sowal:Qarqe), ikararem no salowan silsilen ho to 61 a niyaro’ (Arpaniya sowal:Bashkia), tahira i 2000 miheca ira ko 36 a niyaro’ mapafeli to 12 sakowan ko mikowanay, o 「 Rrethe」hananay.[1] Ona 12 a sakowan i 2000 miheca a mapatireng mitidos toya 36 a niyaro’.[2] O sifo no Arpaniya i 2015 miheca satapang a midemak to fa’elohay a sakowan, o matatodongay a niyaro’ ’i, 61 to ko niyaro’ , o i omaomahay a niyaro’ o 「 Komuna」hananay ’i, mipalahedawan.[3] O tadamamangay a kamaro’an no tamdaw ’i, o kasa’eta’etal「 Lagje anoca Fshat」[4] hananay, o polong ira ko 2980 kasa’eta’etal. O tokai(城市) ’i, o sakacecay a sakowan no Arpaniya, o citodongay to polong a tayal no tamtadaw.

Sakowan Kinsifo Tamdaw(2016) Dadahal(㎢)
1 Pirato Sakowan (Qarku i Beratit) Pirato 139,815 1,798
2 Tipar Sakowan (Qarku i Dibrë) Pisenkopi 134,153 2,586
3 Toros Sakowan (Qarku i Durrësit) Toras 278,775 766
4 Aipasen Sakowan (Qarku i Elbasanit) Airpasang 298,913 3,199
5 Fili Sakowan (Qarku i Fierit) Firsyar 312,448 1,890
6 Cirokasto Sakowan (Qarku i Gjirokastrë) Cirokasto 70,331 2,884
7 Koci Sakowan (Qarku i Korçë) Korca 221,706 3,711
8 Kukos Sakowan (Qarku i Kukësit) Kukos 84,035 2,374
9 Lico Sakowan (Qarku i Lezhë) Laysen 135,613 1,620
10 Sikoto Sakowan (Qarku i Shkodrë) Sikotay 215,483 3,562
11 Tilana Sakowan (Qarku i Tiranë) Tilana 811,649 1,652
12 Falola Sakowan (Qarku i Vlorë) Forole 183,105 2,706

Palapalaan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kamar’an no Arpaniya itiraay i katimol no kasa’etipan no Parkan Pecihan Kanatal, isaka’amis i malafiyaway ato Montikoro, ika’etip no saka’amis malafiyaw ato Kosofo, ikawali malafiyaw ato Maciton, i katimol malaliting ato Kirisya, ika’etip malala’ed to riyar a makakecor ato Itali. O sala’edan ika’etip i o Yatoriya riyar ato Aiaoniya riyar.

Sukutay Fanaw (Lac de Shkodra)

O dadahal no sera ’i, ira ko 28,748㎢,o kasarayray i polong no kitakit ’i, isaka144 ko dadahal no sera. O kakaya’ no lilis no riyar ira ko 476 km, ano cacayay ka hakowa ko dadahal no sera no Arpaniya ’i, adihay ko kasasiromaroma no pala o takaraway tokos ato apolo, kasasa’owac, dafdaf, la’ed no lotok ato dihif. O tokotokosan nani ka’amis pasitimol a masofac(manayat), ira ko pitatayraan no misalamayay o cinganganay i hekal Alpus lotok(Ikiris sowal:Dinaric Alps). Patahtahay ho a ira ko nanonanoman ato kinairaira no nanom, o satata’angay satelangay itini i satimolan a Yoropa a fanaw, ira ho ko milihawakay to tosa a kitakit a fanaw: Skutay fanaw(Arpaniya sowal:Liqeni i Shkodrës) ato Ohelito fanaw(Arpaniya sowal:Liqeni i Ohrit). O no Arpaniya ko Skutay fanaw, o dadahal i 530㎢, o cecay no kalitolo itiraay i Arpaniya, o osaw to itiraay i Montinikoro, orasaka, ona Skutay fanaw mapolongay ko Arpaniya ato Montinikoro a mikowan. Ohelito fanaw(Arpaniya sowal:Liqeni i Ohrit;Pokaliya sowal:Охридско Езеро) o samatelangay fanaw i hekal.[11]

