Ankora

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Angola,República de Angola(安哥拉共和國)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ankora no Finawlan Kapolongan Kitakit(安哥拉共和國)

Takaray Sowal(概略)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ankora no Finawlan Kapolongan Kitakit (Portokaru sowal:República de

Hata no Ankora(Flag of Angola)

Angola; Holam sowal:安哥拉共和國, o Ankora hananay a mitahidang, no Holam sowal:安哥拉Portokarus sowal:Angola).

Itiraay i katimol no saka’etip no Afrika a kitakit,o syoto tatapangan tokai i o Luanta, i lilis no Tasiyang, ika’amis ato kawali no sa’etip malafiyaw ato Konko Finawlan A Kapolongan Kitakit,ikatimol malafiyaw ato Namipiya, ikatimol no sakawali malafiyaw ato Sangpiya,ira ho ko cecay miliyasay a pala Kapinta Sakowan (Portokaru sowal:Cabinda), isifo’ay no Konko Finawlan a Kapolongan Kitakit ato Konko a Kapolongan Kitakit.

Rikisi (歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiyaay ho a Ankora(早期的安哥拉)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiya ho ono Portokaru a pala,o tada caci’etanay ato cidafongay a mikowanan no Portokaru. I 1475 miheca o Portokaru tamdaw ci Tiyako Caw(Portokaru sowal :Diogo Cão)hawikiden ningra ko masakomiay a 7 tamina, ’aloman ko sofitay ato papinapina a patenakay to sowal no Kawas, pasitira i Indo a romokat, mililis i salawacan no Sa’etipay no Afrika a riyar,toya miheca pahicera i Loanto Pataminaan no Ankora, patirengen ningra ko ’otoc i Cepo’ no Konko ’Alo ato i tahekalay no pala pasiriyar SieAokustin to sapikining, mipatokeled ho a miala to kohetingay tamdaw malo koli panokay i Portokaru.

Micomod i Konko ko Potokaru(葡萄牙進人剛果)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Konko 'alo (Sunrise near Mossaka) (Congo)

1483 miheca miliyaw heca ci Tiyako Caw a tayra i Ankora,oya mipanokayan ningra i Portokaru a koli keriden ho ningra a patatiko tayra i Ankora. Itiya ho masaso’araway ci Tiyako Caw ato Honti no Konko, tada mihamham ko Honti to katayni ni Tiyako Caw, orasaka ocoren no Honti ko Tarokos tayra i Tatapangan Tokai no Potokaru o Lispen. 1491 miheca, o roma a tamina no sofitay no Potokaru mido’edo’ a tayra i Ankora, mita’esel micomod paka Konko ’alo 120 km tangsa i Tata’angay Loma’ no Honti. Caka halafin ko romi’ad, mipatireng to kamaro’an no Tarokos Loma’ ko Potokaru i Tatapangan Niyaro’ no Ankora,patenak to kafafalic to dafong ato kalawidang.

Pa’aca to koli ko Potokaru(葡萄牙買賣黑奴)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1575 miheca milingato a mi’eo to katimolay pala no Konko ko Portokaru, patireng to tata’angay a niyaro’ o Loanta Niyaro’. I ikor to tona miheca to 50 ko mihecaan sakakahad han to no Potokaru ko picowat to pala no Ankora.

To ikor to 200 ko mihecaan, cowa to kanga’ay ko ’orip no Ankora a tamdaw. Itiyaan ho a mihecahecaan, misa’icelay a mipamatang to omah ko Potokaru, nikawrira, o ’etan nona omah i,o sapi’aca to koli a pa’acaen i Puraciru, tangasa to i 1830 miheca nga’ mapalasawad ko kali’aca to koli. Sa’icel sato ko Portokaru a mipalowad to demak no maohay ato pikarkar to safodawanen a fokeloh.

Mi’adapaw a milood to Potokaru(安哥拉游擊戰反葡萄牙)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nani 1951 miheca, malocecay a sakowan no Portokaru i papotal, ocor han no Portokaru ko Sotok to mamikowan. O ’orip sa no kohetingay tamdaw tadacancaay, onini ko kalingatoan a pacoli to Portokaru nani 1961 miheca saka cecay folad. Milongac to sapiikedaw to niyahpikowan. O ika’amisay no Ankora a Parihaday to Finawlan a Masakapotay mi’adapaw to a mico’is to Potokaru, itira i tokotokosan ko pilimekan nangra, samatiyaen mi’adapaway ko pilood to sofitay no Potokaru, o kakeridan nona mi’adapaway ko pilood i ci Lopola, i Anpolici Pataminaan ko palamitan nangra.

