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Tuvalu

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O po:long no nisalofan i nani tiniay i Masaonikarkalalicay | nipafelian ko 2023年1月23日 (tinocay) 23:47
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Tuvalu(吐瓦魯)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tuvalu Funafuti atoll beach

Tuvalu (Inkiris: Tuvalu) nai siwaay ko maliyokay a raka a palapala sakapotay a kanatal, itiniay i katimolay Taypinyang, o nano Tayang kanatal riyaran a pala. Nawhani opener ko sera, sa’akawangay 4 laya’, orasaka o nikaci’epoc no hemhem sakamacakat ko nanom malokatalawan mafolkok no Tuvalu, polong no hekal manaopay no nanom a katalawan a kitakit. Tuvalu a kitakit o sapaeneray a cowa ho kacemahad a kitakit. Tuvalu caay ka dadahal, 26 pinfang kongli aca ko sera[3], saiko:ray to saka 4 a kitakit no hekal, kitata’ak no Nauru, Monako ato Fantikang. Nawhani o inakaay a niyaro’ cango’ot ko pirarakatay, Tuvalu o saawaayay ko lafang tayra mirarakat a kitakit.

Likisi (歷史)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tuvalu a palapalaan i ’ayaw no 1 sici iraay to ko maro’ay tamdaw. Nai Spain a Europe misolapay sarakat i 1568 miheca pakanengneng tina sera, naka dengan o pa’acaay to malafadesay tamdaw ato mifotingay to ’iso ko talahekalay ikor, Europe tamdaw awaay ko sapicalapaw a halaka. I 1892 miheca mikapot to Gilbert palapalaan malo no Inkiris a dadipoten a sera “Gilbert ato Ellice palapalaan” (Gilbert and Ellice Islands). I 1915 miheca mala no Inkiris a micingcingan a sera. I 1947 miheca, o nikarawrawan no finacadan, ono Polynesia a tamdaw to Ellice palapalaan finawlan milongoc kapolongan a pitopa, haki Micronesia tamdaw a Gilbert palapalaan (Gilbert Islands) malalicinowas. Ikor, o Kiribati palapalaan misinting to pisiiked, kacingangan o nano sowal no kitakit Kiribati; Ellice palapalaan i 1975 miheca mafalic o Tuvalu palapalaan ahan ko pangangan, i 1978 miheca mihayda ko Inkiris to pisiiked.

Palapalaan (地理)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

No Tuvalu o Fa'etay a riyaran ko Kakarayan, sa’akawangay a hemhem tangasa i 40˚, saloklonay 22˚, la’isal no hemhem 26˚-32˚. ’orad no mihecaan 3,000 – 3,500 kongli. 11 folad tangasa roma miheca 3 folad ka’oradan, foladan ’orad 300mm. 4 folad tangasa 10 folad awaay ko a’oraden, foladan 200-300mmm[4].

Tuvalu nao 9 liyokay a raka sakapot (I fayafay 9 ko fo’is todong 9 taliyok), kitiraan i kaetip katimol Taypinyang, katimol 5-10, kawali 176 tangasa 179 a laed, katimol ka’amis 560 kongli ko talolong, nai kaetip ka’amis pasi kawali katimol matisil salongan 130 ’ofad pinfang kongli laloma’an no riyar. O Fonafoti ko kanatal. 9 palapalaan ira ko cecay awaayay komaro’ay tamdaw, 5 pala ko cifanaway. Awaay ko lotok ’alo, sa’akawangay caay pakataelif to 4 a laya’, o raraya’ no hekal 15 inli, o hekal mararad manaop ni riyar, o sera malowan to mihecahecaan, orasaka Tufalu sifo ma’imer to kafafalic no kakarayan, ka hemhem nohekal ato manaop macakat ko nanom ko nisafaloco’an.

I 2001 miheca, Tuvalu sifo mihapiw misi’ayaw to kafafalic no kakarayan manaop macakat no nanom ko hekal, i:kor o laliyasen no finawlan konini a palapala no Tuvalu. O niwsilan makahi milayap to mihecaan patamdaw to mamiliyasay, nikawrira caay ka kahi ko Australia to longoc no Tuvalu sifo.