Adihay heca ko ’alo no Arpaniya, sano salil ko katenak, ira ko 152 ko ’alo ato ciris,nani wali pasitira isa’etip ko rakat no nanom micomod i Atoriya riyar a ’alo ano sa’osien ira ko 8 a ’alo: Drin,Vjosë,Shkumbin,Osum,Mat、Erzen、Fan ato Seman.

Kakarayan (氣候)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ano do’edoen ko pisiiked a demak ni Kopen to kakarayan(柯本氣候分類法)(Toic sowal:Effektive Klimaklassifikation)’i,limaay ko kasasiromaroma no kakarayan no Arpaniya: Ticonghay Kakarayan (Ikiris sowal:Mediterranean climate),Ma’edengay ko Kafa’edet a Mado’etay Kakarayan (Ikiris sowal:Humid subtropical climate),Riyariyaran Kakarayan (Ikiris sowal:oceanic climate),Sa’emelay a Karopaw Kakarayan ato Skatosa Tapolo Kakarayan(subpolar climate). Ira heca ko Ateliya riyar ato Aoniya riyar mipatatongay to kakarayan, sa i kasi’enawan caay ka patosi ko kasi’enaw i kakedalan caay ka patosi ko fa’edet no romi’ad.Nikawrira, nama’eten no tokos ko fali no riyar sa caay ka picomod i kemod no kitakit ko fali no riyar, orasaka, i kemoday a pala ’i, ikasi’enawan caay kafilo ko si’enaw, ikakedalan sa i pakakaay ko ka fa’edet no romi’ad.

I Arpis Tokos ira a mahera ko sepat a no to’asan ho a so’edaan a ’alo, nani riyar so’osien 2,000 laya’ ko katakaraw, o hatiniay a so’edaan ’alo itiraay i tongroh no tokotokosan isafaw no 5,000 ko laya’ ko ka’akawang nga’ iraay ko matiniay ’alo, onini ko kakafahekaan tona sepat a so’edaan ’alo, away ko mitiniay i Yoropa.

Sici(政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O finawlan ko cisakowanay a lekakawa ato adihayay ko saopo no sici a matayal ko faco no sici no Arpaniya a kitakit. O congtong ko tapang no kitakit, o souli ko kakeridan no sifo, o lipoing ko misinkiway to sakala kakeridan no souli. O lipoiing o fanwlan ko mitopaay ta maala malalipoin, 140 ko tamdaw, sepat miheca ko kalalipoingan. O tapang no citodongay to tayal no sifo o souli ko mitoro’ay.

Kinpo (憲法)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1964 miheca sakatolo folad, o saopo no Arpaniya to misanga’ay to kinpo malaheci a misanga’ ko sa’ayaway kinpo no Arpaniya.

Lipoin no Arpaniya (Tirana - Albanian National Assembly (by Pudelek)

1976 miheca saka12 folad mafalic pangangan ko kitakit to「Arpaniya Syakaisyuki kapolongan kitaki」,ikor nonini mipatatodong a milaheci misanga’ to 「kinpo no Arpaniya Syakaisyuki kapolongan kitaki」. 1990 miheca satapang midemak to adihayay ko tang no kitakit, ikor nonini misahalaka ko adihayay tang tono kapolongan a kinpo, 1991 miheca saka 5 folad, malaheci no adihayay a tang ko 「Takaray rikec no kinpo」,iikor to 7 miheca onini o pacarcaran a pitooran no sifo a matayal,i 1998 miheca saka 11 folad saka 12 romi’ad o citodongay to sinkiw a tamdaw mitopa a mipahapinang tono kinpo, o polong no  citodongay to sinkiw a tamdaw mahaop ko 50.57% ko mitopaay , mahaop ko 93.5% ko mihaiay tona fa’elohay kinpo, toya miheca saka 11 folad saka 28 romi’ad , oya congtong itiyaay ho ci Ricip Cimar Maytani(Arpaniya sowal:Rexhep Qemal Meidani)mitilid pangangan tona fa’elohay kinpo, songila’ sato a malaheci ko「Arpaniya a finawlan a kapolongan kitakit kinpo」.

