India

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India(印度)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Fayfay no Indo

印度共和國(印地語:भारत गणराज्य;英語:Republic of India),通稱印度(印地語:भारत;英語:India)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O itiraay i Satimolan-Aciya(南亞;Ikiris a sowal:South Asia) a Sakatosa-Karopaw(次大陸;Ikiris a sowal:subcontinent)no Indo,o kakahad no sera o sakapito i hekal, o sakatolo i Aciya,[1] o so’elinay mikowanan a sera ira ko 316 km² .[2] o sakakaay ko ka’aloman no tamdaw i hekal, i 2022 miheca saka 12 folad a sa’osi ira ko 14’ok 170 ‘ofad ko tamdaw,[3] o kapolongan nili’etanan no ilaloma’an o sakalima ihekal ko saka’orip dafong.

Kaitiraan no Indo

Cowa ko malacecaay ko finacadan ato ponka no Indo, tada’adihay ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan ato ponka. Itini i tamdaw no Indo a Indostan-finacadan(印度斯坦族; Ikiris a sowal:Hindustani people,又譯興都斯坦人) mahahop ko fatad no polong a tamdaw no Indo,ira kono niyah a sowal ato tilid, o nihayian no kinpo a hanosifoan a sowal ira ko 22 ko kasasiroman, ilaloma’ nonini o Inti-sowal ato Ikiris-sowal ko irikecay a hasowal no sifo,[4] awaay ko todongay no kitakit-sowal sanay ko pisetek no Misawkitay Sakowan,[5][6] ono kapolongan a sowal o Ikiris-sowal, orasaka matenakay i Indo ko Ikiris=sowal,mangalefay isakatimolan no kitakit ikakaay no Indo-sowal ko Ikiris-sowal, nikawrira, mapatolas no kapitilidan isafaay ko taneng no kalotamdaw, orasaka awaay ko citanengay to Ikiris-sowal.

O roma sa i, o tada’adihayay ko pitooran no tamtamdaw no Indo, pacingangan hananay to “Pina'angan loma’ to pitooran” ,[7] o nani Indo ko tatapangan no sakakaay pitooran ihekal ko Indo ira ko Fociya ato Indo-pitoora, o tamdaw no Inso sahetoay mitooray to Indo-pitooran; o sakatosa ko kaikaka no Islam-Pitooran(回教) itini i Indo ira ko 1’ok 8000’ofad ko mitooray salikaka, onini i, nani saka 8 sici yo talapapotal ko Arapiya a micoeat matenak tayni i Indo, iikor no saka 10 sici isaka’amisay no Indo a Sawara’an-kitakit sahetoay mitooray to Islam-pitooran, ilaloma’ nonini o Mowoer-Sawara’an-kitakit(蒙兀兒帝國; Woerto-sowal:مغلیہ سلطنت‎,felicen a nitilid:Mughliyah Saltanat‎; Romaan tilid:mug͟hliyah saltanat) haoto macowat ko polong no Sakatosa-Karopaw.O kapolongan a pihayi to Cikakocay-Pakotang ko Indo.[8] o mikapotay ko Indo to so’elinay saopo ato cowa ko so’elinay saopo, mahaop ko Linheko, Hekalay-mali’acaay Lekatep(World Trade Organization, WTO), Tata’angay-Ikiris Lekatep,’Ekiman-linka Limaay kitakit(BRICS), Sepatay-kitakit a Lekatep(四國聯盟;Ikiris a sowal:G4 Nations), Satimolan-Aciya Mapapadangay Lekatep(南亞區域合作聯盟; Ikiris a sowal:South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) ato Cowa-pisakakiinih Lekatep. O cecay a ikemoday mamacemahad malaipocokay kitakit ko Indo.