I 1966 miheca ira ho ko roma a Parihadayay a Masakapotay, itira i syoto Loanta tata’angay niyaro’ ato i salawacan ko ladademakan nangra. Toya romi’ad ira ho ko patirengay i Lispen to Polong no Kitakit a Kapolongan, topilaheciaw a mi’afas to sapiikedaw to niyahpikowan. Ona kasasiromaroma a masakapotay cisofitay to sapilood. Nikawrira, ona toloay a masakapotay caay ka lacecay ko demak pasaikeiked sanay, ano roma macacolicoli ho, sa caay ka pakalowid to sofitay no Potokaru.

Mihai to tekedan a niyahpikowan(安哥拉走向獨立)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1975 miheca sakcecay folad,hai sato ko Potokaru to Ankora misiiked a midemak to niyahpikowan,toya romi’ad patokeled sa matatilid to「Pongminna Kakaketonan Tilid」,milongoc toya toloay a kasakapot no sofitay milaheci masasowal, ta ira ko malacecaay mihaidaan no kapolongan a mamalasifo to ikor no pisiiked niyahpikowan,’alaen patatiko nani Potokaru ko sakowan ’icel.1775 miheca saka11 folad saka10 romi’ad miliyas to Ankora ko siikoray a sofitay no Potokaru, tocila a romi’ad milekal to ko Ankora piteked a niyahpikowan, patireng to Ankora Finawlan A Kapolongan a Kitakit, mapalasawad to ko 500 ko mihecaan a pikowan no Potokaru to Ankora.

Laloma’ lalood no Ankora (安哥拉內戰)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Toya pilekalan no Ankora to Teked a Niyahpikowan a miheca, ira ko nidamaan no Rosya a「Ankora Parihaday to Finawlan a Demak, MPLA」, ira ho ko nicoracoran no Amirika ato Sifo no Kakitmolay Afrika a「Palahecien ko Niyahpikowan a Kapolongan, UNITA」, macaco’is kona tosa a masakapotay, masakalaloodan to I laloma’ nona kitakit. Saikoray to i, oya nidamaan no Rosya ko pakalowaiday tona rawraw,mitatoy to sapikowan a ’icel. Sanoyanan sato ko Ankora sifo a malekatep ato Rosya, midemak to teked no cecayay tang a pikowan.

Midemak to Adihayay Tang a Faco no Sici(實行多黨政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1990 miheca, misawaden no Ankora sifo ko Syakaisyki a Lalan,

Nonas Malilo Saunpi (Jonas Savimbi)

to cila to a mihecaan midemak to Adihayay Tang a faco no sici. 1991 miheca saka 5 folad, o kakeridan no MPLA ato kakeridan no UNITA, malali’ay a matatilid to Sakarihaday a Kakaketonan Tilid, o sakalaheci noni i,ira ko pihidefong no Potokaru sa malaheci. Nikawrira, i 1992 mihecaan a sinkiw to kiing malarawraw ho kona tosa a masakapotay, o Kinhoko to ko miwarayay a masinanot kona rawraw i 1994 miheca saka11 folad. Ca ho kahalafin ko kalanga’ayan miliyaw ho a malalood ilaloma’ no kitakit i 1998 miheca.

2002 miheca saka 2 folad, mapatay ko kakkeridan no UNITA ci Nonas Malilo Saunpi(Jonas Malheiro Savimbi),2002 miheca saka 4 folad saka 4 romi’ad, matatilid ho kona tosa a masakapotay to pisawad a malood a kakaketonan, oya rarid sanay to 27 ko mihecaan a lalood laheci sato a malasawad.

Palapalaan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pala no Ankora isa’etipay mililisay to riyar a kocedisay a dafdaf, isaka’amisay i o mingata’ay to Toloay ko Karimoco’ Kanatal no Konko, dadahalay ko itiniay a pala. Ikemoday no kitakit i, o Takaraway Dafdaf,o kacacinowasan no kalo’alo,pangangan to「tokon no Ankora」,[1] o lalen no ka’akawang 1200m, o sa’akawangay a poco’ i  o Moko Poco’ tahiraay i 2619 m ko ka’akawang, adihayay ko ’alo tona kitakit, nikawrira cowa ka tatodong a parakat to tamina.