Sici kasarekarekad(政黨)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O mikikaay a tang i Arpaniya a kasarekarekad no sici a tang o polong cisafaw to 60, o mikapotay to sinkiw a tang ira ko 37 ato cecay a malekatepay a tang. O ci’icelay a tang:

·      Arpaniya Syakai Tang(o mikowanay anini)

·      Arpaniya Mincu Tang(o satata’angay a mikantokay a tang)

·      Arpaniya Syakai Mincu Tang

·      Arpaniya Mincu Konghe Tang

·      Arpaniya Fa’elohay Mincu Tang

·      Arpaniya Micu a Lekatep Tang

Sici a pisawidang (外交)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya ho i pasatapangan no 1990 miheca itira i Sawaliay Yoropa(東歐) masanotapelik no riyar ko pisa’eli no finawlan to ka ono finawaln a nisafalo’an ko pitooran a mikowan sanany a solongoc, orasak misaima’ to a mipeleng koya ni Hocaan ho a kanaidefay a lekakawa no kitakit, mifawah to fawahan a mihamham to isowasowaay a kitakit a malawidang. Nani 1991 miheca tahanini sahetoay o mamalaheci ko paisawidang a lekakawa,i’ayawen ko pisawidang to Sa’etipay Kasaekarekad a kitakit, mikilim tohalalan to sapikapotaw to Lekatep no Yoropa,minanay to Yoropa ato Amirika to sapisongla’aw to ‘orip no fanawlan no Arpaniya.

O matiniyay a pisa’icel a misawidang to roma a kitakit, tahanini cisafaw to 150 ko kitakit to malawidangay tono sician, mikapot to 48 a saopo no hekalay, 1955 miheca mikapot to Linhoko. 1992 miheca mihamon to Kalapaliw no Islam. 2009 miheca mikapot i NATO, 2014 miheca mamalakapot no Yoropa Lekatep.

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 1989 miheca misa’osi to tamdaw,  2011 mihecaan a piso’osi to tamdaw o polong i, 2,821,977 ko tamdaw, o sofoc ’i, ila’enoay ko kelis no nikalecad no sofoc.[12]( 出生率,crude birth rate,CBR) Yomalasawad ko pikowanan no Matayalay Tang a sifo i pisatapangan no 1990 miheca, aloman ko milaliway tara i romaroma a kitakit no tamdaw, tinakoen nani 1991 taha 2004 miheca ira ko 90 ofad tamdaw ko miliyasay to Arpaniya,ilaloma nonini ira ko 60 ofad ko tamdaw tayraay i Kirisiya.[13] Tahira to i 2015miheca saka cecay folad saka cecay a romi’ad a piso’osi 2,893,005 ko tamdaw no Arpaniya.[14]

O fodfod no finawlan i, o tada karetengay ’inorong no Arpaniya, o piso’osi no sifo to finacadan o Arpaniya ko saalomanay, cilafas a mahaop ko 97%, o caay a aloman ko tamdaw a finacadan caay ka pakaso’elin tona misa’osian no sifo,i kaka ho ka kaaloman no niyam a tamdaw saan. Do’edoen ko sa’osi i 2011 miheca, o kasa’isal no fanacadan: [15]