O Indo a kitakit o sakakaay a tayal o maomahay, nakamayan-pisanga’ to dafong i tokay,mihamhamay to lafang a tayal ato micokeray toninian a tayal, iraay to kocemahaday noninian tayal. Cowa ko ka fangcal no ponka ato kakafahekaan faco no sera i saka’amisan ko misorotay to lafang, ira heca ko ‘aloanay a mafana’ay somowal to sowal no Ikiris matayal to mi’efawan tayal(onini i,pataynien no kosi no roma a kitakit ko kasasowal to lafang, mipaca’ofay i dingwa Atayal). Roma sato i,o iraay ko Tekedan-Tinki a mata’elifay to ko romi’ad a sapaiyo itini a misanga’ a paini to ka’emeday a pipaising. Tona pinapina a mihecaan, mipadahof to ‘adihayay a payso i tata’angay kiwiku, to sapipatatongodaw ato kasakitakit i sakakaay-taneng, patinako han niyah a pikinkiw to kakarayan, pikinkiw to kina’orip no Satimolan-Aciya. O sakakaay a kali’acaan to dafong a kitakit o Amirika,Yoropa-Lekatep, Dipon,Conko, Rosiya ato Kapolongan Sawara’an-kitakit no Arapiya.

Ngangan no kitakit(國名釋義)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O pipangangan no Conko to Indo kinapinapina a mafalic, Sa’etipan-Han o Ciyang-Tow hananay, i Sakawalian-Han o Tien-Tow hananay. Tahira to i Tang-Mihecahecaan o Indo han to mipasetek ko pangangan to Indo.23 Oninian a ngangan o Ciyang-Tow to, o Sen-Tow to, o Indo to sahetoay o nani Fan-sowal no itiraay i Indo’Alo toya सिंधु(Sindhu), ngiha’ no Posi-sowal o هندو‎(Hindu), Kirisiya a sowal:Ίνδό(Indu), o Kuice-sowal: Indaka(吐火羅語; Ikiris a sowal:Tocharian languages)[9]

O Poloto hananay no Indo ko niyah pitahidang. Away ko pasicowaan to ka’adihay no ngangan no Indo,ano do’edoen ko palatoh no Cina-Pitooran(耆那教,Fan-sowal:जैनधर्म Jainadharma; Tanmier-sowal:சமணம் Samaṇam;Ikiris a sowal:Jainism) oya nupatirengay tona pitooran ci Lisepitowof, o sakakaay a wawa ci “Piloto” o kakaolahan no tatamdaw konini a honti, orasaka pangangan han to “Poloto” ko nikowanan ningra a kitakit.

Ira ho ko roma a kitakit to panganganay tono niyah a kitakit toninian, ikoray a tamdaw ona ngangan o pakadofahay to kitakit saan, orasaka kalangangan han to no ‘adihayay kitakit. itiya ho o “Poloti” (o Poloto-tamdaw) sanay ko pitahidang to niyah a tireng ko to’asan ho tamdaw no Indo, o teloc no honti ci Poloto koninian mapolong.

Rikisi(歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Micowat a milood ko Ikiris--Posila Lalood

Nanoliteng-Payrayrang(古老文明)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Iraay ko katelangan-fakelohan mihecahecaan ato Fa’elohay-fakelohan mihecahecaan. O itirray i Pakistan a katelangay-Indo a Indo’alo a ponka no Indo, o cecay a katelangay-Payrayrang, isaikoray itiyaay i ‘ayaw no yiesoan to 2500 miheca, o itirray i Pakistan a katelangay-Indo a Indo’alo ira ko nipatirengan no katelangay-Indo tamdaw a ponka no Indo, o sa’ayaway pakakera tona nalacolan no ponka itiraay i Halapo ato Mohengco-Talo no Pakistan, orasaka o Payrayrang no Indo-’alo (Indus Valley Civilization) ano ca o Halapo-payrayrang hananay a pangangan. O nipatirengan no Indo a finawlan-kasasa’er tada makedecay, nikawrira latek i’ayaw niyisoan to 2000 mihecaan talifahal sa a makedi’, matekop ko Indo-‘alo a payrayrang, o micolo’ay to ponka a sowal ato tilid matiya to makedi’, awa ko mafana’ay to nika kedi’, tahanini ira ko masamaamaanay a sowal pakayni toni kakedi’, nikawrira awaay ko pakaso’elinay toninian sowal.[10] ono aniniay to a pikinkiw to kakoc no ‘irang, cowa ka tata’ang ko kasasirom no kakoc no ‘irang no Indo-tamdaw, orasaka latek ira ko tata’angay a lenlen. Oroma a sowal i, maca’efas ko Indo-‘alo ta malenlen ano ca makedal.[11]