Kaitiraan(位置)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O kaitiraan nona kitakit i, ikatimol no saka’etip no Afrika, isaka’amis ato ka’amis no sakawali mada’edo’edo to Konko Finawlan a Kapolongan Kitakit,isakwali malafiyaw ato Sangpiya, ikatimol malaingid ato Namipiya, isa’etip i o lawac no Tasiyang,malala’ed to riyar a makakecor to SeiHelena(Ikiris sowal:Saint Helena, Holam sowal:聖赫勒拿)o kanatal no Ikiris. O kakahad no polong a pala 1,246,700㎢.[2] O kakaya’ no lilis no riyar 1600km.[3]

O kasafaco no sera(地形)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong a pala nona kitakit sahetoay a Takaraway Dafdaf, ira ko cecay a rimowad atafotafokan midatadat taha lawac no Taysiyo, o mingataay i lilis no sa’etip a riyar i,ira ko dihecoay kakayaay a dafdaf. O ka’amisay no saka’etip i o Malanco Takaraway Dafda, o takraw i nani 500 m tahira i 1000 m; o

Rengorengosan Dafdaf(Grasslands-menggu)

no sawalian i,o Lonta Takaraway Dafdaf, cisafaw to 1000 m ko akawang, o satelangay a dapiyac. I sakatimol i, o Oyla Takaraway Dafdaf, nani ka’amis pasitira i katimol 1500 m likelon sa tahira i 1100 m, malalenay ko kasadafdaf itini. O kawali i, o mohoholan a malapala asanodangahay a fanaw, i kakedalay a rengorengosan ira ko safanioniot sanay a takarway pala. I lawac no

Tafotafokan Dafdaf(Namib desert MODIS)

i,200 m aca ko akawang a matahepoay no tafok a mililisay a dafdaf, isakatimol rimowad no Namipi Tafotafokan(Nama sowal:Namib).[4]

Rakat no Nanonanoman (水系)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O ’alo no Ankora nani sifoay a Piyie Takaraway Dafdaf a pasataliyok ko rakat no ’alo, o ika’amisay ‘alo sahetoay o capa’ no Konko ’alo, o katimolay no sakawali a ’alo pasitira i Sanpisi ’alo(Zambezi River) ko rakat. O tatapangan nona ’alo itiraay i ka’amis no sawalian no Ankora. O sacepo’an no irtiraay i katimol no saka’etip a Kuna ’alo o kalala’edan ato Namipiya kitakit. Isa’etipay ’alo tayra i Taysiyo(Atlantic Ocean) ko rakat, o Kuan ’alo ko sata’engayay, pakayra i Loanta kitkit a tara riyar.

Sici (政治)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Ankora a kitakit i,o midemakay to congtong a faco no sici,

Noaw congton(2018-07-04 President João Lourenço-0555)

o fanawlan ko citodongay to kapolongan a ’icel a kitakit. Orasaka, o congtong ko tapangan no kitakit, tokeled sa a malakakeridan no sifo,o taypyaw no kitakit pasipapotar a citodong to teked a ’icel. O aniniay a tapang no kitakit i, ci Noaw Manuayr Konsar(João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço;若昂·曼努埃爾·貢薩爾維斯·羅倫佐),mitokeled a malakakeridan no sifo, o faco no sici i, o kapolongan no finawlan ko citodongay ato o aduhayay ko tang no sici. O misanga’ay to rikec no kitakit i,o Kikai( Finawlan pikaikian) , cecayay aca ko pikaikian no kitakit, o kiing 220 ko tamdaw,o satopa no sinkiwa ko pi’arawan to ka’aloman no kiin, sepat mihecaan ko katayan no kiin. O kakeridan no kalocitodongay to demak no sifo i 23 ko tamdaw, 18 ko kakeridan no sakowan, ona 41 a tamdaw ko malatapangay no sifo, o soli(tapang no sifo)o citodongay to tayal no sifo a tang(Ankora Parihaday to Finawlan a Demak, MPLA) ko mitoro’ay.

