Kuatimala

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(masafaeloh to misiyor nani Guatemala)
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Guatemala(瓜地馬拉)

Flag of Guatemala
Flag of Guatemala
Location of Guatemala

Takalay a sowal[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Kuatimala Kapolongan Kitakit(Sipanya a sowal:República de Guatemala;Kuwaping a sowal:瓜地馬拉共和國), itiraay i Sifo’an Amirika, misi’ayaway to Taypinyang, i kawali o Karipi Riyar, i ka’amis o Misiko kitakit, i ka’amis no sakawali o Pilis, i katimol no sakwali o Hontoras ato Sarwato.

O lalengatan no ngangan(名詞來源)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O Kuatimala sanay ’i, o sowal no Nawato(Nāhuatl;納瓦特語), o cecay a sowal Acitiko. O imi nona sowal o「adihayay ko kilang a pala」ano ca edeng o「kilang」koni sowalan.

Rikisi(歷史)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nani saka 4 sici tahira i saka 10 sici , o sakakahaday a sakowan Piteng(貝登省;Departamento de Petén, ira ko 33566 km²) o sasifo’an no Maya Punka, i kaleponan no saka 10 sici mapalahedaw ko Maya Punka i la’enay pala, nikawrira, ifafa’eday pala ira ho maosaw kona Punka. I 1524 miheca tayni a micowat ko Sipanya a tamdaw tekopen nangra ko Maya Punka misatang a mideak to Nicowatan Sakowan. O demak no Sipaya itini ’i, o sapilaheciaw a palasawad to Maya Punka, orasaka, matodoh ko maamaan a nitilidan, cowa to ka hakowa ko maosaway.

1821 miheca saka 9 folad saka 15 romi’ad misatapang a milekal to sapisiikedaw nani Sipanya ko Sifo’ay Amirika, i 1824 miheca tahira i 1839 miheca cecay a kitakit no Sifo’an Amirika Matatekoay Kitakit (Kuwaping a sowal:中美洲聯邦共和國; Sipanya a sowal: República Federal de Centroamérica), tahira to i 1840 miheca nga’ malaheci ko pisiiked no Kuatimala.

1871 miheca ci Fusto Rufino Palios (Kuwaping a sowal:胡斯托·魯菲諾·巴里奧斯;Sipangya a sowal: Justo Rufino Barrios) ko congton no Kuatimala satapang a midemak to sakarihaday no ‘orip no finawlan. Tahira to i 1944 miheca micomod to kosi no Amirika Patatekoay to Losay a Kosi(Kuwaping a sowal:聯合果品公司; Ikiris a sowal:United Fruit Company),mipaci’ci a micakay to kakahaday a sera to cilosay to kafi ato pawli, misatapng to ko picara to sici ato demak no Kuatimala.

1944 miheca  masanga’ ko sapipa’ading to maomahay a tamdaw a rikec. 1950 miheca tahira i 1954 miheca o teloc no Roysi ci Hakowo Apens Kosman(Kuwaping a sowal:哈科沃·阿本斯·古斯曼; Sipangya a sowal: Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán) ko malacongtonay, midemak to sakanga’ay to pitayal ato kacisera no kalotamdaw. Nawhani, o polong no kitakit edeng 2% a tamdaw ko ciseraay to 70% a

Amirika Patatekoay to Losay a Kosi(1920UnitedFruitCompanyEntrance)

ni Apens ko sera nora cipaysoay pacilacen ningra ko awaay ko sera a tamdaw, ira ko 10 ofad a maomahay ko mililamay to sera.

Oya sato kosi no Amirika Patatekoay to Losay a Kosi, o sahadihayay ko mi’ecoan a sera, cowa konini aca ko dafong nona kosi, ira heca ko Sifo’ay Amirika a Cinamalay Kosi ato minato no Kuatimala. Mikitadipi tono niyah a kitakit o Amirika, o Kyosanto ci Apens han nangra pakarat ko sowal, orasaka, milood ko Amirika to Kuatimala. O sepay no Amirika malacafay ato mitokeray ci Aprnsan a Kutimala a kasafelaw, mitakaw a midemak to sapifelihaw ci Apensan.