Macowat no Yalian-tamdaw(雅利安人入侵)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I'ayaw ni yieso to 1500 mihecaan, micowat ko nani sa’amisan no sak’etip a Yalian-tamdaw to sa’amisan no sak’etip a Indo-‘alo ato ika’amisay a Heng-‘alo’aloan. Ikor to pinapina a sici, nornor sato ko Yalian-tamdaw a maro’ itini a maomah. O sowal no Yalian malasowal tono itiniay tamdaw, macacamol ato itiniay a ponka, masang’ ko Fito-ponka. Ona ponka iikoray tono Indo’alo ponka ko pinapina a sici, orasak o Hen-’alo ponka hahanay. Yo micomod to ko Yalian-tamdaw siromaen nangra ko itiniay tamdaw ato Yalian-tamdaw, nornor sato ko kasassa’er-‘orip a faco itini i Indo.

Kongcie-Sawara’an kitakit (孔雀王朝)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kanri, o mama no Indo-kitakit

I’ayaw no saka 3 sici a sasifo’an, o honti no Kongcie-Sawara’an kitakit ci Ayi honti mapalacecay a pateko ko polong no Indo-Pecihan Kanatal ’edeng ni Maysoer-Etal no Katimolan-Indo, yo mapatay sato ci Ayi-Sawara’an, mafadi’ ko Kongcie-Sawara’an. To ikor to i, halafin ko kafodfod no kalokitakit i Indo. I laloma’ nonini, pacarcaray a mapateko a malacecay ko ka’amisay-Indo ni Kuisang-hontian kitakit ato Cito-Sawara’an itiniay a masadak ko masamaanay a pitooran, mahaop ko Indo-pitooran ato nani Nipaloan a Fociyaw; o sacomahaday a mihecahecaan no citanengay-fana’, Fangcalay-tanengnengan ato ponka.

Arapiya hontian-kitakit pacomod to Islam-pitooran(阿拉伯帝國引入伊斯蘭教)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Isaka 8 sici, satapang ko Arapiya hontian-kitakit a micowat to Indo, hawikedan nangra ko Islam-ponka,iikor no saka 15sici sa’aloman sa to ko miracaray to riyar a tayni ko mili’acaay a Yoropa tamdaw i Indo, itira to a mafana’ to kakalimelaan no Indo, misa’icel to a misafaloco’ to patireng to nicowatan-kowan. Yo matekop to ko Toli-Sotan kitakit, matiya to o teloc no nani Sifo’an-Aciya a Timoer(帖木兒;Posi-Arapiya tilid:تیمور,falicen to Latin tilid:Tēmōr) ci Papoer matekop ningra ko saikoray to a sawara’an no Indo-Toli-Sotan kitakit patireng to Mowoer Hontian-kitakit(蒙兀兒帝國; Woerto sowal:مغلیہ سلطنت‎,nifalican tilid:Mughliyah Saltanat‎;Posi-sowal:مغلیہ سلطنت‎; Roman a tilid:mug͟hliyah saltanat, o MontoerSotan-kitakit sanay ko imi nonini意為「蒙兀兒蘇丹國」) o teloc to papinapina a mikowanay haoto ma’emin a mapalacecay ko Indo-Pecihankanatal.

Masafeleng a micowat ko Yoropa kitakit(歐洲列國相繼建立殖民地)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nikawrira o pikowan ni Timoer matiya to o pitooran ko lalengatan a mafodfod a mafadi’, patokeled sa tona mihecahecaan o ci’icelay a Potawya, Olanta, Ikiris ato Franso safeleng saan a tayni i Indo-karopaw, mala’afas to Indo a malalood. 1757 miheca, malalood ko Mowoer Hontian-kitakit ato Sawalian-Indo Kosi no Ikiris(不列顛東印度公司; Ikiris a sowal:British East India Company) mapacikel to Polasi-lalood(普拉西戰役;Battle of Plassey),  malowid ko Indo, orasaka nornor sato a malanicowatan-kowan no Ikiris. Tahira to i 1849 mihecaan, malaheci to ko pipolong a pikowan to Indo no Sawalian-Indo Kosi no Ikiris, ‘edengan o mamangay a sera ko ma’osaway nikowanan no Potawya ato Fransu. 1857 miheca, mapacekil Tata’angay-Pacekil no Indo-Finacadan(Indian Uprising of 1857; First War of Independence) mipatoker to pipades no Ikiris,nikawrira, cowa ka halafin mapenec no Ikiris.