O Sofal no Sakowan no Ankora(行政區)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O polong a sofal no sakowan no Ankora ira ko 18 sakowan:

1.   Penko Sakowan(Icolo e Bengo)

2.   Pencila Sakowan(Benguela)

3.   Piyi Sakowan(Província de Bié)

4.   Kapinta Sakowan(Cabinda)

5.   Kuantokopanko Sakowan(kuandokubango)

6.    Ka’amis Kowanca Sakowan(Cuanza Norte)

7.    Katimol Kowanca Sakowan(   Cuanza Sul)

8.   Kunini Sakowan(Cunene)

9.   Wanpo Sakowan(Huambo)

10. Wila Sakowan(Huila)

11. Loanta Sakowan(Luanda)

12. Ka’amis Lonta Sakowan(   Lunda Norte)

13. Katimol Lonta Sakowan(Lunda Sul)

14. Malanci Sakowan(Malanje)

15. Mosiko Sakowan(Província de Moxico)

16. Namipi Sakowan(Namibe)

17. Wici Sakowan(Uíge)

18. Cair Sakowan(Zaire)

Kicai(經濟)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O maomahay ko sakakaay saka ’orip no Ankora,

Tayamonto(Alexandra Mor Diamond Collection High Res Black BG Group Shot)

o nipalomaan i ira ko kisyafa,kalitang, pawli, pawli no lotong, takomod, kilang, ‘alilay,’afinong, dateng , dangka, kafi ato tamako; o sasafodawanen a fokeloh i ira ko tayamonto, marad,’apol, tangiiw, cinah,’apol a fakeloh; o mi’olacay a misang’ to simal i itiraay i lilis no riyar no Kapinta Sakowan, o ‘eteng no misanga’an mahaop ko 75% no nipaliwalan iroma a kitakit. Ira ho ko milonicay to kaka’enen, misanga’ to tatipelok, ‘amoto ato tinooy.

O patiyamay i niyaro'(Streetscene Angola village)

Ililis no riyar no Ankora o sarad no kasolin simal ira ko 89 ’ok ko tolamokang, ikemod no kitakit ira ko tayamonto. Orasaka tadamaanay ko madikoay ’icel no kicai no Ankora. Yo ikor to no kaherekan no lalood, oya kafafalic to lalosidan ato roma a kitakit ci’etan to 30 ‘ok a payso no Amirika.

O Ankora a kitakit, dadahal ko pala, adhay kinairaira no palapalaan, o mikowanan no Potokaru itiya ho iraay to ko paranaan no sapipamatang, sa ira ko pangangan to「Poracir no Afrika」.

Maomah (農業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

misang'a to simal no nanges (Coconut oil making Seychelles)

O nipalomaan i,ira ko kafi, kodasing, fata’an, ‘alilay, nanges, pawli, dangka, simal no nanges, panay, cifir a moki, kalo’emi, tefos, kokoa, tamako, dateng ato losay. O saadihayay ko nipalomaan a kafi i Afrika ko Ankora, o roma sato i,sahetoay o tadafangcalay a Roposta(Robusta) kafi.

Simal no nanges(Olive oil from Oneglia)

Nipahafayan (畜牧業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tadakohceday ko pina’orip demak no Ankora,o pipakaenan a pala i,itiraay i Fola, Pii ato Pencila, o nipakaenan i,ira ko kolong, siri ato diyong, sa caay ka nikaw to titi.

Nifotingay (漁業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Caay ka difak a ’alaen ko foting i lilis no riyar no Ankora, sa adihay ko cikikayay a tamina no Ankora, o nifotingan i ma’edengay a kaenen no polong tamdaw no Ankora. O misawadan a komaen a lofic no foting i,misatapedan a paliwal iroma a kitakit, o simal ho no foting nipaliwalan icowacowa a kitakit to sapili’etan.

Pisakilang (林業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada matilakay ko kilakilangan no Ankora,o sekalay i,588,544㎢, o nitahepoan no kilakilangan mahaop ko 47.2%,[5] o dadahal ko dadahal , nika caay ho ka patadasen a misadafong.

Sasafodawanen a fokeloh (礦業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada rifo’aday ko kinaira no pala, ira ko ‘ekim, fadito, fodawan, adicaw afakeloh, tayamonto, marad,’apol. Patahtah ho to kasolin simal, itira i Kapinta(Cabinda) a palapalan ato lilis no i ka'amisay riyar ko pialan to simal.O sakatosa a rayray i Afrika ko pipasadak to simal, nani 1973 miheca maceror no kasolin simal ko kafi mala satata’angay a sapaliwal iroma a kitakit.