Tuvalu samimingay ko pala a kitakit, o sera caay kaenga’ mipaloma, awaay ko pisopedan to nanom, tado sa to ’orad a nanom

Sici (政治)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tuvalu o Tata'akay Inkiris a Lekatep a kitakit (caay pikihatiya to Tata'akay Inkiris a Lekatep no tapang a lomaoc), roma a 15 Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep hongti milecad to no Hontian Rikec a tapang a kitakit, o sawara'an ko pafeliay to sakowan to Tuvalu a demak. Citodongay to Hontian sawara'an patireng to kakeridan ato kasa kakeridan no demak, o finawlan no Tuvalu. O ufalu a sawara'anmidotoc to satadamaanay patodong to kakeridan a tapang. Aniniay kakeridan ci Iacobah Itarelli.

Matelak i kimpo ko Tuvalu o nikapolongan pikowan kitakit, sa’akawangay o kimpo, midamaay to finawlan i kasamaamaan no salongoc. Awaay ko pipatireng to pisakapot a cefang i Tuvalu, o iing pakoniya sa to pisalakapot, 15 a iing, citodongay mikowan (8 tamdaw) ato caayka citodong mikowan (7 tamdaw) tosa saocor. O Fale i Fono hanko kalomaocan, cecay ko pirikecan, 15 tamdaw iing sakapot, nano nisingkiwan no finawlan, 4 miheca ko cecay liyad, o kakeridan no kalomaocan o iing ko misingkiway. Cacitodong mikowan o 15 a iing ko misingkiway, 6 ko sakowan no po, o kakeridan ko mitoroay to cacitodong kakeridan no po, o kalomaocan ko cacitodong laloma’an, mipatireng to roma kakeridan no kinsa 1 tamdaw, o todong no sifo a pitengilan.

Hoying malitolo ’akawangay hoying, niyaro’ay hoying ato palaay hoying, mamiliclic to kalodemak no finawlan, ira ko maliyangay, pacakaten tangasa ’akawangay hoying miliyaw misawkit. ’akawangay hoying o ’akawangay a pisawkitan. Cecay ko citodongay misapalitaay ato mikinsaay to nai niyaro’ay hoying ato 8 pala a hoying pacakatan tatomadawen. Ira ho ko miliyangay to pipasetek no ’akawangay hoying, o Fici a hoying ko pipacakatan, ira ho maliyangay, patayraen i Inkiris to citodongay no rikecan hoying a mitomadaw.

O kasasikiked a sakowan (行政區劃)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Nano 9 raka pala, 6 ko liyokan no raka a masapala (Atoll) ato 3 sacecayay a pala Niwlakita, Niwtaw, Nanomanga, Funafuti sifo i Funafalay pala a Vaiaku niyaro’, salongan 4,900 ko tamdaw, dadahal 2.79 pinfang kongli. Nanumea raka i sakaetip ka’amis liyok no raka no Tuvalu.

Kicay (經濟)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Awaay ko tataparan kinaira i Tuvalu, o sakaira ni kinaira saheto o padahof no Padaka. I 1999 miheca sifo a saipayso a yosang masadakay 1390 ’ofad no Australia payso. Sakilingad saheto o nai mifotingay ato mirarakatay, nawhani maraayay awaay caay pakatahira ko mirarakatay. Roma mipa’aca to kitti ko sakaira no payso. O kingko no Tufalu, i 1980 miheca mapatireng. I 1993 miheca mipatadoay tayal saicakat 9.4%. sailaloma’an nitayalan: 1665 ’ofad Australia payso (1995 miheca) 1220 Amilika payso (2000 miheca) no tamdawan nitayalan (2000 miheca):1100 Amilika payso.

Miming ko sera no Tuvalu, fohokay ko sera, manga’ay aca kadofah ko riyar, matenak ko makoro a foting, o saadihayay pitatafikan, nikawrira tararikor ko fana’, caay kaedeng ko sapicomahad. Cangray sa to roma kitakit pikomod a mifoting, sakacikicay o pipa’aca to kompay sakanga’ay mifoting; mikapot to Dipong, Koriya ato Taywan to kasasitelek a mifoting, to mihecaan ira ko 30 ’ofad no Autralia payso. O ’alomanay kapah no Tuvalu tayra i Nauru to misacilahay a kosi an eca mikalic to tamina no roma kitakit, mietan to kinaira, o kafafalifalic to payso ko sakaira. 1993 miheca o kinaira no mirarakatay 30 ’ofad no Amilika, 1994 mihrcaan mirarakatay ira ko 1,224 ko tamdaw.