O tangsolay pikowan no Linheko a Indo(malamicongacongay kitakit no Ikiris ;英屬印度;Ikiris a sowal:British IndiaBritish Raj ) ira ko 13 a kowan, ilaloma’ nonini mahaopay ko Miyanma. Latek ira ho ko 700 a sawara’an-kowan (土邦; Ikiris a sowal:Princely state), o Ikiris ko mikontokay tonini, o sera nona sawara’an-kowan mahaop ko 2/5. Talacowa o Linheko ko mikowanay, o so’elinay i, oni kowanan no Ikiris a sera ato sawara’an-kowan, ilaloma’ no kitakit ira ho ko kitakit, o kakafahekan ko matiniyay a kowan. I 1877 miheca pacaloken ko honti no Ikiris ci Witoliya-Fafahiyan honti malahonti no Indo Hontian-kitakit, 1911 miheca, malinah ko Tatapangan-Tokay(syoto) nani Ciyaerkota tayra i Toli. Iita i tosa a lalood no hekal, tadaci’icelay ko sofitay no Indo i sofitay no Ikiris.

Micoro ci Kanti to cowa ka patomaliw onto(甘地推動不合作運動)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nihelo, sa'ayaway congli no Indo

Yo macemahad to Indo nirnir sato a talipa’elal ko finawlan no Indo, o pikowan no Ikiris tadamilokesay a pakangodo to tiring no Indo-tamdaw, o hatiniyay a harateng nornor sato a mirecep i tamtamdaw, orasaka i 1885 miheca patireng to Indo Finawlan-Kalomaocan Kasafelaw no Indo ko citanengay a tamdaw no Indo. I 1920 miheca misafa’eloh to mamatayal, o milekalay to pisiiked nani Ikiris ci Mohanmoto-Kanti ko matoro’ay no ‘alomanay,tangsol sato midemak to sapialaaw to pisiikedaw a “cowa ka patomaliw onto” (不合作運動;Ikiris a sowal:Non-cooperation movement; Indo a tilid:Satyagraha). Nikawria, oya mikowanay a Ikiris oacofcofen nangra ko kasaso’iring no mitooray to Indo-pitooran ato mitooray to Muslin a palakalat, nanginang sato ko kalaodot nona tosa a pitooran, ikor to patireng to Polong-Indo Muslin Lekatep, ci Mahonmoto-Ali-Cena ko malakakeridan, sanoyanan sato caka lacecay kona tosaay a pitooran.

Ikor no Sakatosa-Lalood kakedi’ ko ‘icel no Ikiris(第二次世界大戰之後,英國實力迅速衰落)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ikor no Sakatosa-Lalood, sakali’eki sato makedi’ ko ‘icel no Ikiris, matenak heca ko Finawlan-kitakit sanay a harateng ato cowa ka patomaliw a demak, hayi han to no Ikiris ko pisiiked no Indo. Nikawria, oya Muslin-Lekatep misafaloco’ to sapipatirengaw to Muslin-kitakit---Pakistan, cowa ko kafilo no Ikiris aci Kanti a milalang ko Muslin, orasaka yo misiiked sato ko Indo mapapecih to Pakistan tosa a kitakit. 1947 miheca pasadak ko Ikiris to “Monpa-sahalaka” (印巴分治; Ikiris a sowal:Partition of India), toya mihecaan saka 8 folad saka 15 romi’ad, malaheci to ko pisiiked no Indo ato Pakistan, nikawrira ma’osaw ho i Tata’angay Ikiris-Lekatep, 1950 miheca saka 5 folad saka 26 romi’ad milekal ko Indo patireng to Indo Kapolongan-kitakit, ma’sosaw ho o cefang no Tata’angay Ikiris-Lekatep. Saikoray to ona Sakatos-Karopaw no Aciya mapapecih to o Indo-pitooran a kalotamdawan a Indo ato o Islam-pitooran a mamangay Pakistan kitakit.

Yo misiiked tahanini(獨立後到今日)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Yo misiiked sato, ci Ciyawahalaer-Nihelo ko sakakaay mikowanay, pasitira i Siyakaysyuki(社會主義; Ikiris a sowal:socialism) ko harateng, mido’edo tono Solin a Limaay-halaka a demak to saka’orip, o demak to sakipapotal o xowa ka patomaliw demak, cowa ka pikapot to ipocokay ko kacemahad a Solin ato Amirika a lekatep.