Finacadan Sa’osi no tamdaw mahaop%
Arpaniya tamdaw 2,312,356 82.6
Kirisiya 24,243 0.9
Romu 8,301 0.3
Maciton 5,512 0.2
Montinikoro 366 0.01
Aroma 8,266 0.30
Aicipoto 3,368 0.1
Orom (其他) 2,644 0.1
Caay pasadak to fanacadan 390.938 14.0

Pakatni tona sa’osi to tamdaw, o mamidipot to mamangay a finacadan a iingkai sowal saan: ka’imer a minengneng tona sa’osi, aka ka o sa’osi aca ko nanengnengen, nawhani, malawa a ko pidipot to mamangay a

mamangay finacadan(Albania minorities)

.[16]

Toloay aca koni haian no Arpaniya a mamangay finacadan, o Kirisiya, Maciton ato Montinikoro, ato tosa pakipunkaay a mamangay fanacadan o Aroma tamdaw ato Romu tamdaw.[17] O roma amamangay finacadan i, o Porkaniyatamdaw, Koran tamdaw,Saywirya tamdaw,Parkan Aicipoto tamdaw, Posiniya ato Yutaya tamdaw.

O Kirisiya a Saop caay ka fana’ hakowaay ko so’elinay kaaloman no Kirisiya tamdaw,o Kirisiya sifo a sowal i ira ko 30 ofad ko mar’ay i Arpaniya a Kirisiya tamdaw saan, nikawrira, o Sa’etipay Kitakit a pinengneng 20 ofad ko tamdaw saan.[18] Ono Arpaniya sifo sa apisa’osi ’i, ‘edeng 2,4243 tamdaw.[19] Ono misaspayay no Amirika(CIA)a pinengneng i, pihaop no Kirisiya tamdaw i Arpaniya 0.9% aca sanay.[20]

Sowal(語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No kapolongan ato no sifo a sowal o Arpaniya sowal.

katenakan no sowal(Dialect map albania)

O lalekoan a somowal ato pitilid nani tosa a niyaro’an a sowal:o i’amisay a Kaike sowal(Gheg) ato ikatimolat sowal(toskë anoca toskërisht) ona tosa a sowal salofhan a patateko, ano adihadihayay kono toskë a sowal mihaiay to ko alomanay. O kalala’edan nona tosa a sowal itiraay i Senkunpin ’alo(Arpaniya sowal:Lumi i Shkumbinit). Ono Kirisiya a sowal ikamaro’an no Kirisiya tamdaw i,malahedaway to koya to’asan ho teked no sowal. O roma a sowal i Arpaniya ira ho ko Aromaniya sowal, Saywiya sowal(Српски језик),Maciton sowal,Posiniya sowal, Porukariya sowal,Kulani ato Romaniya sowal.[21] itira sakawalian no Arpaniya i Pustik

adihay ko pitoro' a tilid no lalan(Pustec Multilingual Road Signs)

tokay o Maciton sowal ko kapolongan no sifo sowal. Itiya i 2011 miheca a sa’sosi no tamdaw, iraay ko 1,765,610 tamdaw, mahaop ko 98.767% a tamdaw ono winaay sowal ko Arpaniya sowal sanay, o Arpaniya sowal i o mitoro’an to sapipasifana’ a sowal no ka’emangay ato hasasowal i loma’.

O Kirisiya sowal o sakatosa a sadihayay a sakacaciyaw i Arpaniya, mahaop ko 0.5% tara 3% a tamdaw o sakacecay a sowal no tireng sanay.[22] O cecay no kalitolo no laloma’an mafa’ay a somowal to no Kirisiya sowal.[23]

Mangayaay ato Kirisiya ko Arpaniya, o punka to o pili’etan to adihay ko kalapaliw, orasaka i satimolan no Arpaniya aloman ko somowalay to sowal no Kirisiya.[24]

O citodongay no sifo a mikakinkiw i 2017 miheca, nani 25 tahira i 64 ko mihecaan a tamdaw, mahaop ko 39.0% a Arpaniya tamdaw saawaay ira ho ko cecay kafana’an a roma a sowal, o mafana’ay somowal to Ikiris i mahaop ko40.0%, do’edo sa o Itali sowal, mahop ko 27.8%, o mafa’ay to Kirisiya sowal mahaop ko 22.9%.[25] Ikararem no 25 ko mihecaan a kapah tamdaw no Arpaniya, matongal ko kacifaloco’ mihatatanam to Ikiris, Toic ato Torki a sowal, o cifaloco’ay to sapihatatanam to Itali ato Frans a sowal ’i, mahineknekay.