Tuvalu mararid micangray to Inkiris, Australia, New Zealand, Taywan, Dipong, Europe sapicomahad a payso ato Linhoko micowat halaka padamso to saipayso sadama. Nai 1987 miheca, o Inkiris sakimilitadoay to sadama makeror to mihecaan yosang to 10 ’ofad Australia payso. O sakalasawadaw to karorayan, Tuvalu mitelek to sapicomahad, Tuvalu mipatireng to sapicomahad to dademaken a halaka, yanan miheca 6 folad patireng to Tuvalu paso’elin patorod kiking, mitahidang to Inkiris, New Zealand, Australia a payso komong kosi mikowanay ato misasorot, o pina’ang to payso a wawa ano eca o pisasorot malosapicomahad to kicay no Tuvalu.

Autralia, New Zealand, Inkiris, Dipong ato Korea ko midamaay kitakit, i 2000 miheca a kiking tangasa 6010 ’ofad Australia payso. 1990 miheca a wawa tangasa 100 ’ofad Australia, sakisadakay no sifo, miheca a yosang 25%. Anini milongoc to romaroma kitakit to sapadafoh. 1986 miheca, misamawmaw to patodong no Linhoko to sasafaay-kacemahad a kitakit, o sapisamawmaw to kanga’ayan micaliw to payso no hekal a kingko. Midotoc to sakikali’aca a lalitelek, misamawmaw to dafodafongan to kalasawad no sata.

Tuvalu a kicay ono “tataparananay ko kicay”, o picadiway, palomaan a midemakan ko sakaira no kicay, awaay ko kofa no Tuvalu. No loma’ a nitayalan ato ko saka’orip. Mapolongay tayal, dengan o pifoting ato pipaloma to ’afinong, pawli, tali, maanan a pinaloma malaisal ko laloma’an. 1993 miheca maomahay a kinaira macakat to 8.7%. Tuvalu ’afinong kakomod kosi, i 1979 miheca mapatireng, itiya Tuvalu ’afinongan kalakomod cefang kosi, i 1985 miheca mafalic ko ngangan.

Tuvalu ’afinong kakomod sacefang kosi, 1979 miheca patireng; nai 8 palapalan malakomoday cefang. Tuvalu kitakit masadakay dafong ira ko foting, ’afinong, pinasanga’ losid. Masadakay dafong samihecahecaan makerod, o saka’orip saheto nai papotalay pacomodan. Kali’acaan o New Zealand, Australia ato Fiji. 1998 miheca sailaloma’an a pasapotal ira ko 6.7 ’ofad Australia payso, micomoday 1140 ofad Autralia payso. O li’acaan o ’afinong; micomoday o kakaenen, simal, pinasanga’, kikay ato sakaromakat.

Tuvalu a kicay nano pipa’aca to ta’I no ’ayam malakoyasi ko sakaira, nakawrira nawhani o nanom no riyar macakatay, lowan sato ko sera no kitakit. I 2000 miheca, nao malenak toko kalocalay, Tuvalu 3000 ’ofad Amilika payso ’akawang ko pacaliw to kasakitakit a calay ’etal ngangan “.tv” sakararid kicay no kitakit.

Tuvalu karomakat no payso ono Australia. Talacowa ano mamamamang ko kicay, nika saipayso mina’on mikowan, ci’osaw ito, caay ka sarad ko tadah i papotal.

Sakaromakat (交通)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Pasakawili ko parakat to paliding no itiniay. Sakaromakat otofay ato tosiya, i maci ira ko mimingay faso.

Kamoro’an kaitiraan no Tuvalu maraay, madadi’ec ko sera, awaay ko nga’ayay talolongay minato, saka noriyar, karayan sakaromakat caay kanga’ay. Mahitefoay hikoki dengan o mimingay 50 ko tamdaw i Funafuti kasakitakit hikokiciw, anini dengan o Fiji hikoki kosi 44 tamdaw ATR 42-500 a hikoki kina 3 to cecay lipay mahitefo maefer, o saawaayay hikoki a kitakit na hekal.