Na misiiked sato ko Indo ’acaen no sifo ko sera no Sawara’an a patateko, ikor to i,mapalahedaw to ko paloniyah sanay a mapapecihpech to sera a sawara’an. Matatokeled malalood ato Pakistan pakayni fangafang no Kosinmier(喀什米爾; Indo a sowal:कश्मीर; Woerto a sowal:کشمیر‎‎) maala no Indo ko tosa no kalitolo a sera no Kosinmier. 1949 miheca i satapangan no saka 6 folad, ocoren no Indo ko sofitay maro’ i Sikim(錫金邦; Sikim a sowal:འབྲས་ལྗོངས།;Wili a tilid:Bras Ljongs; Latin a tilid:Sikkim), ocoren ko Indo-tamdaw ci Laer malaconli no Sikim. 1949 miheca saka 8 folad, matatilid to “tahada’ocay sakrihaday a kakaketonan” ko Indo ato Potan, ira ko pirikec to demak no Potan to sakipapotal o Indo ko mamikantok saan. I 1950 miheca saka 12 folad matatilid to “ Indo ato Sikim tahada’pcay sakarihaday kakaketonan”, mirikec o “ papa’adingen a kitakit ko Sikim no Indo” , ocoren no Indo ko matayalay a tapang to mamitayal to tayal no conli no Indo, ocoren heca ko mamikantok to sofitay demak, sak’orip ato sakipapotal demak. I 1975 miheca laheci han to no Indo a pateko ko Sikim i Indo.

I 1959 miheca hamhamen no Indo ci Talay-lama Tanciyaco, masaso’iring to ko Indo ato Conko. I 1961 miheca malalood ato Potawya ko Indo maala no Indo ko Koa sera. I 1962 miheca micomod ko sofitay no Indo i kalalaedan ato Conko patireng to pikacawan, orasak mapacekil ko Lalood i Kalala’edan no Conko ato Indo(中印邊境戰爭; Ikiris a sowal:Sino-Indian War), mataker ko sapikakahadaw micowat to sera a harateng. 1965 miheca ato 1971 miheca kinatosa mapacekil ko tata’angay lalood ato Pakistan, oya i 1971 mihecaan a lalood tata’ang ko kalowid no Indo, miliyas ko “ Sawalian-Pakistan”( to Pakistan a misiiked, milekal patireng to Monciyali-kitakit.(孟加拉人民共和國; Bangladesh) I 1974 miheca mitanam mipakohac to Cikakocay-Pakotan(核試驗; Ikiris a sowal:nuclear test), oya itiyaay i 1998 miheca a pitanam to Cikakocay-Pakotan mitodong ko Pakistan a mitanam mipakohac to Cikakocay-Pakotan.

O kasaso’iring no pitooran ilaloma’ no Indo o micawcaway to sakacemahad no kitakit, pararid tahira i 1990 mihecahecaan. I 1991 miheca, o congli no Indo ci Laaw misatapang a midemak to Kali’acaan-saka’orip a tayal, ira ko heci no natayalan ta nornor sato manga’ay ko saka’orip no kitakit. nikawrira, mapatolas no cowa ka ‘aloman ko mitiliday no finawlan, orasak ira ko tolas no sakacemahad, cowa konini aca o rikec no mamatayal ato komi no matayalay mitolasay to pipateli to payso no roma a kitakit.

Oya fangafang to Kosinmier parariday a ira, nikawrira i 2002 mihea masasowal to sakaca tongal no kafodfod itini. O saka’orip no Indo ’adihayay ko tadamaanay a heci, nikawria ma’asi tato ko ka’adihay no tamdaw(14’ok), tatiih ko taliyok no katayal ato ka’aloman no pakoyoc a tamdaw, ira heca ko kafodfod no finacadan to pitooran.