Tona pinapina a mihecan o kapah tada tata’ang ko kacifaloco’ mihatatanam to sowal no Toic, orasaka matatilid ko Arpaniya ato Toic to Patomaliway Kakaketonan, ta manga’ay ko katayra no kaph no Arpaniya i Toic a mihatatanam ato konlin to kicic, ta masasonga’ ko kafana’ to punka no tihi.[26]

Tona pinapina a miheca kali’eki ko kacakat no ’orip no Torki, makidkid ko kacifaloco’ no kapah no Arpaniya to sapihatatanamaw to so sowal no Torki,itra i tata’angay pitilidan ira ko pihatatanaman to punka ato pikinkiw.[27] O tata’angay pitilidan Epoka masimsim o safangcalay a pasifana’ay to sowal no roma a kitaki, mihai ko sifo no Arpaniya manga’ay to a pafeli to pileponan a tilid to mitiliday.[28]

Punka (文化)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O punka no Arpaniya i cilamlamay tono Contong punka(Ikiris sowal:Middle East,Arapiyasowal:الشرق الأوسط‎,Hipray sowal:המזרח התיכון‎)ato Sa’etipay punka, malapot ko Katelang Kirisiya, Katelang Roma punka, Paycantin Hontian Kitakit punka(Latin sowal:Imperium Romanum;Kirisiya sowal:Βασιλεία Ρωμαίων),Otoman Hontian Kitakit punka(OtonanTorki sowal:دولت علیه عثمانیه‎,Torki sowal:Osmanlı İmparatorluğu, Kaping sowal:鄂圖曼帝國), caay konini aca ira ho kono Arpaniya a to’asan punka.

To'asan radiw (A traditional male folk group from Skrapar)

O radiw no Arpaniya iraay ko tekedan no finacadan,nano to’as caay ka keton taha nini. Ano masasiikeikeday to ka’amisay a Gheg ato katimolay a Lab ato Tosk, ona tosaay a kada’edo’edo malacecayay ko katenak. O imi no radiwa i, sahetoay o palatohay to rikisi no Arpaniya, oya kaodfodan ato tadamaanay tamdaw. Oya radiw no to’as 「Himariot Isopoly」, matoro’ no UNESCO no Linhoko o malorocok nona hekal sanay.

Ono to’asan ho a ca’edong itiraay i kakafahekan ato ilisin a cilosid, itira i no finacadan a ka’acangan romi’ad,no kyokai a romi’ad,paka’etiman romi’ad, masakeroay a saop. O matitengay cica’edong tono to’asan a losid. O fanges no ’a’adopen, o fanoh no siri, o keriw ko sapisanga’ to losid, tahanini ono to’asan ho a konis ko mitinooyan.

Pitooran (宗教)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I’ayaw no 1900 miheca,mitooray to ko Arpaniya tandaw ci Yisoan, nikawrira namicowat a micomod ko Torki Otoman Hontian Kitakit ’i, mafalic ko pitoor pasitira i Islam, saadihay sato ko mitooray to Islam a Muslin a tamdaw, o saadihayay tamdaw i Arpaniya, nikawrira, iraay ho ko mitooray ci Yisoan a alomanay i romaroma aniyaro’.