Misang’ to lalosidan (工業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Misafilofiloay a pacakat to misanga’ay to lalosidan. O misanga’an a lalosidan ira ko mi’olacay a misang’ to simal, misanga’ay to tatipelok,misongila’ a mitelek to kakaenen,misang’ to riko’, misiwli to tosiya, miilang to panay, misang’ to sapaiyo, misang’ to dafong no loma’ mirosaros to kilang, misanga’ to ‘odax, misaongla’ a mitelek to kafi, ira ho ko misanga’ay to piro, ‘amoto, koyasi, tonooy, dinki, kalas, nananomen, tamako ato ‘epah, misanga’ay to kikay kahirahira, o misang’an a diki to mihecahecan ira ko 37.22 ‘ok to ko kaadihay.[6]

Tamdaw (人口)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Do’edoen ko kapolongan pisa’osi no hekal tamdaw a pakasalilan a polong ’osi i,o aniniay a tamdaw no Arkora ira ko 29,276,528 ko tamdaw, ilaloma’ nonini to300 ko ofad i o nisofocan ho a wawa, o katongal no tamdaw to kalomihecaan mahaop ko 3%(2020 miheca a pihinen), o pihinen to kato’edaw no ’orip i,46 ko mihecaan(o fainayan 45 ko mihecaan, o fafahiyan 48 ko mihecan), itini i Ankora malalenay ko kako’edaw no fainayan to fafahiyan to ko ’orip.

Adihay ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan ato pitooran i Ankora:

Pitooran:68% o Tinsikiw.

      10% o To’asan.

      20% o Ciwlo.

Mafana’ay to tilid:66.8%(fainayan 82.1%, fafahiyan 53.8%)

O i tokayay a maro’ a tamdaw mahaop ko 59% no polong tamdaw no kitakit, nani 2010 miheca tahira i 2015 mihecaan a tamdaw no misatokayay 4% ko kaharakat no katongal no tamdaw.[7]

Finacadan ato sowal(民族和語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ilaloma’ no Ankora ira ko Aounpentu finacadan(37%),Mopentu finacadan(25%),Pakonko finacadan (13%), Lonta finacadan ato Yoropa tamdaw (1%), ato romaroma a finacadan.[8]  

Ono sifoan a sowal i, o Potokaru sowal, ira ho kona roma finacadan a sowal, o Mupanto sowal(úmbúndú), Kimpanto sowal ato Konko sowal.[9] o Kimpanto sowal ira ho ko no kasaniyaro' a 11 sowal:Ngola, Dembo, Jinga, Bondo, Bângala, Songo, Ibaco, Luanda, Quibala, Libolo ato Quissama。

Kinairaira no pala(資源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tada rifo’aday ko kasolin simal, kaso no pala ato sasafodawanen a fakeloh,o mahapinangay to a sasarad no kasolin simal i,ira ko 125 ’ok ko tolamokang, imaiti to i,cecay romi’ad pakaala to 200 ofad ko tolamokang. O sarad no kaso no pala i,ira ko 7 ofad ko ok’ a kalong(gallon)ko kaadihay. O misanga’ay to dafong no kasolin simal i,o satoka’ no katayalan no Ankora. O sasafodawanen a fakeloh itini i Ankora ira ko taiyamonto, marad, ‘ekim, ’adicaw. O kakahad no kilakilangan no Ankora 5300 ofad ko kofo. Tada ci’afoay ko sera no Ankora, adihay ho ko ’alo a miliwasak, tata’ang ko madikoay a ’icel to sapipalowadaw to liomah.

Tahapinangan Tilid[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] 中國大百科全書--安哥拉

[2] 中央情報局世界概況--國家面積.

[3] 中央情報局世界概況--海岸線長度. [2010-08-03]. (原始內容存檔於2010-04-25).

[4] 中國大百科全書--安哥拉

[5] 聯合國統計資料庫--森林. [2010-08-03]. (原始內容存檔於2016-08-01).

[6] 國際能源總署--電力生產

[7] FIELD LISTING :: URBANIZATION. 中央情報局. [2011-05-24]. (原始內容存檔於2020-01-06)

[8] See ethnic map and CIA – The World Factbook – Angola (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

[9] 背景資料:安哥拉共和國. 國際日報.