Kamaro'an no sifo

Sieci(政治)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Matekoay-kapolongan kitakit ko Indo, ira ko 7.14’ok a tamdaw to mamitopa to sinkiw, cilafas to 1,000 ko kasafelaw no sieci midemak to sinkiw no Kitakit-Kalomaocan, ilaloma’ nonini ira ko 7 mi’edefay to kitakit a tata’angay kasafelaw no sieci, 40 ko i kowanay a kasafelaw no sieci, ato 980 ko mamangaya kasafelaw no sieci, o sakakaay a no finawlan a sinkiw sanay ko tonini.(2009 miheca)[12]

O congtong ko tatapang no kitakit, sakakaay kakeridan no sofitay. Nikawrira o madohaway ko ‘icel no congton, to kaloromi’ad o congli ko mimetmetay to sakowan ’icel. Nikawrira, ano matalaw no roma a kitakit, mamacowat ato rawraw no kitakit, o congtong ko pasadakay a milekal to Kakafolawan-demak; ano mafodfod ko sifo cato katayal i, manga’ay ko congton miceror a mikowan to kitakit; ano marawraw to sinkiw ko Kitakit-Kalomaocan, o congtong ko mamisanga’ to sifo; ira ko ‘icel no congtong a mifelih to nipasadakan no sifo a rikec ato halaka.[13][14][15]

Aniniay congli ci Nalontola-Moti

Lima miheca ko katayalan no congtong ato midamaay-congtong, o misiikedan a sakowan ko misinkiway to congtong.[16] o nipadangay-congton ano cowa to pakatayal ko congtong cowa ka tangsol sa miceror malacongtong.

O so’elinay midemakay to polong a tayal no kitakit o nikeridan no congli a saopo no malatapangay no tayal no sifo. o sakakaay a kasafelaw-sieci i kitakit-kalomaocan ko mipasadakay to mamalaconli a tamdaw, ta o congtong to ko mitoro’ay, ikor to i,o congli to ko mioro’ay to mamatayal a tapang no kalocitodongay no sifo.

O kitakit-kalomaocan o Tosaay-faco Kalomaocan,o Fafa’eday a Ptatekoan-Kalisaocan ato La’enoay a Finawlan-Kalisaocan, o nikaykian no tatapang no matayalay no sifo ko citodongay a pasowal i Finawlan-Kalisaocan.

O kiing no Ptatekoan-Kalisaocan 6 miheca ko katayalan, mifalic a sikiwen ko cecay no kalitolo to tosa miheca, ilaloma’ noni to 233 a kiing o iniyaro’ay ko mitopaay, orama a 12 kiing o congtong ko mitoro’ay palakiing.

O kiing no Finawlan-Kalisaocan ira ko 545 ko tamdaw 5 miheca ko katayalan, ilaloma’ nonini to 543 kiibg o finawlan ko mitopaay, o’osaw to 2 kiing o congtong ko mitoro’ay malakiing.

Ira ko masongila’ay a kinpo to mirikecay to faco no kalomaocan, o tahapinangan no sieci no Indo konini. Kinapinapina a misalof cilafas to 395 satoko, cilafas to 1000 ko cihecaiay a hecek, o “ o sakakaay ko to’edaw a kinpo i hekal” sanay ko kalita’ang. Ira ko pipatosek a tilid o cisalongocay, Finalawlan ko kaka, Siyakaysyuki a kapolongan kitakit, mipa’ading to Mo’ecel, Malalen ato Paifaloco’ no kalotamdaw, misa’icel heca micokeroh to kasasonga’ay no tamtamdaw.

Kaitiraan(地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O milacalay to Hen-'alo a kayakay

Itiraay i Indo Sakatosa-karopaw, o sakakaay ira ko toloay etal: o takaraway tokotokosan a Simalaya-tokos( o pocok nani tongroh no riyar ira 8,598 laya’ a Kancenciya -pocok), sasifo'an-dafdaf/Hen'alo( Indo-Gangetic Plain) ato satimolan a Tokan-tapolo.

Ika’amis no saka’etipan madado’edo ko sera ato Pakistan ato Afohan, isaka’amisan malalaed ato Conko, Potan ato Nipalo, isakawalian malala’ed ato Miyanma.o Monciyala-Kowan no Indo maaingid ato Monciyala kitakit. isakatimolan o Sililangka kanatalan-kitakit ato Maerif-kanatalan kitakit. I katimol no saka’etipan misi’ayaw to Arapiya-riyar, ikawali ato katimol no sakawalian misi’ayaw to Monciyala-kihaw.