O Islam a pitooran i,toloay ko kasa'iked, ilalomaan i tosa ko tata'angay a kasa'iked: o cecay Sunni Sa'iked (Arapiya sowal:أهل السنة والجماعة‎,ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah, Kaping sowal:遜尼派), o cecay i o

Tona aniniay to a mihecaan, napikowanan no Arpaniya Matayalay Tang malalang ko polong no pitorran, itiya  milekal ko Arpaniya odengan itini i hekal o caayay ka pakaso’elin to kawas a kitakit sanay. Tahira to i 1990 miheca saka 11 folad ano caacaayay ka falicen ko kinpo, mihai to ko sifo to kalotamdawan a pitoor to kawas.Anini to i naifaloco’ay sanay to ko pitoor to kawas caay to pilalang ko sifo.

I 2001 miheca a pisa’sosi to tamdaw, itini i Arpaniya mahaop ko 58% ko mitooray to Islan Sonni Muslin, 2% o Isalm Tasen kyokai, 10% o Tinsikyo,7% o Rosiya Toncen Ciyaw, 0.2% o roma a kyokai a Keristo, 5.5% o roma ko pitooran, 14% cowa ka hapinang ko pitooran, o caay ka pakaso’elin to kawas i 2.5% aca ko tamdaw. Ititni Yoropa o saalomanay ko mitooray to Islam a ihekalay kitakit.

Pakayni tona pisa’osi to tamdaw i 2011 miheca , ira ko caay ka pihai tora nipasadakan a sa’osi, nawhani, adihay ko caay ka sa’osi a mitooray to Rosiya Toncen Ciyaw,[1] o misa’osian i edeng 34% no mitooray tona pitooran sanay.[2] Orasa o miciosaay a tamdaw ’i, awaay ko minengnengay o niyah sanay a patedo a mitilid sanay. Sa oninian ko pipacoli no fanawlan.

Do’edoen ko piciosa no Citodongay to Pipamatang no Linhoko a pisa’osi i 2018 miheca, mahaop ko 62.7% caay ka pitoor to masamaanay a pitooran. 37% a Arpaniya tamdaw cecayay aca ko pitooran, i laloma’ nona 37% ’i, 52.06% o Muslin, 13.82% o Tinsokyo, 13.08% o Rosiya Tongcen Ciyaw, 7.5% o Paykesin Kyokai, 1,74% o Ciolo Kai. O osaw to i manayay a paca’of to piciosa.


Pihapinangan Tilid[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Rural poverty in Albania. [2011-01-23]. (原始內容存檔於2010-01-05); Albania Poverty and wealth, Information about Poverty and wealth in Albania; UNDP Albania Practice Area - Poverty Reduction 網際網路檔案館的存檔, 存檔日期2013-06-13.

[2] 俄羅斯衛星通訊社. 歐盟: 阿爾巴尼亞和馬其頓入歐談判或於2019年6月開始. 俄羅斯衛星通訊社. 2018-06-27 [2018-06-27] (中文).

[3] Malacecayay ko「aotili Hontian Kitakit」ato「Syongyali Hontian Kitakit」a mikowan, sa pangangan han to「AOSYONG Hontian Kitakit」.

[4] Ian Kershew著、林華譯. 地獄之行:1914-1949. 中信出版集團. 2018年12月: 202. ISBN 978-7-5086-8300-3.

[5] Syakaisyuki Kitakit o Rosya, Paokaliya,Romaniya,Toic Kapolongan Kitakit, Syonyali,Polan CiekoSlofako,Arpanoya, oninian a kitakit i,polongen a pangangan o Sawaliay Saopo hananay, matatoker ato nikeridan no Amirika a Sa’etipay Saopo, ona tosa a Saop malali’ang to romi’ami’ad nani kaherekan no sakatosa a lalood no hekal, o 「Li’etecay Lalood」hananay ko pipangangan.

[6] 1997年3月28日 阿爾巴尼亞發生騷亂人民網,2003.03.28

[7] A Brief History of the Administrative-territorial Organization in Albania 網際網路檔案館的存檔,存檔日期2015-05-24.