Yo malowid sato ci Apens milaliw tayra i roma a kitakit, ci Kalos Arpito Kastino Amas(Kuwaping a sowal:卡洛斯·阿爾貝托·卡斯蒂略·阿馬斯; Sipanya a sowal: Carlos Alberto Castillo Armas) ko malapaitekday mikowanay.[3] Tangsol han nona fa’elohay a sifo palasawad koya sapipakilacaw to sera a demak ni Apens. 1957 miheca mapatay no nima ci Amas,oya mikotayay a tamdaw mangalefay ko kali’ang to finawlan a sofitay ci Mikor Itikolas Foentos.

Oya sato o moamahay a tamdaw misang’ to Maomahay Mihokhokay Sofitay, satapang ko kalalais to sifo to 36 mihecan ko Laloma’ay Lalood no Kitakit. I 1996 miheca matatilid ko sifo ato Maomahay Mihokhokay Sofitay to Rihaday Kakaketonan Tilid, misawad to malalood. Tona lalood ira ko 10 ofad ko mapatayay,matafesiw ko cecay so’ot ko maforaway a tamdaw. O pipatay no sofita no Kuwatimala to Finawlan Maya Finacadan o sapipalahedaway to finacadan(Kuwaping a sowal:種族滅絕; Ikiris a sowal: genocide). Kalacongtonan ni Hosay Ayfolaing Lios Monto(Kuwaping a sowal:何塞·埃弗拉因·李歐斯·蒙特; Sipanya a sowal: José Efraín Ríos Montt), edeng i 1982 miheca saka 9 folad ira ko 9000 tamdaw ko mipatayan a Maya tamdaw. 1983 miheca sa’emang sanay to ko pipaeker no sifo to yincumin,1985 miheca misingkiw. Nikawrira, o sakakinih no cipaysoay ato macahiway a tamdaw caay ho ka lahedaw, tahanini o 1% a cipaysoaay tamdaw miaro’ to 60% a omah.

Palapalaan (地理)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Itiraay i Sifo’an Amirika ko kamaro’an no Kuwatimala,isak’amisan i,o masadafdafay a dasdas a Fa'edetay Kakarayan a Kilakilanan,isasifo’an ira ko cilamalay lotok 4200laya’ ko ka’akawang, o misi’ayaway to Taypinyang a dafdaf o cihanekay a pala

Antikuwa (Santa Catalina Arch - Antigua Guatemala Feb 2020)

Fa'etay kilakilangan pala koninian.

O sasifo’an a tapolo i, o sasifo’an no ‘orip ato punka no Kuwatimala, ona tapolo ira ko 1300 athira i 1800 laya’ ko ka’akawang, edef no mihecaan sa’emelay ko kakarayan, romi’ad nani 18°C tahira i 28°C,i sakacecay ato sakatosa a folad si’enaway. O tatapangan niyaro’ o syoto i, itiniay i sasifo’an. Itini tona syoto i ira ko 250 ofad ko tamdaw maro’ay itini, o sakakaay a niyaro’ no Kuwatimala, o pihololan no lafang a Atitolan Fanaw,Atitolan fanaw, katelang a syoto Kuwatimala, no to’asan a niyaro’ Tikar ato Kosartonanko ato Cicikastonan.

O cilamalay tokos no Kuwatimala ira ko 37 a lotok, oroma saoti,adihay ko fanaw, o sakakaay i, Pokaya,Sie-Yacito cilamalay lotok.

Tamdaw(人口)

Mahaop ko 43% a tamdaw no Kuwatimala o teloc no Maya finacadan. Ira ngata no salawacan no Karepi Riyar iraay maro’ ko teloc no Afrika a tamdaw. O tamdaw no Kuwatimala sahetoay itiraay ni nitaro’ ko aro’, nikawrira, kahenayay malatokay noriraan niyaro’. O pitooran skakaay i, o Tinsikyo, nikawrira, ono to’asan a pitoora a lekakawa maparamram i lisin no Tinsikyo,mahaop ko 40% mitooray to Fa’elohay a Misakeristoay, ira ko 1% mitooran to to’asan a Maya Pitooran.