O sakapito ko katata’ang no sera i hekal ko Indo, o polong no kakahad no sera ira ko 317 km² , nani ka’amis tayra i katimol ira ko 3,214 km ko kato’edaw, nani kawali tahira i saka’etip ira ko 2,993 km, o sakakaay a pala no Skatimolan-Aciya ko Pecihan-Kanatal a Indo.

O faco no sera(地形)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Masasiromaroma ko pala no Indo:ira ko ciso’eaday tokas, ira ko tafotafokan, ira ko ’apapolo ira ko tapolo, ira ko kasasiromaroma a tatapalan no pala. Ira heca ko 7000 km a lilis no riyar, sahetoay itiniay i sakatimolan no Aciya, micomod i Indo-Riyar.

O kadofahay a Hen-’alo dafdaf matahepoay ko Saka’amisan-Indo, ato sasifo’an ato sawali’an no Indo. O Tokan-tapolo ma’edefay ko satimolan no Indo. O saka’etian no Indo o Taer-tafotafokan, onini i, o ciramramay to fokeloh ato tafok a tafotafokan. O sakawalian ato saka’amis-sawalian matahepoay ko Simalaya-tokos.

Kakarayan (氣候)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Indo sahetoay o tadafa’edetay ma’emin, sahetoay o Fa’edetay-kafodo’an kakarayan, o itiraay isa’etipan no Indo a Taer-tafotafokan ono Fa’edetay-tafotafokan kakarayan. mahapinangay ko kafodo’an-fali i kaciferangan, ikasi’enawan away ko mahapinangay a kafodo’an-fali. sakilace ko kakarayan no Indo o ka’oradan-kakarayan(6-10 folad) ato kakedalan-kakarayan(3-5 folad) ato kasi’emelan-kakarayan(11-12folad),ikasi’enawan ma’ading no Simalaya-tokos, away ko ki’etecay fali pasitimol misiwar to kakarayan no Indo.

Kinaira no pala(自然資源)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O sakasepat ko ka tata’ang no nisopedan sikitang itini i hekal ko Indo. Oroma a kinaira no pala ira ho ko marad,mong, yinmo, lo, kaso, simal-kasolin, taya,’apol ato kamaomahan.

Saka’orip(經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Mi'awasay to kitakit a tayal pakidingwa

O cecay a kitakit no hekal to sakali’ekiay ko kacemahad,[17] masorot ko mata no tamdaw to kafaheka to kacemohad no saka’orip. 2017 miheca o pali’ayaw a pinengneng no Hekalay-Kiking Lekatep(International Monetary Fund,IMF) to polong a pili’etan no laloma’an no Indo ira ko 2.611-caw Amirika-payso, o saka’enem katata’ang no cisaka’oripay i hekal.[18] [19] cowa ka hakowa ko kasa’owa’owac ato Ikiris ato Fransu; 2017 miheca o pali’ayaw a pinengneng no Hekalay-kinko(World Bank,WB) to polong a pili’etan no laloma’an no Indo ira ko 2.59-caw Amirika-payso, malecad ko pinengneng o saka’enem katata’ang cisaka’otipay i hekal[20]. Ano i ’icel no pi’aca to dafong konengnengen i 2017 mihecaan a polong a pili’etan no laloma’an no Indo ira ko 9.459-caw Amirika-payso, mata’elif ko Dipon o sakatolo rayray itini i hekal,[21] mitooray to Amirika, Conko. Itiya i’ayaw no 20 mihecaan, o lalen no kacemahad no Indo ira ko 5.8%, i 2011 miheca tahira i 2012 miheca malawisay to ko 6.1% ko kacemahadan.[22]

Nikawrira, o kacidafong no tamtamdaw cowa ka lalen, ipolong nona kitakit a 10% a tamdaw mimetmetay to 33% a li’etan no kapolongan. Adihay sa ko tamdaw no Indo palalen han to i,cowa to ka hakowa ko kilac no li’etan no tamtamdaw, tinako han i 2011 miheca o lalen nili’etanan no tamdaw ‘edengan 3,694 Amirika-payso, o saka 129 ko rayray i hekal, o pifakican to Amirika-payso ‘edengan 1,389 Amirika-payso, o saka140 rayray i heakl(o plong kitakit no ira ko189 kitakit).[23]