[8] A Brief History of the Administrative-territorial Organization in Albania. reformaterritoriale.al. [2017-10-26]. (原始內容存檔於2017-06-09) (英語).

[9] Ndarja administrative, njësitë vendore në lagje dhe fshatra. [2017-10-26]. (原始內容存檔於2017-09-25).

[10] Ndarja administrative, njësitë vendore në lagje dhe fshatra. [2017-10-26]. (原始內容存檔於2017-09-25).

[11]Lake Ohrid; Invest in Macedonia – Agency for Foreign Investments of the Republic of Macedonia. InvestInMacedonia.com. [2017-06-03]. (原始內容存檔於2008年9月14日).

[12] Albania: People, CIA World Factbook, 2012. Retrieved on 6 April 2012

[13] "Albania: Looking Beyond Borders (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)". Migration Policy Institute.

[14] Population of Albania 1 January 2016. Republic of Albania Institute of Statistics. (原始內容存檔於2017年7月13日).

[15] Population and Housing Census 2011. INSTAT (Albanian Institute of Statistics). (原始內容存檔於2017-08-03).

[16] Third Opinion on Albania adopted on 23 November 2011. Advisory Committee on the Framework for the Protection of National Minorities. [2017-06-29]. (原始內容存檔於2017-10-14).

[17] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Albania : Overview. UNHCR. 2005-05-11 [2013-05-05].

[18] Europa Publications. The Europa World Year Book 2008. Taylor & Francis. 2008-06-24 [2012-12-22]. ISBN 978-1-85743-452-1. (原始內容存檔於2013-02-24). ... and Greece formally annulled claims to North Epirus (southern Albania), where there is a sizeable Greek minority. ... strained by concerns relating to the treatment of ethnic Greeks residing in Albania (numbering an estimated 300,000) ...ono

[19] Census 2011 Data: Resident population by ethnic and cultural affiliation. The Institute of Statistics of Republic of Albania. [2014-04-05]. (原始內容存檔於2013-11-13).

[20] Albania. U.S. Department of State. [2014-09-13]. (原始內容存檔於2018-03-24).

[21] The Greek language is widely spoken in Albania (H Ελληνική γλώσσα γίνεται καθομιλουμένη στην Αλβανία). Kathimerini. [2017-06-12].

[22] Languages of Albania. [2010-10-31]. (原始內容存檔於2009-01-23).

[23] The Second Most Spoken Languages Around the World. Kathimerini. [2017-06-12]. .5% speak it as first language.

[24] Nitsiakos, Vasilēs G. Balkan Border Crossings: Second Annual of the Konitsa Summer School. LIT Verlag Münster. 2011: 150. ISBN 9783643800923 (英語). in the Albanian south... The Greek language is spoken by an important percentage of the Albanians of the south.

[25] Press release of the Adult Education Survey (PDF). Albanian Institute of Statistics. 2018-05-10 [2018-05-23].

[26] Gjuha gjermane, shumë e kërkuar në Shqipëri. albinfo.ch. albinfo. 2014-04-10 [2018-05-26].

[27] Në Shqipëri vazhdon të rritet interesi për gjuhën turke. voal.ch. voal. 2016-10-05 [2018-05-26].

[28] Bledi Mane. 10 universitetet me cilesore te shqiperise. gazetatema.net. TemA. 2011-09-17 [2018-05-26].

[29] al:AK- Nishanit: Hiqi ‘Urdhrin e Skënderbeut’ Janullatosit, dekoro themeluesit e Kishës Autoqefale Shqiptare (LETRA) | Gazeta Tema. [2018-12-15]. (原始內容存檔於2015-05-16).  Gazeta Tema. [2018-12-15]. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-24).

[30] Official Declaration: The results of the 2011 Census regarding the Orthodox Christians in Albania are totally incorrect and unacceptable. orthodoxalbania.org. [22 January 2014]. (原始內容存檔於14 July 2014).