O Australia a sifo mipadang to Tufalu i ta’angay maci patireng to talolongay minato, sakanga’ay no matatodongay tamina miparo to 20 ko laya’ no hako. Ta’akay maci no Fiji Suva ato Funafuti ira ko kasasi rakat no tamina, cecay folad kinacecay, Austraria New Zealand ira ko micolo’ay to dafong Southern Moana karomakat i Tuvalu, paifolad cecay ko rakat. Saki kasapalapala no Tuvalu a dafong, pakayra no kitakit a tamina 600 ton “Nivaga II ato Manufolau micolo’ay, i maci ko nga’ayay piti’eran, oroma to a palapalaan itira sa i riyar pa’enor ko tamina, o mimingay to tamina ko mipatalahekalay.

Kiwiko (教育)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Maledef ko siawsi a kiwiko. 11 ko siawsi no kitakit, 72 ko singsi, mitiliday 1,485 ko tamdaw; cecay ko congsi, 31 ko singsi, mitiliday 345 ko tamdaw. Ira ko pinanaman to sakatayal i tamina, 52 ko tamdaw minanamay. 1991 miheca midemak to mifalicay kiwiko, siawsi ato congsi a pitilid 6 miheca manayar 8 mihecaan, o todong to sakikiwiko kinian, mapalaedef ko no niyaro’ caayay kanga’ay pisifana’, misaadahal ko pinanaman to sakatayal i tamina; sakacifana’ to tayal, kicik ato sakili’acaan pinanam, 1990 miheca no kiwiko masadakay yosang 16.2%.

Tamdaw (人口)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Polong no finawlan 10,000 tamdaw, malitoloay ko maro’ay i Funafuti a pala.

Tuvalu a tamdaw o nano Polynesia finacadan, ato Tonga ato Samoa malecaday ko ngasaw. O sakasasowal no niyaro’ay o Tuvalu a sowal, o Inkilis ko no sifo a sowal. Maro’ay i ka’amis Nui a pala finawlan o Kiripati ko sakasasowal.

Sofitay (軍事)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Awaay ko sofitay, dengan 38 ko taylin.

Kacacofelan a demak (外交)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

Tuvalu kasasiterepan romi’ad o miliyangay to kiwsan ca’enot ko Kacacofelan a demak, anini ira to ko dahdahay pisadadahal.

Tuvalu to Inkiris, New Zealand, Australia masasinga’ayay. Matiya o Fiji ko kasasiket, i Fiji mapatireng ko kacitodongan, i Taywan, Pilcin ato Amilika patireng to saipapotal taypiaw. New Zealand, Australia patireng to kacitodongan, i roma kitakit awaay ko pipatireng, dengan palingataay a kitakit mitadoay to citodongay no Tuvalu. Tuvalu ato Tata'akay Inkiris a Lekatep ato Belgium, Chile, Netherland, France, Germany, Dipong, Korea, Taywan a kitakit ko kacacofelan a demak. Tuvalu mikihatiya kasakitakit a kasakapot ira ko Asia-Tay kicay lakapot lomaoc, Taypinyang kanatal kalisaot, Taypinyang kalacecayan, Wanko yofing kasakapot, Asia misaomah kingko ato Linhoko kiwiko kakak ponka kasakapot.

Tuvalu o caay ka papina ko mihaydaay to Abkhazia ato timolay Ossetia a kitakit, nikawrira ikor Georgia pakayni payso ko kacacofelan a demak ko saka lasawad pihayda to saki Abkhazia ato timolay Ossetia kacacofelan.

Pinengnengan tilid. (參考文獻)[mikawit | o yin-se-ma no pisinanot]

1. CIA Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). [2021-07-04]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2021-07-04).

2. Tuvalu. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund (IMF). April 2022 [2022-07-29]. (nano nina’angan tilid i 2022-09-22). (Inkilis).

3. Wangcyin. Palapalaan pitiya sakafana’ piliso’an, o sakacecay ako a pitiya, Tincin finawlan mirina’an; Esphere Media. 2013-02-01. ISBN 9787201079677

(congwen) .

4. Current and Future Climate of Tuvalu (PDF). Tuvalu Meteorological Service, Australian Bureau of Meteorology & Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). 2011 [7 September 2015]. (nano nina’angan tilid i (PDF) i 2021-01-19).

Location of Tuvalu


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