O matayalay tamdaw no Indo ira ko 5.137 ’ok o sakatosa ko ka adihay no matayalay i hekal, ilaloma’ noni ira ko 50% o maomahay ano o mikiharay to maomahay tayal, ira 28% o matayalay to mihamhamay to lafang a tayal ato mikiharay tona tayal;o matayal to misanga’ay to dafong ira ko 18%. O matayalay i roma a roma a kitakit a tamdaw no Indo latek ira ko 2.500 ’oafd ko tamdaw, o ni’etanan nangra to cecay miheca(2014mihecaan a sa’osi) ira ko 700 ’ok Amirika-payso, o sakakaay nipifalican to roma kitakit a payso i hekal.[24]

O sakakaay nipalomaan losay ira ko panay, moki, dateng, takomod ociya, tefos ato malinso.[25] o misanga’an dafong o sakakaay ira ko tinaw-ranti,tosiya,amoto,hiliyo, sakatayal dafong no dingki, misanga’an kaka’enen, kikay,mikarkar to fakeloh,simal-kasolin,misanga’ to sapaiyo, marad, dafong no micolo’ay ato dafong no mililecay.[26] I 2001 miheca tahira i 2011 mihecaan, o nipasadakan a simalan-dagong ato sakatayal dafong matongal ko ka’adihay nani 14% matongal tahira i 42%.[27]

Tamdaw(人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

I 2011 mihecaan a sa’osi to tamdaw, ira ko 1,210,193,422 ko tamdaw no Indo,[28] motooray to Conko ko ka’aloman no tamdaw, nani 2001 miheca tahira i 2011 mihecaan a katongal no tamdaw 1.76%.[29] isafaay to i’ayaway a mo’etep miheca (1991-2001) to 2.13%.[30] o sakilac to fafahiyan ato fainayan 0.94,[31] tahira to i 2019 miheca ira ko 1368,737,513 ko tamdaw, 1.08% ko katongal to mihecahecaan.[32] do’edoen ko Sakanga’ay-Sakitatirengan a Lekatep(World Health Organization, WHO) a pisa’soi to mihecahecan ira ko 90 ’ofad ko mapatayay nika ’oning no nanom ato fali.[33] 10 ’ofad ko tamdaw 50 aca ko ising.[34]

O mafana’ay to tilid a tamdaw i 2011 miheca a sa’osi 74.04 %( fainayan 82.14%, fafahiyan 65.46%)[35] o sakakaay mafana’ay to tilid o Kalala-kowan,[36] Pihali-kowan ko sasafaay;[37] o lalen a ’orip 68.59 mihecaan. Tata’angay ko kasatiwtiw no cipaysoay ato manikaway, orasaka ‘aloman ko maro’ay i manikaway loma’ i tokay, o lifong ira ko Tinkolo, malaliya, A-faco ’atay adada, E-faco ’atay adada.

Finacadan(民族)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

tosa ko sakakaay finacadan no Indo, o mihaopay to 72% a Indo-Yalian finacadan ato mihaopay to 25% a Talopica-tamdaw. ira ho pacarcaray maro' a finacadan, tinako han o cinganganay i hekal a misamaraday a Katoliyakohaer-tamdaw, ira ho ko milacalay ko 'orip a Palali-tamdaw; ira ho mi'a'adopay modatengay tamdaw, ano ca o paliwalay to cinah, mi'edaway.kowaniay,Ayifito-pa'adaay, ticinaay,micadiway to fokeloh,mitiliday to tireng a kasasiromaroma a tayal.ira ko sowal no mikinkiway itini i Indo ira ko 500 a pacarcaray ko aro' a kasafelaw, latek ira ko 8000 'ofad ko polong noninian tamdaw.

Kasasa'er no 'orip(種性制度):

Pacefaday a tilid(註腳)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

  1. 該國具體面積由於國界爭議而難以確定。印度政府稱總面積為3,287,260平方公里(1,269,220平方英里),其中陸地面積為3,060,500平方公里(1,181,700平方英里);聯合國則稱總面積為3,287,263平方公里(1,269,219平方英里),其中陸地面積為2,973,190平方公里(1,147,960平方英里)(Library of Congress 2004),以上數據為印度聲稱的領土面積,包括了印度所有實際控制區的面積為3,166,391平方公里(1,222,550平方英里)。
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Pikafitan i papotal(外部連接)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]