Ono sifoan a sowal o Sipanya a sowal, nikawrira, makalasowal ho kasasiromaroma a Maya Sowal, mangalefay i niyaro’ ira ho caay ka fana’ to sowal no Sipanya.

1996 miheca i Sakarihaday Kakaketon papilaheci to sifo to tilid no sifo ato no sinkiw a tilid falicen sano niyaro’ay sowal.

Sowal (語言)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Ono sifoan a sowal o Sipanya a sowal, nikawrira, makalasowal ho kasasiromaroma a Maya Sowal, mangalefay i niyaro’ ira ho caay ka fana’ to sowal no Sipanya.i Karipi Riyar pala ira ko Karifuna sowal.

Tikar(Tikal mayan ruins 2009)
sowal rayray no sowal winaan sowal tamdaw
Kica Maya a rayray Kica sowal 1,000,000
Sipanya Indo-Yoropa rayray Roman sowal 9,481,907
Kaykoci Maya a rayray Kica sowal 555,461
Kokocihoy Maya a rayray Kica sowal 500,000
Mami Maya a rayray Man 480,000
Pociomci Maya a rayray Kica sowal 92,000
Cutuli Maya a rayray Kica sowal 88,300
Aci Maya a rayray Kica sowal 85,552
Kencupa Maya a rayray Kencupa sowal 77,700
Isir Maya a rayray Man sowal 70,000
Akatiko Maya a rayray Kencupa sowal 48,500
Poti Maya a rayray Kencupa sowal 40,000
Cuhe Maya a rayray Kencupa sowal 40,000
Pokoman Maya a rayray Kica sowal 30,000
Ciawti Maya a rayray Ciawr 30.00
Awakatiko Maya a rayray Man sowal 18,000
Sakapotiko Maya a rayray Kica sowal 9,763
Sipakaense Maya a rayray Kica sowal 8,000
Karifuna Arowako rayray Karipi sowal 5,860
Ospantiko Maya a rayray Kica sowal 3,000
Tektiteko Maya a rayray Man sowal 2,265
Mopan Maya a rayray Yukaton Maya sowal 2,000
Indioma xinka Aislada Lenkuas Hinka 16
Ica Maya a rayray Yukaton Maya sowal 12

Liomah(農業)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

O ‘etan no liomah a pinaroma polongen ira cecay no kalisepat, o nipasadakan a paliwal tosa no kalitolo. O matayalay no polong a tamdaw no kitakit ira ko fatad o maomahay,

pa'acaay to sapakining a Maya fafahiyan(Vendeuse de souvenirs (Antigua, Guatemala) (6941638140))

o pinaloma ira ko kafi, waneng, pawli ato fata’an, ilaloma’ nonini i, o kafi ko sakakaay, sakaenem itini kalokitakit,o pipalamaan itiraay i Antikuwa, Atitolan Fanaw, Kowang,Wiwitonanko, Folayhanays, Siemakos. I Kuwatimala iraay ko cecay a Saop no Kafi(ANACAFE) o midemakay to pipaliwal to kafi.

Tadakakahad ko sera to nipalomaan a tefos no Kuwatimala, orasaka, o sakatosa ko kaadihay nipasadakan a paliwal i roma a kitakit, o pawli o sakatolo ko kaadihay a losay.

Misanga’ay to dafong(工業)

O polong a ‘etan no misanga’ay to dafong ato sapatireng to loma’ edeng cecay no kalilima.1996 miheca matatilid to Sakarihaday a Kakaketonan Tilid, malasawad koya36 miheca ko kahalafin a Laloma’an Lalood, malahedaw ko pitaker to roma a kitakit a mili’etanay a patireng ko kofa itini. Orasaka, matongal ko ‘etan no kitakit rahoday ko ‘orip no finawlan.

a tilid (註腳)[misinanot | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

[1] Campbell 1997

[2] Troika study abroad programs 2006

[3] John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto(2009)。《生物多樣性的早餐》,頁70-73。臺北市:綠色陣線協會,ISBN 978-986-84095-4-5